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									           FINAL EVALUATION REPORT

Enhancing Teachers Capacity in Peace Education
         Phase II in North Halmahera

                  Funded by UNDP

         World Vision International Indonesia
                      April 2005
              Evaluation Team

 Susana Srini (World Vision – National Office)
Elfrieda Sinaga (World Vision – National Office)
            ….Hanafi (UNDP-Tobelo)
       Mahfirlana Mashadi (UNDP-Palu)
       World Vision Project Staff - Tobelo


Acronyms, Abbreviation and Glossary ............................................................................. iv
Executive Summary .......................................................................................................... v

1.      Introduction ................................................................................................................1

2.     Background ................................................................................................................1
     2.1   The Situation of Education in North Halmahera ..................................................1
     2.2   The CLCC Programme Framework ...................................................................2

3.     The Project - Supported by UNDP .............................................................................3
     3.1 Context ....................................................................................................................3
     3.2 Strategies ................................................................................................................3
     3.3 Project Beneficiaries ................................................................................................4

4.     Final Evaluation..........................................................................................................5
     4.1 Aims and Objective of Evaluation ............................................................................5
     4.2 Methodologies .........................................................................................................5

5.     Evaluation Result .......................................................................................................7
     5.1 Objective 1: Community Participation and School Based Management ..................7
     5.2 Objective 2: Active, Joyful and Effective Learning (AJEL) ..................................... 11
     5.3 Objective 3: Happy House ..................................................................................... 19
     5.4 Objective 4: Staff Capacity Building ....................................................................... 22

6.     Conclusions ............................................................................................................. 24
     6.1. Impact of CLCC and Happy House:...................................................................... 24
     6.2. Sustainability of CLCC and Happy House: ........................................................... 24
     6.3. Constrains and Opportunities ............................................................................... 24
     6.4. Recommendation.................................................................................................. 25

Annex 1. Project map ...................................................................................................... 28
Annex 2. Evaluation Plan Matrix ..................................................................................... 29
Annex 3. FGD and In-depth interview guide line ............................................................. 33
Annex 4. Self-assessment form ...................................................................................... 39

Acronyms, Abbreviation and Glossary
AJEL     : Active, Joyful, and Effective Learning
CLCC     : Creating Learning Communities for Children
CSW      : Children Support Workers
DFID     : Department for International Development (UK)
FGD      : Focus Group Discussion
GMIH     : Gereja Masehi Indonesia Halmahera
HH       : Happy House
IDPs     : Internally Displaced People
KII      : Key Informant Interview
KKG      : Kelompok Kerja Guru (Teachers‟ Working Group)
LCP      : Local Capacities for Peace
NGO      : Non-Governmental Organization
SBM      : School-Based Management
SDN      : Sekolah Dasar Negeri (public primary school))
TOR      : Terms of Reference
UNDP     : United Nations Development Program
UNICEF   : United Nations Children‟s Fund
UNESCO   : United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
WVI      : World Vision Indonesia

Executive Summary

This evaluation of the Enhancing Teacher‟s Capacity in Peace Education Phase II
project was conducted in North Maluku from 18 to 22 April 2005. Twelve schools in three
sub-districts were selected. Quantitative data was collected using a Self-Assessment
questionnaire. Focus group discussions, In-depth interviews and classroom observation
techniques were mainly used for qualitative data collection. The evaluation team
consisted of two National WV staff, two UNDP staff, and nine project staff.

The evaluation found that there were 6 schools implementing CLCC almost completely.
The other 8 schools (non-main target schools) had also made efforts to implement
CLCC, even though they haven‟t yet implemented criteria completely, such as various
constraints related to their capacities, availability of class facilities, and condition of the
classrooms. Happy House and Harmonis Magazine were implemented separately,
whereas the programs were a strong support for CLCC implementation. Teacher
Working Group and sub district Education Department involvement (especially school
supervisor) be a main component in sustainability of CLCC implementation.

Based on the finding, the recommendation are: School Committees who facilitated
community participation in education can be expected to continue their support in
implementing CLCC, so that School committee empowerment should be a part of the
concern in the next project. The three programs (CLCC, Happy House, and Harmonis
Magazine) should be integrated into one programme to have a more effective impact.
Some of the achievements of the CLCC programme in this project can form a starting
point for the organization‟s contribution in education reform efforts. In continuing this
programme a more strategic approach needs to be used include integrating with
economic programs, empowering community participation in education, adapting CLCC
to the local context and strengthening advocacy at the provincial and district education

The experience of CLCC and Happy House implementation can be used to promote
child-focused development. The AJEL method has motivated teachers to manage
classes in a non-violent way, though fun, participation and children‟s creativity. Happy
House activity provides a friendly space for children, encourage creativity and increasing
children‟s skills in peace building. Besides that, Community Participation is also an
important CLCC component that encourages the community to get involved in education.
The CLCC model can be recommended as an approach to promoting child-focused
development as WV‟s concern, certainly with some adjustment that reflects some of
WV‟s policies such as community development principles, gender perspective, managing
local culture and contextuality.

                                        1. Introduction
Since the reform era began in Indonesia, the quality of education has became a serious
issue to be addressed. While many countries have announced their successes using
new information technology to develop human resources, Indonesia is still fighting to
solve its education problems. In the 1970s Malaysia as a neighboring country imported
knowledge and skill from Indonesian experts, particularly Mathematics and Natural
Science teachers. Now Malaysia has achieved progressive development and is ranked
61st in terms of success level in human resources development. Currently Indonesia is
109th out of 174 countries in the world.

Several factors that have caused the low education quality can be identified, such as: a
centralized National Education System, lack of budget, un-accommodative curriculum
that does not support the development of critical and creative students, a paternalistic
teaching methodology – positioning students as objects and not appreciating their rights,
an evaluation system based on rote learning resulting in reduced student competency
and a numerical system that places a heavy burden on the students. Many stakeholders
now are trying to formalize a requirement for education system reform. Many people and
institutions concerned with education quality have proposed action plans.

World Vision as a child-centered development organisation with a strong vision of
creating a better life for children, has tried to contribute to better education. World Vision
Indonesia has implemented its education programme in North Maluku. In year 2003
World Vision Indonesia run its 1st phase programme in Enhancing Teachers Capacity in
Peace Education funded by UNDP/UNICEF and DFID. In September 2004 the
programme was extended for 6 months as a 2nd phase funded by UNDP.

                                        2. Background
2.1    The Education Situation in North Halmahera

The impact of the conflict that happened five years ago in Halmahera still lingers. Public
facilities are not yet fully functioning. In Education as a formal sector responsible for the
creation of good human resources there are still basic problems in running the system.
Teachers‟ skills in teaching and class management need to be improved to achieve
better results in education quality. Commonly used teaching and learning methods are
not conducive to quality education. Conventional teaching methods do not allow room for
creativity among teachers and students. Other problems include: the general lack of
involvement of parents and communities in children‟s education.

Net enrollment rates in North Maluku province compared with the national average figure
(Education Statistics, 2003) are as follows:

       Preschool (3-6 years old)                  Male: 5,3    female: 3,6 (National: 16,6)
       Primary school (7-12 years old)            Male: 96,7   female: 98,4 (National: 96,5)
       Junior high school (13-15 years old)       Male: 81,4   female: 66,5 (National: 81,0)
       Senior high schools (16-18 years old)      Male: 57,6   female: 45.2 (National: 51,0)
       Tertiary (19-24 years old)                 Male: 8,1    female: 9,1 (National: 11,7)

The Government of Indonesia defines compulsory basic education as nine years: six
years of primary school and three years of junior secondary school.

