Assessment and the Individual Education Plan
(Read Chapter 7 Pages: 75-87 Bennett/Dworet/Weber Text)
State Whether the Following are True or False:
1. _____ Current assessment practices suggest there is a definite trend toward the team
approach in assessing the needs of exceptional students.
2. _____ It is now almost universally accepted that IQ tests are the most legitimate
predictors of overall school performance.
3. _____ Rather than diagnose, „diagnostic tests‟ actually provide very useful information
with respect to pointing out the specific area(s) a student might require remediation.
4. _____ An important consideration in portfolio assessment is the collection of
representative samples of students‟ work.
5. _____ Curriculum based assessment is most successful if carried out infrequently.
6. _____ Authentic assessment allows for the collection of data based on real life situations
that would occur in the student‟s normal learning experience.
7. _____ A serious problem in the use of commercially available test instruments is the
aging of test content.
8. _____ Standardized group tests generally do not encourage individuals to be creative or
reflective. Restated, they rarely measure creativity or the capacity to reflect.
9. _____ Special education teachers in most schools have exclusive responsibility when it
comes to the development and implementation of IEP‟s.
10. _____ The Ministry of Education strongly recommends that students‟ IEP‟s be reviewed
at least once every reporting cycle.
11. _____ Regulations require that a Transition Plan be developed for every student 14 years
of age and older, who is formally identified as exceptional.
12. _____ Experience suggests that administrative support for a School Team has very little
significant impact on a team‟s overall ability to operate effectively.
13. _____ By regulation, a student who is 16 years or older may participate in a School
Team meeting at which his or her IEP is being developed.
14. _____ Ideally, the assessment process collects information, refines insight into an
exceptionality, and then sets the table for both programming and follow- up evaluations.
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15. _____ In Ontario, until the late 1990‟s, the development of an IEP for every exceptional
student was not officially required.
Select the Most Appropriate Response:
16. The authors state that information for an accurate assessment is gathered from and
interpreted through a variety of sources. They are:
(a) curriculum based assessment compiled by the teacher
(b) formal tests of a student‟s behaviour and abilities
(c) general observations of the teacher, parents, assistant, etc.
(d) all of the above
17. Research suggests that a test is really only as good as the person who gives it.
(a) True (b) False (c) Does not say
18. Without question, the “cornerstone of special education is the _____________”.
(a) IPRC (B) IEP (c) ISA
19. In looking closely at the reliability of all assessment, it has been said that education is not
an exact science, and effective teaching is often much closer to _________ than to the
mere mechanics of instruction.
(a) music (b) mentoring (c) art
20. By employing and utilizing thorough and competent assessment practices and
procedures, decisions concerning specific placement, and the structure and _________of
an individual student‟s program can be proposed and put into place.
(a) content (b) remediation (c) scheduling
21. Although conceding that one should be prepared to scrutinize some of the procedures and
components in an assessment, the authors nevertheless claim that assessment plays an
integral role. They claim that what shapes that role, is the quality of the assessment
procedures, and the ways in which results are interpreted and _________.
(a) concluded (b) applied (c) disseminated
22. The authors claim that the teacher, (who is most likely to deliver the “special” program to
the exceptional student), is now a very key person in the team-oriented approach to
(a) Yes (b) No (c) Cannot determine
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23. It is suggested that in the case of assessing a potential “behaviour case”, a ___________
procedure might be utilized along with class based observation and performance,
portfolio, and specific work samples.
(a) diagnostic (b) psychological (c) rating scale/checklist
24. In cases where a student is being identified by an IPRC, the overall assessment would
most likely be very ____________.
(a) thorough (b) brief (c) expedient
25. ______________ is a term commonly used to determine if more “intrusive” testing is
required. It is usually completed in groups, by utilizing general achievement tests, or
special cognitive abilities tests.
(a) flagging (b) screening (c) tagging
26. General achievement and cognitive abilities tests are very often used to discover, (in an
initial, very general way), who might be “at risk” and who might be ___________.
(a) chronically truant (b) gifted (c) suicidal
27. The authors claim that for some time now, the field of special education has recognized
that formal tests are only one device in a very complex, multi-layered process. However,
they unequivocally state that it all begins with regular teachers who initially
_____________ something, immediately act on it, and ultimately design and implement a
strategy which specifically addresses the perceived difficulty.
(a) initiate (b) document (c) suspect
28. The authors suggest that regular teachers are integral to the overall assessment process
because they can observe a student‟s relationship with their peers, parent, and adults; they
can monitor reactions in the physical environment; and they can evaluate a student‟s
response to specific __________.
(a) situations (b) text (c) stimuli
29. Protocol, with respect to the gathering of assessment information, is generally a matter of
parental permission, ___________ policy and Ontario and Canadian law. The same
conditions apply once the assessment has been completed and information is to be
(a) board (b) Ministry (c) school
30. ______________ is a term that is often applied to the full range of devices and
procedures that are utilized in compiling a student‟s formal assessment.