The above data shows that access to and enrolment in primary schools is not a problem:
amongst children aged 7-12 years, 81,4 percent of male children and 98,4 percent of
female children are enrolled. However, these rates drop at the Junior High School level
and then again at Senior High School level. Based on the WV baseline survey data
(June 2004), more than 30 % of students drop out.

2.2         The CLCC Programme Framework

CLCC (Creating Learning Communities for Children) is an approach developed by
UNICEF, UNESCO and the Ministry of National Education to improve quality of
education in Indonesia. The programme is part of the general education reform process
currently taking place in Indonesia. It is particularly aimed at building models for good
management and education practice in the newly empowered districts.

The CLCC Programme has three components:

a. AJEL: to improve the quality of education through the introduction of Active, Joyful,
   and Effective Learning (AJEL);
b. SBM: to create more transparent and efficient management and use of resources
   through School Based Management (SBM);
c. Community participation: to involve parents and community in supporting
   improvements in the quality and management of education.

The CLCC Model:1

           School Based                               Improving the                            Community
         Management (SBM)                           Quality of Teaching                        Participation
                                                      and Learning

                                                    Active, Joyful and
                                                    Effective Learning

    UNICEF, UNESCO & NZAID, Jakarta, 2003, Creating Community Learning for Children: Training Module.

                           3. The Project - Supported by UNDP2
3.1 Context

The North Moluccas programme assessment in February 2004 elicited the fact that
virtually all stakeholders identified children and youth‟s education as a central focus for
community recovery. Several key areas of need have been identified that this project
proposes to address:

   The need to build sustainable capacity of the School Committees, as a working
    mechanism in the Department of Education structure, to support and influence
    education activities that support peace processes in ways that reflect good
    governance and democratic principles.
   The need to continue supporting the government‟s Department of Education‟s
    capacity to deliver good quality education that will enhance teacher training capacity
    for peace education.3
   The need continue developed facilitated activity centers where children from different
    religious background and interact and play together to restore social and life skills
    that have been (partially) broken down during and after the conflict.4

Whereas post-conflict community rehabilitation appears to be stabilizing, the potential for
renewed conflict is still significant. In response, this project will contribute to long-term
peace building processes through developing sustainable education structures and
practices supporting peace and interdependence of conflict affected communities
focusing on children.

3.2 Strategies

The following strategies of CLCC were adopted in North Halmahera:

   Out of 20 schools in the previous project, only 6 schools were selected in the project
    phase II. Activities were focused to enhance the capacity of School Committees to
    mobilize their communities to participate in school decision-making processes and to
    support transparency in school planning, financing, and management.

    The project supported school committees, teachers and schools to work in
    cooperation with the community to meet the education needs of their children. A
    particular concern was that school committees were represented by all identity
    groups in the community. Community Education Committees that were formed in
    project phase I have been formulized to School Committees as required by
    government. The project enhanced the capacities of School Committees to mobilize
    their communities to participate in school decision-making processes and to support
    transparency in school planning, financing, and management. The focus of output 1 is
    participatory processes that lead to interdependence of identity groups and good
    governance practices as a basis for civil society development.
         Enhancing Teacher Capacity in Peace Education Proposal, 2004
         World Vision has been delivering a teacher training programme in collaboration with UNICEF, which has drawn the
       attention of the provincial Department of Education.
         This is one of the outcomes of the trauma surveys in 2002 and 2004 and the experiences in the “Happy Houses” for

   To enhance the quality of children‟s learning by supporting the development of Active,
    Joyful and Effective Learning in the classroom (AJEL).

    AJEL aims to create a safe and interactive learning environment where students can
    learn new skills, knowledge and attitudes for their lives. Teachers were also provided
    training in reducing classroom violence, and conflict management. Involving 50
    Master Trainers and 159 teachers from the Department of Education aims at building
    capacity in the formal education system. Trainings of Master Trainers, Subject
    Specialist Teachers and teacher working groups will bring together teachers from
    different identity groups to foster interdependence among conflict-affected teachers.

   Create opportunities for children affected by conflict to support psychosocial health,
    experience restored self-esteem and develop essential skills on how to be a peaceful

    Whereas signs of post-conflict trauma among children are not openly visible, WV‟s
    trauma surveys5 have shown that children are still impacted by conflict to varying
    degrees. The project addressed these needs through organizing activities to bring
    children together focusing on play, creative activities and discussion groups facilitated
    by trained Children‟s Support Workers trough 10 Happy Houses.

   Capacity building for staff to improve their working performance
    The activities in this programme component was intended to build skills and
    experiences needed to work toward the program‟s purpose, and to help re-establish
    lines of communication and relationships where they have been broken. Project staffs
    have to have enough understanding about CLCC concepts and practices as tools in
    promoting non-violent education and become a role model in building peace in the
    school and community.

3.3 Project Beneficiaries

During the one year and six months of implementation, the project has directly benefited:
 20 schools – twenty schools each in the three selected sub-districts of Tobelo, Tobelo
   Selatan and Galela (Project phase I) and on the project phase II only focused on 6
   target schools , selected from the pool of 20 target schools.
 4000 students (of the 20 schools)
 20 school principals
 159 teachers
 50 Master Trainer
 9 School supervisor
 10 Happy Houses
 10 Happy Houses, covering 4144 children of 23 Schools
 Surrounding communities linked to the 20 schools.
 Six School Committees in main target area and 14 School Committees in Non-main
   target area.

  Trauma surveys in North Halmahera were made in April 2002 and in April 2004 by consultants from Duta Wacana University and
the University of Indonesia in 2002 and by consultants from Duta Wacana University In 2004.

The project also benefited Non-target schools in the district trough the sharing
programme in Teacher Working Group (KKG). Four of 6 main targeted schools become
nucleus schools that have roles to facilitate Teacher Working Group meeting. Each
nucleus schools facilitated around 7-8 schools in their cluster. Teacher Working Group
meeting become media in CLCC best practices sharing.

                                                  4. Final Evaluation
4.1 Aims and Objective of Evaluation

To review and assess the implementation and impact of the program:
 How do the teachers see themselves in the role of agents of peace and are they able
   and willing to take on this role? What are their constraints? Is the situation conducive
   enough for the teachers to become agents of change?
 How far has the Active Joyful and Effective Learning methodology been implemented
   in the classroom? Have there been any changes in the learning and teaching
 What kind of community involvement is there in the schools? How have the schools
   invited the community into the education system?
 How are school committees being formed? Who are the members? What are their
   roles? Do they function well? How is the cooperation between the school committee
   and the head teacher? What kind of improvements have they introduced?
 How do the Child Support Workers see themselves? Are they willing and capable to
   take on the role? What have the challenges been? How have they overcome these
 How are the Happy Houses being run? How much have the activities contributed to
   child development?
 Can the project achieve the expected impact: can it be an effective catalyst for the
   creation of a friendly and safe space for the children? Can the teachers develop
   attitudes and skills which foster reconciliation, assist in being able to deal with
   traumatic memories and develop understanding and respect for differences?

Detailed evaluation questions can be found in attached Evaluation TOR.

4.2 Methodologies

4.2.1 Data Collecting Technique:

There are two techniques on data collection used in the evaluation process, i.e.
quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative data was collected using the Self-Assessment
technique6. FGD7, In-depth interview8 and classroom observation techniques were mainly

  Adapted from Creating Learning Communities for Children Monitoring and Evaluation System Manual, Unicef, Jakarta, September
  Focused Group Discussion is a depth qualitative method that gathering number of people into a small homogeny group, commonly
6-12 persons, to discuss the topics in research agenda. The objective of the discussion is to use the social dynamics in group-
discussion, through facilitator assistance to facilitate participants to express his/her opinion, believe, and reason related to specific
issues or behavioral.
  In depth interview is a qualitative method that used by many people to get deep information on individual‟s opinion about issues.
This is a qualitative research technique that gives opportunity to create inter personal discussion.

used for qualitative data collection. In addition to the two techniques, a desk review of
project documentation was also undertaken.

4.2.2 Location

The evaluation was conducted in 3 sub districts: Tobelo, Tobelo Selatan, and Galela. In
these three areas there are 20 primary schools in total, while 6 schools out of the 20
schools are the main target of the project, another 3 schools are the schools with Happy
Houses, and a further 3 schools are also project target schools but without specific

4.2.3 Sample of Respondent

The evaluation targets were selected as follows:
 Distribution of self-assessment form to teachers, school principals, and children in the
   6 AJEL schools, 3 Happy House schools, and 3 other schools. The total of schools
   are 12 (involving 82 teachers, 117 students and 11 school principals);
 Self-assessment for for CSWs were distributed to all Happy Houses (there are 10
   Happy Houses, involving 19 CSWs);
 FGD activities in 8 schools;
 Class observation in 25 classrooms of 8 schools;
 In-depth interview with a school supervisor in Tobelo Selatan sub-district.

          Techniques                        Informant                   No of Individuals
                                                                            or Groups
    Self-assessment                 Teacher                            82
                                    School Principle                   11
                                    Student                            117
    FGD                             Teacher                            8 groups
                                    Children                           8 groups
                                    School Committee                   8 groups
                                    Master Trainer                     1 group
                                    CSW                                1 group
                                    Project Staff                      1 group
    Class Observation               Grade 1 – grade 6                  25 classes
    In-depth interview              School Inspector                   1
                                    School Principal                   3

A Focus Group Discussion with teachers, school committee members & children was
held in one school and in-depth interview with an Education Officer in Galela Sub-District
was planned but not carried out due to an Islamic celebration (Maulud Nabi). Most of the
population in Galela Sub-District is Moslem and some of schools and government offices
ware closed. In the future, it should be a part of the main consideration in project
activities scheduling.
  Main Target is selected schools that get intensive intervention from project in school programs such as AJEL, SBM and Community
Participation implementation; Happy House Target is: schools where project provided Happy House facility but there is no intensive
intervention in school programs; Non Target is: schools that there is no intensive intervention in school programme nor Happy House

Key components:

Key components in this evaluation include:
 Teacher‟s capacity in AJEL implementation
 SBM principles implemented by schools
 Schools that have functioning school committees
 Level of community participation in education
 Functioning Happy Houses
 Impact of AJEL and SBM implementation to create “non-violent class” (peace
 Staff capacity in day-to-day operational including programme implementation and

Detailed components can be seen in Annex 2.

4.2.4 Data analysis Tools

Quantitative data: Cross tabulation using EPI Info 6.0
Qualitative data: Content Analysis

                               5. Evaluation Results
5.1 Objective 1: Community Participation and School Based Management

Output of the objective is capacities of 6 School Committees to mobilize their
communities to participate in the school decision-making process and to support
transparency in school planning, financing and management. To reach this objective, the
project provided support to 6 selected target schools in establishing School Committees.
This support consisted of training on CLCC for School Committee members & School
Principals, a comparitive study trip and support to School Committees in their meetings
to plan and manage education and children‟s activities, and to coordinate with all
stakeholders. Bellow is the result of the assessment.

   Building school capacity in School Based Management and Community Participation:

    Ten School Principals from 6 main target schools and 5 non-main target schools
    attended training on CLCC. The frequency of the training was from 2 to 5 times. The
    training sessions were facilitated by National Master Trainers (from East Java) and
    Local Master Trainers. There were various levels of training frequency: school
    principles from the main targeted school received more frequent training because
    they also received direct training or facilitation from School Supervisors when the
    School Supervisors conducted monitoring in the schools. Four School Principals from
    the main target schools and three project staff also went on a comparative study trip
    to Buru Island in the province of the Moluccas to learn about SBM implementation.
    After the visit, School Committees and staff facilitated a 1-day committee forum to
    share lessons learned from the visit with 36 School Committee members and 5 Sub-
    District Education Officers.

     Seven of the eleven school principals mentioned that the training contents were
     valuable in providing understanding and skills relavent for SBM, Community
     Participation and AJEL, meanwhile 27% respondents who did not attend as many
     training sessions stated that their understanding and skills in those areas were still
     low. Their understanding was still at a basic level (overview of CLCC). The Teachers‟
     Working Group forum will continue to regularly build CLCC capacity. In the TWG/KKG
     meetings, teachers and school principles can share experience, develop teaching
     plans, design teaching tools and solve problems regarding CLCC implementation.

    School-Based Management (SBM) and Community Participation

Table 1. SBM and Community Participation criteria

No.      SBM & Community Participation Criteria                 Assessment result
School Based Management:
1.   Development of School Plan                       Ten out of 11 schools have developed
                                                      a school plan, 1 non targeted school
                                                      has not yet developed one.
2.     Involvement of stakeholders in developing a    Ten out of 11 schools have
       school plan                                    encouraged all stakeholders to take
       Stakeholders involved in developing School     part in developing the school plan.
       Plans i.e.:                                    Various areas of focus were included
       School Principal                               in school plans i.e.:
       Teachers                                       Increasing AJEL implementation
       School Committee members                       Developing teacher professionalism
       Others (Board, NGO‟s, etc.)                    Improving school facilities and teaching
                                                      Renovating school buildings and
3.     Development of a School Budget                 All (11) schools have developed a
                                                      school budget by involving all
                                                      stakeholders and included funds from
                                                      various sources
5.     Raising various funding resources for the      All 11 schools have tried undertaken
       school budget.                                 fundraising from various sources but
       i.e.                                           still limited to government and school
       Central Government                             committees or parents. They haven‟t
       Local Government                               yet accessed other sources such as
       School Committees                              the private sector, foundations/NGOs
       Local Community                                or encouraged School committees to
       Foundation                                     undertake economic activities such as
                                                      school gardens, school livestock or
                                                      school canteens.
6.     School budget and School Plan displayed in a   School budget and school plan were
       publicly visible location.                     displayed in 5 out of 11 schools.
7.     School develops local curriculum (muatan       2 of the AJEL target schools have
       local)                                         developed local context curriculum
                                                      (muatan local) consisting of English
                                                      and Arabic languages. Other school
                                                      have not yet developed it.
Community Participation:
1.  School committee set up in school                 Implemented in 11 schools

No.      SBM & Community Participation Criteria                  Assessment result
2.     School Committee has a clear organization Implemented in 11 schools but good
       structure and function                          functioned in 6 schools (in AJEL
                                                       targeted school)
3.     School Committee has regular meeting Implemented in 8 schools
       (minimum twice a year)
4.     School Committee has an annual work plan        Implemented in 9 schools
5.     Level of community support given to the school:

       Participation in school meetings                  Implemented in 10 schools
       In-kind/Local materials donated                   Implemented in 7 schools
       Money donated                                     Implemented in 6 schools
       Labor donated                                     Implemented in 9 schools
       Participation in decision-making                  Implemented in 9 schools
6.     Parents and community involve in students‟
       Involved in discussions about school activities   Implemented in 11 schools
       and student progress
       Help children do their homework                   Implemented in 11 schools
       Help the school as a resource person              Not yet implemented in all schools
       Help teachers in class                            Not yet implemented in all schools
       Help teacher in organizing learning groups in     Implementation planned in 1 school
       the community outside school hours                (GMIH Efi Efi)

     The table above shows that some criteria of School-Based Management were
     implemented in schools assessed, such as: developing school plans, school budgets
     and mobilizing stakeholders in school planning. Criteria that have yet to be
     succesfully implemented were displaying the school plan & school budget and
     developing local-context curricula. School plans and school budgets were not
     displayed in 5 non-targeted schools and 1 targeted school. The reason given was
     that they were still preparing the display equipment and still renovating school office.
     The display of plans and budgets is very important in promoting transparency and
     motivating education stakeholders to participate in school management.