(a) components (b) cohort (c) battery
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31. Which one does not belong? The authors state that the keys to a good assessment are:
(a) Does the assessment suggest responses?
(b) Is the assessment individually constructed, and did it take into consideration issues like
culture and first language?
(c) Did it examine the student in relation to his/her immediate or total environment?
(d) Did it guarantee anonymity and was it machine-scored?
(e) If test instruments were used, were they known to be reliable and valid?
(f) Did the overall assessment procedure use a broad spectrum of sources?
32. The most commonly used intelligence test in the Province of Ontario is the ___________.
(a) WISCIII (b) Otis-Lennon (c) STAR
33. When looking at the types of tests generally used in the formal assessment of student‟s in
this province, the authors state that academic ______________ tests are the ones most
widely used, and, possibly, the ones most widely abused.
(a) projective (b) achievement (c) intelligence
34. The authors state the primary purpose behind Diagnostic Tests is to suggest areas for
(a) strengthening (b) identification (c) remediation
35. Rating scales, inventories, and checklists generally offer descriptive statements about
general behaviour, self-esteem, self-care, _______________, etc.
(a) attitude (b) articulation (c) anger
36. Rating scales, inventories, and checklists have been both criticized and lauded for being
(a) esoteric (b) vague (c) subjective
37. The authors state that in Ontario, prior to the formal meeting of an IPRC, very often, any
face to face discussion on an individual student‟s case will be preceded by written
information that may vary from a simple referral form to anecdotal information, to a fully
developed case study.
(a) Affirmative (b) Negative (c) Absolutely not
38. The main premise behind a “portfolio assessment” is that it represents, through gathering
of a student‟s work, growth and ________________ over a very specific period of time.
(a) nurturance (b) development (c) stagnation
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39. To show the unreliability of testing and assessing, particularly in the behavioural domain,
a major American study traced the expert testimony of psychiatrists and psychologists,
pointing out that their prognostications on future behaviour patterns were wrong in more
than _____________ of the cases. If nothing else, this suggests “how firmly entrenched
is our cultural urge to believe in supposed expertise.”
(a) 30% (b) 50% (c) 70%
40. The authors imply that the Case Study, (if written with care), can be the most effective
means of “bringing a group of professionals with diverse interests up to speed on a
situation for which they share responsibility.” They state that the best case studies are
succinct and do not make judgmental or _________ statements; they report only the facts.
(a) evaluative (b) qualitative (c) quantitative
41. The authors state emphatically that a __________ approach to IEP development and
implementation not only enhances the overall quality of the document, but offers a
greater likelihood that its contents, hence ideals, will take effect.
(a) individual (b) team (c) technical
42. Important components of any IEP are a summary of a student‟s strengths and needs, a
statement of goals and expectations, and essential information regarding ___________,
program, teaching strategies, personnel, etc.
(a) resources (b) technology (c) attitudes
43. An effective IEP will always provide consistency, continuity and __________.
(a) total resource cost (b) a psychological report (c) clarity of purpose
44. It is suggested that a truly great IEP will cover every moment and every activity of a
student‟s overall day, week, and year.
(a) True (b) False (c) Cannot Determine
45. Which of the following does not belong? In the Province of Ontario, the process by
which an IEP is put together generally follows these steps.
(a) a psychologist is hired
(b) primary responsibility is assigned
(c) information is gathered
(d) a direction is set
(e) an IEP is developed
(f) an IEP is implemented
(g) the IEP is reviewed and updated
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46. Ideally, an IEP is a very flexible “working” document, available to all teachers,
assistants, resourse personnel, administrators, parents, and the ____________.
(a) superintendent (b) Minister (c) student
47. With respect to “dangers” and “trouble spots” in the development and implementation of
IEP‟s, it is suggested that there can be absolute ________ over who has responsibility for
the various components of the process. As well, sporadic attendance at meetings (related
to he IEP) can make even the best intentioned approach very difficult to maintain.
(a) confusion (b) euphoria (c) agreement
48. In many schools, IEPs are developed collaboratively, by an “In-school Team”, generally
under the direction of the _____________.
(a) resource person (b) consultant (c) principal
49. In this particular Province, the Ontario Student Record (OSR) will likely not contain the
(a) parental socio-economic status
(b) previous report cards
(c) notes or reports from other teachers
(d) medical information
50. It is suggested that the role of the “regular” classroom teacher is essential in effectively
programming for the “special needs” student because they are the ones relied heavily
upon to gather crucial information; information like ____________.
(a) interaction with text
(b) response to new task
(c) response to both individual and group situations
(d) response to authority figures
(e) response to general routines
(f) response to environmental stimuli (lights, noise, etc.)