     Developing local context curricula is also a very important component required in the
     CLCC model. This is in line with the government decentralization programme
     (otonomi daerah). Decentralization in the education sector is aimed at empowering
     local government, schools and communities in managing education appropriately,
     including development of local curriculum as a regional strategy in human resources
     development. The 2004 Curriculum (Competency-based curriculum) only prepares for
     generic competency. Each region has been mandated to design their own local or
     specific competencies that support regional development. Schools in the regions
     should have local context curricula that reflect regional human resource development,
     i.e. provinces with economic development programmes empowering the agriculture
     sector should have components for developing competencies in agriculture;
     provinces with potential for earthquakes or tsunamis should have curriculum
     components for building competency or skills in dealing with earthquakes or
     tsunamis; areas with the potential for ethnic or religious conflict should build
     competency in diversity management, etc. Base on the assessment, only 2 schools
     have developed local curriculum consisting of English and Arabic, and need further
     discussion as to whether or not this was appropriate.

  Site observation results showed that some schools have
  increased their required administration, such as vision
  and mission documented, updated teacher and student
  information, statistical data on student achievement,
  data on class presence, school rules, etcetera. The
  development of accessible school information is an
  important component in promoting school accountability
  and credibility.

  Another important criteria for SBM, like fund raising from several sources, still need
  improvement. The school budget sources were still limited to APBN and collecting
  from the parents.

  In Community Participation, School Committees have been set up in evaluated-
  targeted school. Base on FGD with project staff, in other schools (9 previous targeted
  school that were not evaluated) have also developed school committees.

  The process of School Committee development took place through the mechanism of
  school and parent meetings. The Board of the School Committee included
  representives from all concerned parties such as parents, community leaders, and
  religious leaders and also considers the group identity.

                                             In the future, school committees are expected to
                                             present their role and function as a school partner,
                                             supporter and become a „bridge‟ between school and
                                             parents in school management, even though some of
                                             them now are still shown as an under bow of the
                                             school. School Committees in the assessed schools
                                             had a clear structure, regular meetings and work
                                             plans. They had also started to give some support
                                             including labour, local materials, money, renovation of
                                             the school environment and providing school facilities.
                                             Based on the FGD reports, some Committees have
School Committee’s structure & work plan    started to raise funds in creative ways such as making
                                           a school garden and collecting agricultural produce like
  coconut and nutmeg.

  During the school committee training session and meeting in April 2005 at sub district
  level, participants decided on a work plan to conduct resource mapping and identify
  potential parties concerned with school education. Progress will be evaluated at the
  next meeting in June 2005.

  The FGD results also demonstrated some critical success factors that influence the
  functioning of school committees i.e.: participants‟ clear understanding regarding the
  school committee‟s role, awareness on the importance of education, a good
  relationship between school and school committee, proactive head teachers provided
  with motivation and regular facilitating by project staff.

   To empower and widen school committees‟ functioning in the future, they need to
   build up their role as school partner with a social control function and increase their
   involvement in the school learning process, i.e. mobilize committee members and
   local people to be a local resource in the classroom (teaching support), encourage
   parents to get involved in providing teaching tools, disseminate information on CLCC
   practices to the wider community, campaign on non-violent education for children
   within the community, etc.

   Through the FGDs, school committee members mentioned that the main constrain on
   the implemention of their functions were the economic and social situation in the
   community which was still in recovery after the conflict. However, communities have
   started to recover step by step. Another constrain was members‟ clear understanding
   regarding the school committee itself.

5.2 Objective 2: Active, Joyful and Effective Learning (AJEL)

Objective 2 is to enhance the quality of children‟s learning by supporting the
development of AJEL. Evaluation was conducted to assess how far the Active Joyful and
Effective Learning criteria had been implemented in the classroom. Below is the assessment
result of 42 teachers from main target schools, 22 teachers from schools with a Happy House
and 18 teachers from non-target schools.

   Table 2. Teacher self-assessment results:

                                                                       6 AJEL     3 School with    3 Non-Target
   No.                        Component                               Schools           HH            School
                                                                       (N=42)         (N=22)          (N=18)
   1.    Teachers have attended AJEL training                        42(100%)    22(100%)         15(83,3%)
   2.    Teachers involved in Teachers‟ Working Groups               41(97,6)    20(90,9)         16(88,9%)
   3.    Teachers have shared AJEL with other teachers               33(78,6%)   11(50%)          13(72,2%)
   3.    Teachers planned and managed active, joyful and             41(97,6%)   19(86,4)         16(88,9%)
         effective learning by implementing diversified
         teaching methodologies, such as: group discussions,
         problem-solving, conducting experiments, practical
         work, observation, writing report/story/poem, outside
         class learning, etc.
   4.    Teachers used varied teaching tools & resources:            42(100%)    14(63%)          12(66,7%)
         natural (plants, animals, insects, rocks, etc.)
         teaching tools package (map, globe, alphabet,
         picture, etc.)
         self made teaching tools (picture, diagram, models,
   5.    Local resources person involved in learning process         0%          0%               0%
   5.    Teachers used day-to-day experience or case studies         27(64,3%)   21(95,5%)        13(72,2%)
         in learning process.
   6.    Teachers arranged flexible class formation to support       35(83,3%)   14(63,6%)        12(66,7%)
         good interaction between teacher-student as well as
         student-student (such as: grouping, „U‟ shape, circle,
         sit in the ground, outside the class room, etc.)
   7.    Student      work/creativity,   such     as:    pictures,   39(92,9%)   19(83,3%)        17(94,4%)
         worksheets, reports, handicrafts displayed in the
   8.    Reading corners provided in classroom                       41(97,6%)   9(40,9%)         9(50%)
   9.    Estimation of students using reading corner                 More than   More than half   More than half
   10.   Teachers provided feedback concerning student‟s             42(100%)    16(72,2%)        16(88,8%)

                                                              6 AJEL    3 School with    3 Non-Target
No.                       Component                          Schools          HH            School
                                                              (N=42)        (N=22)          (N=18)
11.   Teachers      evaluated   student‟s   learning   by   42(100%)   18(81,8%)        13(72,2%)
      implementing various methods:
      written test
      direct question and answer
      practical work
      Individual assignment
      Group assignment

Table 3. Class Observation
N=25 (grade I: 9, grade II: 1, grade III: 4, grade IV: 3, grade V: 4 and grade VI: 4)
(observation was conducted in 14 classes in main target schools, 6 classes in Happy
House schools and 5 classes in non-target schools)

    No.   Observation Component                        Class Observation Reports
                                                       6      main 3      School       3 Non main
                                                       targeted     with HH            target school
    1.    Teacher used varied teaching methods         14(100%)     4(66,6%)           4(80%)
          Practical work
          Group discussion
          Problem solving
          Individual assignment
          Story writing/report/poem, make picture
          Exploring the book
    2.    Used local resource person in learning       0%            0%                0%
    3.    Teacher used varied teaching tools &         14(100%)      4(66,6%)          5(100%)
          learning resources:
          Local materials/nature
          Teaching tool package
          Self made teaching tools
          Local resource person
          Teacher‟s/children‟s experience
          Case studies
    3.    Teacher arranges flexible learning class:    13(92,9%)     3(50%)            5(100%)
          Formal sitting (arrangement in rows)
          „U‟ shape
          Out side classroom
    4.    Percentage of students active in learning    More   than   Less       than   Less than 50%
          process                                      50%           50%
    5.    Teacher gave equal opportunity to students   13(92,9%)     3(50%)            4(80%)
          (boys and girls) to express their opinion
    5.    Students‟ work displayed in classroom        14(100%)      2(33,3%)          5(100%)
          written tasks (worksheet, story writing,
          poems, observation reports, tests)
          students‟ drawings
    7.    Teacher gave feedback to children in         14(100%)      4(66,6%)          1(20%)
          leaning process
    8.    There were students who fought/disturbed     4(28,6%)      2(33,3%)          1(20%)
          others while learning process was run
    9.    Dynamic environment           was built in   12(85,6%)     2(33,3%)          2(40%)
          learning process
    10.   Teacher applied varied evaluation methods:   14(100%)      3(50%)            5(100%)
          individual written assignment
          direct question and answer
          group assignment
          made presentation in front of the class

Based on 2 matrixes above, most teachers in the 6 main target schools have
implemented AJEL almost completely for all grades. These schools are:

   Tobelo Sub District: SDN 1 Tobelo and SD Inpres Wosia
   Tobelo Selatan Sub District: SD GMIH Mawea and SD GMIH Efi-Efi
   Galela Sub District: SD Inpres Soasio and SD Inpres Oribale

Most teachers in non-main target schools have also implemented some criteria of AJEL,
meanwhile only half of teachers in school with Happy Houses implemented AJEL criteria.
The teacher learned AJEL skills from the Teacher Working Group (KGG) meetings. They
use the expression programme pengimbasan, meaning a teacher who has implemented
AJEL should conduct sharing with other teachers in surrounding schools.

The teacher self-assessment matrix shows that there were significant differences in
implementation AJEL criteria in three categories school above, i.e.: using various
teaching tools, arrangement of flexible class formation and providing a reading corner in
the class room. These components were better implemented in AJEL main target
schools than in HH schools and non-main target schools. Observation results also
showed that AJEL criteria implementation in Non-main target schools was stronger than
in HH schools. Teacher and school principle mentioned that influencing factors were less
support from the project and education office included training, teaching aid and
supervision. Some teachers also mention that they had just started the programme and
therefore still needed some improvements for the future. The project didn‟t give enough
supervision and provide AJEL support to non-main target schools and HH Schools
because AJEL programme phase II (for 6 months) only focused on 6-target schools.
Besides, one of the important factors that influences incomplete implementation of AJEL
in HH Schools was separation of HH programme from school activities. Initially, the HH
programme was designed to function as a recreational place after school hours. The aim
was to facilitate children in feeling free, happy, comfortable and being able to express
themselves after they faced pressure and trauma during the conflict. However, as this
function has already been implemented, in the future the HH functions could be
integrated within the AJEL programme because all components (activity & facilities) of
the HH are very useful in supporting AJEL activities.

How were AJEL practices implemented in schools?

                              The picture left shows grade-one students enjoying a
                              maths group discussion in SD GMIH Efi-Efi. This is a
                              discussion corner outside the classroom, constructed by
                              School Committee. A strong relationship between the
                              school and parents as well as the wider local community
                              has increased synergy in developing education quality.

                      In AJEL implementation the
                      teacher needs to be more creative
                      including finding and creating
                      teaching tools. The picture on the
                      left shows various teaching tools
                      made of natural resources by
                      teachers. The picture on the right
                      shows a handmade storybook
                      made of used paper by a grade-        A hand made storybook
                      one teacher in SD GMIH Efi-Efi.                             This is a
                      very creative way to prepare teaching material that is interesting

for children.

Teachers can also manage students in various ways such as conducting experiments
and holding group discussions. Two pictures below show the students enjoying group
work in solving problems set by their teacher.

                                      In these two pictures
                                     the teacher‟s role is
                                     simply as a facilitator,
                                     with students trying to
                                     find ways to solve
                                     problems.    Sometimes
                                     when students face a
                                     difficulty a teacher is
    Doing experiment: making         ready to help. Through
            magnet           this technique children are not       Teacher facilitating problem solving
afraid to express their own opinions.

A reading corner (sudut baca) can be an effective facility
to encourage children in learning. A reading corner should
be supported by interesting books for children.
A simple reading corner can be arranged with an
attractive appearance to make it friendly and interesting
for children to visit. Generally, schools provided reading
corner especially in 6 main target schools. But schools
need to review the book provision. Most of teachers
mentioned that schools have limited books in reading       Reading corner
corners. Improving books collection in the reading corner becomes one of the main
concerns of the school committees. Some schools and school committees will put this
agenda in their next programme.

Most students in assessed schools also gave a positive opinion regarding AJEL
implementation. The matrix below describes children responses.
Table 4. Students‟ assessment regarding AJEL implementation (N=117):

 No    COMPONENT                                                      RESPONSE
                                                     Main-target      School               Non-main
                                                     schools          with HH              target schools
                                                     (N=56)           (N=33)               (N=28)
 1.    Teacher applies various teaching methods to   55(98,2%)        22(66,6%)            17(67,7%)
       create joyful & active learning
 2.    Teacher uses various teaching tools           53(94,6%)         29(87,9%)           25(89,3%)
 3.    Teacher gives various work assignment to      48(87,3%)         25(75,7%)           18(64,2%)
 4.    Reading corner is provided in the classroom   54(96,4%)         22(66,7%)           27(96,4%)
 5.    Student uses reading corner                   50(90,0%)         21(63,6%)           27(96,4%)
 6.    Teacher arranges various class formation      47(83,9%)         23(69,7%)           19(73,1%)
 8.    Student‟s work/creativity is displayed        51(83,9%)         23(69,7%)           19(73,1)
 9.    Teacher encourages student to express their   47(83,9%)         28(84,8%)           12(46,2%)
 10.   Student glad to present in front of class     48(87,3%)         25(92,6%)           18(66,7%)
 11.   Student enjoy group discussions               53(94,6%)         32(97,0%)           28(100%)
 12.   Teacher reacts angrily when they cause a      13(23,2%)         13(39,4%)           9(32,1%)

                          problem, fight with each other or do not do

Without mentioning AJEL terminology, most of the students in three category schools
described that AJEL criteria were implemented in the school. FGDs with students also
reinforces these responses. The students stated that there is now a difference in how
teachers manage classes. Before, the teacher used one way communication where the
teacher talked too much and students wrote in their books. Now students have the
opportunity to be more active in the learning process. Besides, the classroom condition
become joyful and interesting because there were many alternative activities such as
group assignments, many teaching tools, fun learning, drawing, handicrafts, and
displaying students‟ work. The other new condition was a joyful environment when the
teacher treats students in a friendly way. Most of the children in the FGD said that they
enjoyed going to school more.