(g) all of the above
51. Which one does not belong. Again with respect to “dangers” and “trouble spots” in the
development and implementation of IEPs, the authors note the following as being
(a) the use of computer programs and computer generated strategies
(b) the perception of yet another layer of bureaucracy in the educational system
(c) the demanding nature of the document for the “regular” classroom teacher
(d) the lack of money devoted to transition
52. Within the IEP, under “strengths and needs”, a _________ would be something like
“working cooperatively in group situations”, while a _________ would be something like
“shows a real proficiency in most sports”.
(a) need, strength (b) strength, need (c) neither
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53. Within the IEP, under “goals and expectations”, expected level of performance –
academically, physically, and _________ should be most definitely reflected.
(a) emotionally (b) psychologically (c) behaviourally
54. Almost all IEP forms in the Province, (irrespective of specific configuration), will
basically contain which of the following information.
(a) monitoring plans and proposed review dates
(b) a transition plan if called for
(c) specific teaching strategies to be used
(d) special supports and services required
(e) specific program modifications / accommodations
(f) overall goal and expectations
(g) all relevant assessment data
(h) the student‟s strengths and needs
(i) a student‟s current placement and overall achievement levels
(j) general medical and health information
(k) chronology of important dates
(l) essential demographic information
(m) specific personnel involved in the plan and who has what responsibility
(n) all of the above
55. Within an IEP, goals are considered more _______ targets for students.
(a) specific (b) global (c) collective
56. Metaphorically, in a very general way, with respect to the program that we ultimately
design for a particular student, the best of IEPs will always ________________.
(a) state where we are generally trying to go with a particular student
(b) note the general ways in which we hope to get there
(c) generally define how it is we will know when we have finally arrived
(d) all of the above
57. It is strongly suggested that a student‟s IEP needs to be reviewed on a regular basis with
the following question / questions being specifically addressed.
a. Is the student displaying responsibility and commitment to the overall learning
b. Has any new information emerged that means the plan should fundamentally
c. Are family/student commitments in the plan being carried out?
d. Does the overall plan still reflect the student‟s specific/unique needs?
e. Are the specific strategies and resources listed still effective?
f. Is the student progressing at the rate that was expected?
g. Should changes be made to the assignment of overall responsibility?
(a) True (b) False (c) Cannot Determine
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58. Under the specific regulation which “officially” deals with the Transition Plan, the _____
is responsible for consulting with appropriate community agencies and/or post secondary
institutions for the purposes of completing a truly meaningful “transition plan”.
(a) teacher (b) principal (c) guidance counselor
59. It is suggested, that with respect to the IEP, _________ and _________ are two areas
that should be updated quite frequently.
(a) goals and modifications
(b) goals and expectations
(c) expectations and pertinent assessment data
60. Which one does not belong? With respect to monitoring the results/effectiveness of an
IEP, it is very important that all of the following questions be adequately/satisfactorily
(a) Who will track the student‟s progress?
(b) How will the overall record keeping be handled?
(c) Who is assigned to interpret the psychological data?
(d) Who will be responsible for communicating to whom?
(e) What is the overall time frame for accomplishing the goals?
Some Facts / Observations/ Points of Discussion:
Testing helps the teacher and other educational personnel determine potential strengths
and weaknesses, (by appraising current performance levels). Therefore, testing can
provide valuable insight with respect to appropriate programming by taking into
consideration very specific, and, sometimes quite unique, educational need. There are
many types of assessments used in schools today.
Norm referenced = comparing a student‟s work to the work of other students.
Criterion referenced = comparing a student's work to expected outcomes.
Self referenced = comparing a student's progress to where that student started from.
Without exception, a child's educational performance in the early years can set in motion
a chain of events which ultimately determines his or her life trajectory; for good or bad!
How they learn is as important as what they learn, and they must know how to take and
apply these skills in the real world. However, if a child has a learning exceptionality, it is
vital that it is identified as early as possible, so that their needs are met and they
ultimately are able to graduate from high school with the same advantages as their peers.
In essence, the assessment component as it relates specifically to special education,
means having the ability to recognize need and addressing that need within the confines
of the regular or normal schooling experience.
Before adapting assessment to provide each student with an opportunity to show "what
they know", rather than highlighting their disability, it is necessary to prepare all students
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for the idea that equitable assessment does not necessarily mean assessment that is the
With specific reference to Ontario, making any curricular adaptation for the exceptional
student, must conform to very specific standards which apply directly to the
development, implementation, and monitoring of an IEP.
In Ontario, any accommodations recommended with respect to facilitating a student's
participation in any type of provincial assessment, must first be formally noted in the
Research suggests that schools need to adopt consistent school-wide approaches to
adaptations (alterations, modifications and accommodations) that are not only defensible
but teach about equity issues; equity issues that have arisen as a result of our Canadian
Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the human rights laws that pertain to each and every
According to the latest research, one of the most contentious issues in education is the
question of how report card grades can and should be adapted for exceptional students.
Research strongly suggests that all teaching and assessment of exceptional students
should be absolutely guided by the IEP, (particularly the annual outcomes section), and
by the very specific description(s) of a particular student‟s strengths and needs!!