The chart below describes the class absenteeism without clear reason (alpa) percentage
in the observed class:

                         14                      Figure 1. Class absenteeism withaout reason

   percentage of alpha






                                 Jul-Sep              Oct-Dec             Jan-March
                                  SDN 1 Tobelo         SD Efi-Efi quarter   SD Mawea           SD Wosia
                                  SD Wari              SD Oribale           SD Soasio

The figure above shows the absenteeism rate in the
last 9 months. There are a decreasing pattern in
some schools, especially SD Wari, SDN 1 Tobelo,
Efi-Efi   and SD Soasio. However, we cannot
conclude that the decreasing pattern of absenteeism
was due to the implementation of AJEL since there
are other factors to consider (e.g. during
February/March most of IDP children were out of
schools with their parents for IDP headcount in
Ternate). Anecdotal evidences that students enjoy
the schools were revealed at the focus group                                                        Teacher & student’s creativities

Some of teachers mentioned that since implementing the AJEL method, the teachers are
more motivated in teaching preparation, more disciplined, enjoy teaching more, more
creative, more confident in classroom, and wherever they go they remember the school.

Now the teacher‟s role is as a facilitator, teacher uses 20% of the time to guide or
facilitate, and the other 80% of time for students‟ activities. Teachers also mentioned that
through AJEL implementation students are able to show their talents and creativity that
had never been shown before.

Some of parents who have joinied School Committees in target schools mentioned that
there is a great change in schools in how they teach, in students‟ activities, class
management, and using teaching tool kits and student‟s kits. In one target school in Efi-
Efi in Tobelo Selatan sub-district parents are also involved in the learning process
preparation. School and parents formed a PTA (Parent and Teacher Association) to
monitor the progress of the learning process and education quality. Parents are involved
in providing teaching tools according to the class needs. This point can be confirmed with
their effort to collect „Monday money” or Uang Senin in SD GMIH Efi-Efi and Monday
Coconut or Kelapa Senin in SD Inpres Oribale, to buy the teaching tool kits according to
the needs in schools. Schools have not yet involved local resources such as parents or
community members who have expertise or knowledge in learning process related to
AJEL implementation, as shown by teacher self-assessment result in 0%. However,
some of schools mentioned that they already discussed with the school committee the
possibility of inviting parents with special expertise to become resource persons in the
class (shadow teacher/guru intip).

Based on teacher & project staff FGDs and also in-depth interviews with school
supervisors, the other 8 out of 20 schools (non-main target schools) have also made
efforts to implement AJEL. However, they haven‟t yet implemented the AJEL method
completely, due to various constraints related to their capacities, availability of class
facilities, and capacity of the classrooms. AJEL training in non-target schools was less
than in target schools. They received AJEL skills transfer from the teacher working
groups (KKG). The KKG forums are an effective way to spread AJEL skills to other
schools. Class facilities are related with the providing of teaching tool kids and resource
books for students and teachers. Target schools received more support from the project
than non-target schools. Besides, some schools, especially non-target schools also have
constraints in terms of class capacity or conditions such as: number of students is above
class capacity (more than 50 students), class is used in turns for different levels (like
level 1 and 6, level 3 and 5) and some schools in remote areas do not have enough

   Monitoring and Technical Support from the Education Department Office:

    Base on in-dept interview with Sub District Education officer and teacher‟s & school
    principal‟s assessment, it is clear there is a lack of supervision and technical support
    from the District Education Department. The reason was the transition period in
    government administration due to the status of North Maluku as a new province and
    North Halmahera as a new district. There were many pressures on these offices that
    limited their ability to focus on the CLCC programme. Also regarding the damage
    caused by the conflict, the government still puts more focus on school buildings.
    Besides, the Head of the Education Department at district level was still waiting for
    formal instruction from National Education Ministry regarding the implementation of
    the new curriculum (Competency-Based Curriculum 2004).

     Fortunately, the Education Department at sub-district level functions well, providing
     supervision and technical support to schools. School Supervisors visited schools
     regularly and provided feedback to school principals and teachers. Some of the
     school supervisors who are also CLCC master trainers, have regular meetings in the
     Teachers‟ Working Groups weekly in six main WV target schools and monthly in non-
     target schools (cluster TWG formed by the Sub-district Education Department).

     Thirty-two of the fifty Master Trainers trained were active facilitators in the Teachers‟
     Working Groups (KKG) and implementing CLCC in his/her school. Eight of the
     Master Trainers were School Supervisors. This is a very important point as school
     supervisors have authority to directly control, monitor and guide the schools, they are
     able to reinforce CLCC implementation properly.

     The Cluster Teacher Working Groups (TWG/KKG) were established in four schools:
     SD Inpres Bale, SD Inpres Soasio, SDN 1 Tobelo and SD Efi-Efi. The Education
     Office and project staff agreed that the four TWG hosts would become nucleus
     schools that should facilitate the local schools on CLCC best practices. Each TWG
     facilitated around 7-8 schools in their cluster. The Sub-district Education Office also
     formed 14 cluster TWGs in non-target schools. Also, Master Trainers and project staff
     initiated coordination meetings or networking forums that involved many stakeholders
     such as DPRD, Bapeda, education activists, NGOs and community leaders to
     advocate on CLCC. The next meeting at the end of May will involve teachers and
     children to share about the AJEL and Happy House programmes. The Teachers‟
     Working Group forum, Master Trainers and the School Supervisors will be a structure
     that will ensure the sustainability of CLCC implementation.

The experience of CLCC implementation as describe above has shown that the CLCC
model is one of the approaches that can be used to promote non-violent, child-focused
education. The AJEL method has required and motivated teachers to manage classes in
a child-friendly, fun way and fully involving childrens‟ creativity. Also, Community
Participation is an important component of CLCC that encourages communities to be
involved and listening to children in the child development process. Therefore, the CLCC
model can be recommended as an approach in promoting child-focused development as
WV‟s concern, certainly with some adjustment required.

    Key issues need to be addressed to improve CLCC implementation:

     To improve the quality of CLCC implementation in the future there are some issues to
     be considered:

         Increase teachers‟ capacity in special subjects such as language, science and
          maths. These subjects are important as a basis for competency-based learning.
          Mathematics is a basis for logic and critical thinking, science as a basis in
          understanding natural phenomena and the universe and language not as a
          grammatical but as a communication media - written or oral. These skills will
          prepare students to learn another competencies later on.10
         Skills in designing thematic learning /integration of some school subjects  to
          prepare children to have competency in comprehensive and critical thinking.

10Mathematic and Language as a basis of competency building can be read in Drost, J (2005), Dari KBK sanpai MBS, Penerbit Buku Kompas, Jakarta;
Mangunwijaya, Y.B. (2004), Dinamika Edukasi Dasar, Jogyakarta. And Science as a focus, from School of Universe Concept.

       Happy Houses should be used in AJEL activities in Halmahera. In the beginning,
        Happy Houses were designed as more recreational programme than school
        activity, which was appropriate for the conditions at the time, but now the HH
        activities and facilities can be used to strengthen AJEL implementation in the
       Teacher creativity in using and managing natural resources such as plants,
        animals, beaches, land, community activities, case studies, etc. as teaching
       Teacher creativity in translating subject learning to day-to-day life (contextuality)
       Involving local expertise as resource persons in special subjects (Shadow
       School committee involvement in learning process activities.
       Community participation to support children‟s education in wider roles
       Strategic alliance with existed institutions in community such as churches,
        mosques, local foundations, Business Companies, cultural institutions, local
        government, etc.

5.3 Objective 3: Happy House

Output of this objective is creating opportunities for children affected by conflict to
support psychosocial health, experience restored self-esteem and develop essential
skills on how to be a peaceful individual.

In the previous Peacebuilding Through Children‟s Education Project Phase I, 10 Happy
Houses and the activity programme were established. The aim for the Happy Houses is
to provide psychosocial and emotional support to children who show some signs of
trauma and develop the peace building skills of the children. Each Happy House is
guided by 2-4 trained CSW who provide creative activities for children. There are 32
Child Support Workers. In the design, the Community Education Committees (now
already merged to become School Committees) supervise and support the Happy
Houses. The project provided basic games, toys, and equipment for the HH, training &
supervising and monthly fees for the CSWs. The HH were built together with the
Community Education Committees in the areas with mixed schools (Moslem & Christian)
as a means to provide easy access for children after school hours. Each Happy House
covered 2-3 schools. The programme proposed in the project phase II was a
continuation of the previous activities to strengthen the structure of Happy House
sustainability and capacity of CSWs.

Assessment results through FGD, site observation and self-assessment:

   Capacity of Child Support Worker (CSW):

    Community Education Committee and project recruited Child Support Worker (CSW).
    Some criteria were concerned such as: committed to children, committed to work
    regularly for around five hours per day and represent group identity. Thirty-two
    CSWs have been trained in organizing Happy Houses. The training material
    consisted of psychosocial health, creative children‟s activities, discussion techniques
    for children, peace-building skills and how to manage Happy Houses. Based on the
    self-assessment, 14 of 20 CSWs could describe Happy House aims, activities and

    their roles. The CSWs worked in the HH for approximately five hours per day,
    maximum 22 times a month. They receive 15.000 rupiah per day from the project. To
    ensure a good programme in HH, project staff provided regular supervision and CSW
    performance evaluations. This was achieved through regular visits by project staff
    and through CSW monthly reports. Committees should also monitor HH activities and
    CSWs‟ performance, but this has not yet taken place yet due to committee capacity
    and clarity regarding their function.

   Happy House Components that have been implemented:

     No.   Happy House Components               Assessment
     1.    Number of Happy House established    10 Happy Houses
     2.    Happy House schedule                 All CSWs have a monthly schedule
     3.    Frequency of Happy House activity    22 days
           per month
     4.    Plan of activities/curriculum        CSW plan and managed activities based on
                                                the Happy House module that has been
                                                prepared by the project
     5.    Number of activities                 at least 32 items
     6.    Variety of activities                Free play: depend on what children want
                                                special activities: some activities such as
                                                games, drama or puppetry that focus on
                                                building creativity, cooperation, expressing
                                                emotion and building conflict-resolution skills
     7.    Number of children attending Happy   20-40 children aged 6-15 years old. There
           House per day                        were difference types of activity based on age
     8.    Total Children are covered by all    4144 children from 23 Primary Schools, 1 MIN
           happy houses                         and 2 Junior High Schools.

    The aim of the Happy House programme contains four elements: a safe place to play,
    providing psychosocial support, providing joyful activities and enhancing peace
    building among children. The CSWs paid attention to organizing the activities in a
    physically safe way to strive for a non-threatening environment without pressurising
    children, avoiding religious activities and avoiding physical punishment. The HH was
    placed where Muslim and Christian children can play together, as the overall purpose
    of the education programme was peace-building. In the HH great attention was paid
    to the interaction process between the Muslim and Christian children. With play and
    doing activities together, children applied this interaction. Besides, explaining the aim
    of the HH to children created a child-friendly space and involved children in choosing
    the activities agreed HH rules and children‟s participation in taking care of HH
    equipment. Children are treated equally, no discrimination was an important rule in
    the HH.

    Providing psychosocial support meant helping children deal with their emotions and
    problems. With basic knowledge of child development and psychosocial health,
    CSWs gave more time to dialogue with children, encouraging them to express their
    problems and giving daily support.

    There were differences in children‟s fun activities based on their age group. Children
    aged 6-12 were provided with more playing with toys, drawing, coloring pictures, story
    telling and local activities (33 items), while children aged 13-15 (Junior high school)

    were provided with drama, sports, arts/creative activities, games, group discussions,
    making simple magazines and puppet shows. Both these age group activities were
    focused on building creativity, cooperation, expressing emotion and building conflict-
    resolution skills.

    From the CSWs‟ point of view, the children who attended HH were shown to feel free,
    happy, could express themselves and also express their creativity. It is important to
    build children‟s recovery and skills as peace agents. Besides doing activities for fun,
    children also learned some skills like discipline (being on time, re-arranging HH
    equipment), appreciating each other, cooperation, sharing toys or books, obeying the
    rules, etc. Happy Houses were designed for children aged 6-15, but some under-five
    children also came to the Happy House to play and follow the activities, and their
    parents accompanied some of them.

    CSW also mentioned that they have found much kind of benefit for them self when
    facilitated children in HH, such as: been recovered from trauma as they had before,
    been changed in more positive paradigm and behavior, and more motivated to
    commit with the children. Although the CSW was designed to work with the children,
    it was expected that the Happy Houses have benefit for the adults in the
    communities. It was hopefully succeed when some of parents accompanied their
    children went to HH and also when the HH performance competition and event was
    conducted for all the broader communities.

   Children‟s responses regarding the Happy House Programme:

    This responses were collected through child self-assessment, involving 33 children
    (16 girls and 17 boys) in 2 schools provided with a Happy House programme: SD
    Wari and Gamhoku. Twenty-five out of 33 children were able to explain the Happy
    House and its function. They described the HH as a fun place to learn and play
    together with their friends; a place that provided toys, games and story books; a place
    that facilitated creativity; and a place to experience joy and happiness and a place
    where sad children can become happy.

    They explain that they took part in many activities, such as: reading, drawing, coloring
    pictures, playing games, playing badminton, writing poems, making comics, making
    handicraft, etcetera. With those activities they could learn together about friendship,
    cooperation and appreciating one another. Twenty-nine out of thirty-three children
    mentioned that they were happy to come to the happy house. Most of them came to
    their HH twice a week or more of their own free will, but 57% children mentioned that
    their parents advised them to come to the happy house and 77% of the children also
    mentioned that their teacher advised the same thing. All of the children stated that
    they were glad to have a nice CSW due to their ability to facilitate games and
    activities with fun and not too serious. They also mentioned that CSWs were very
    concerned and close with the children. Children‟s concern or proposals for improving
    future increase happy house activities were:
        o Add more creative activities like writing poems, comics and stories
        o Add more toys, games and books
        o Give more opportunities to do drama, sing and another performance arts
        o Make more events and competitions
        o Give more opportunity to put their creativity into Harmonis Magazine

      o HH programme should be continued

Some constraints identified:
     o Lack of supervision from the School Committees. This point is related to the
        clarity of the role and function of the committee in supervising HH due to the
        transition from Community Education Committee to School Committee.
        Previously, the project and the community formed the School Education
        Committees to supervise HH, regarding the Education Department‟s rule that
        every school should have a school committee, the SECs were disbanded and
        the role was transferred to School Committees.
     o School Committees haven‟t yet been empowered enough to supervise and
        continue HH once the project has finished its support (such as monthly fees for
        CSWs, HH equipment and facilitation)
     o Lack of involvement from the teachers/schools, HH activities were separated
        from school activities. Despite this, the HH facilities and activities were very
        useful for AJEL activities.
     o CSWs were encouraged to use and manage local materials to enhance the
        capacities of children to play at home, but haven‟t yet applied this knowledge
        due to the boundaries of creativity.
     o CSW mentioned that in the HH children were well-treated, but when they go
        back home sometimes they face different treatment due to community practice
        in „hard education culture‟  it should be our concern in promoting non-
        violence to the parents.

CSW‟s plan to solve these problems:
     o CSWs will develop proposals for continuing HH that can be submitted to
         Schools or other institutions.

5.4 Objective 4: Staff Capacity Building

To manage and organise Enhancing Teacher Capacities in Peace Education Programme
Phase II, the organization assigned 10 staff. Seven staff were responsible for managing
CLCC and 3 staff were assigned to manage the Happy House programme, with each
team managed by a project co-ordinator. Staff capacity building has been developed by
training or by day-to-day activities. Some training provided was: Peace-Building, Local
Capacities for Peace, Community Organizing, Participatory Learning and Action (PLA),
Child Development & Child Rights, Psychosocial, Commodity and Logistics
Management, Monitoring & Evaluation and CLCC concept. They also attended a
comparative study to Surabaya and to Buru District to get exposure to CLCC practices.
Some training was conducted in cooperation with institutions such as: Univ. Duta
Wacana Jogyakarta, Education Office East Java Province and Unicef.

Increasing staff capacity was also achieved through day-to-day programme operation
that benefits them. Also, staff capacity also improved trough through daily interactive
learning with the stakeholder. The matrix below explains the areas of responsibility of
staff related to AJEL and HH implementation.

No.                                        Description of responsibilities
 1.   Organise AJEL teacher training
 2.   Organise School Principal and School Committee member training in SBM & Community Participation

No.                                           Description of responsibilities
 3.   Organise comparative study of CLCC to other province
 4.   Coordinate comparative study of CLCC among schools within the district
 5.   Organise school principals and school committee seminar on CLCC
 6.   Facilitate target schools in implementing CLCC
 7.   Facilitate Teacher Working Group/KKG in sharing CLCC best practices
 8.   Conduct refresher training on CLCC for Master Trainers
 9.   Coordinate with Master Trainers to disseminate CLCC practices
10.   Facilitate school committees in functioning in their role
11.   Organise Child Support Worker in managing HH
12.   Develop HH module and prepare HH facilities
13.   Coordinate CSW activities in managing HH
14.   Organise HH events and competitions
15.   Conduct regular supervising and monitoring to school and HH
16.   Build strategic alliance with stake holders: Education Department, District Office, DPR, schools, other institutions
      and NGOs, Religious institutions, community leaders and community
17.   Build district networking forum to advocate CLCC programme and promote non-violent education
18.   Conduct planning, budgeting and budget controlling to run CLCC program
19.   Provide monthly progress report
20.   Conduct mid term evaluation
21.   Conduct staff coordination meetings

Organising training sessions, seminars or comparative studies can be effective ways to
improve capacity. Besides gaining some knowledge regarding training or seminars on
subjects such as AJEL, SBM, Community participation, etc. staff also continued to learn
about preparing training TOR, arrange the schedule, make coordination and negotiation
with facilitator, preparing participant, preparing material and equipment, ensuring
achievement of training objective, developing follow-up action, etc. School monitoring,
supervision and building networking or strategic alliance with all stakeholders also
provides opportunity and exposure on interactive learning with all parties that can
improve staff‟s experience and skills.

Staff management:

There are 3 teams that implement 3 programs: CLCC, Happy House and Harmonis
Magazine. CLCC is implemented in 3 sub districts i.e.: Tobelo, Tobelo Selatan and
Galela, Happy house in 5 sub districts and the magazine in Halmahera District and
Ternate. Each staff member has a Job Description as a guideline for his or her day-to-
day activities. A project co-ordinator coordinates each team member. Zone leaders are
developed based on sub-district clusters facilitate coordination among those 3 programs,
but in the operation that is still separated by each sector. Whereas these three programs
are designed and implemented to achieve same purpose: promoting peace education, so
that integrating of these programs will be better in building optimum capacity to reach this

Staff capacity can be measured by their performance in managing the program. Some
key result areas have been demonstrated through project performance, such as: number
of schools implementing the CLCC model, number of school committees established,
number of happy houses functioning, the strategic alliance that has been built and the
community structure that is prepared for ensuring programme sustainability.

                                    6. Conclusions
The CLCC (AJEL, SBM, and Community Participation) model has been implemented
almost completely in the six main target schools as shown by the CLCC criteria
achievement. Intensive support and monitoring has been provided by WV project staff
and the education department sub district office.

The CLCC methodology has also been implemented in 14 non-main target schools
although it was not completely yet in criteria achievement. Teacher Working Groups
have supported these schools in AJEL principles through sharing skills, knowledge and
best practices by master trainers, school supervisors, school principals and teachers as

Ten Happy Houses have been established and run as friendly spaces for children, and
placed to promote peace-building skill for children, CSW, and community members.

6.1. Impact of CLCC and Happy Houses:

   as a media to promote non-violent education both in school and community,
    contribute to improving the quality of education in terms of creating three way
    interaction (teacher-student, student-teacher, and student-student) in the learning
   improving child‟s willingness to attend school,
   Creating fun and effective learning as a model for promoting child rights fulfillment
    especially in child protection, development and participation.
   Encourage community to participate in child education
   As a best practices model for the organization in child-focused development and
    education program

6.2. Sustainability of CLCC and Happy Houses:
 Continuity of CLCC implementation will be nurtured by the Teacher Working Groups
   (TWG) both in small TWGs in each school and cluster TWGs as a media for learning
   best practices
 Education department (in sub district level) supervision and monitoring will support
   the sustainability of CLCC
 The established community participation and school committees in some schools can
   be a model for other schools in Halmahera district in CLCC implementation

6.3. Constrains and Opportunities


   Some teachers applied CLCC with no adjustment to the local context.
   Some teachers are trapped in resources limitation condition that prevents creativity
   Some school principals are not proactive in managing changes regarding CLCC
   Lack of support from district level education department
   Most community members not aware of their roles in supporting children‟s education

    The CLCC methodology is still more focused on the practical component than
     essential components such as curriculum review, creating local context, efforts to
     assist children to build life skills, translate learning competencies into day-to-day life
    Lack of integration of the three education programs in the project (CLCC, Happy
     Houses and Harmonis magazine) caused limited synergy to achieve the same
     purpose in creating peace education.
    It seems that project treats education as a single-sector program, even though it
     needs support from other programmes like economic development due to the
     correlation between empowering community participation in education with
     empowering the socio-economic sector.


    There are committed schools and school committees to implement CLCC and Happy
    There are teachers that have been changed in terms of the paradigm and who are
     committed to implementation of AJEL
    Established Teacher Working Groups can be a good forum for CLCC best practices
    There is a good relationship with the education department in the three sub-districts
    WVI has a highly-motivated staff who have technical competency in CLCC for the
     future resources
    Local rich natural resources can be used to support CLCC program
    Availability of three programs: CLCC, Happy House and Harmonis Magazine can be
     managed as inter-related programme to have greater impact

6.4. Recommendation

    Empowering school committees should be a focus agenda in the next project.

    To improve the quality of CLCC implementation in the future, there are some issues
     to be considered:

          a. Increase teacher capacity in special subjects such as language, science and
             maths. These subjects are important as a basis for competency learning.
             Mathematics will be basis for logical and critical thinking, science as a basis in
             understanding natural phenomena or the universe and language not as a
             grammatical but as a communication media either written or oral. These skills
             will prepare students to learn another competencies in the future.11
          b. Skills in designing thematic learning /integration of some school subject  to
             prepare children to have competency in comprehensive and critical thinking.
          c. Happy Houses that been developed should be used in AJEL activities in
             Halmahera. In the beginning, Happy Houses were designed as more a
             recreational programme than a school activity, which was appropriate for those
             conditions, but now the HH activities and facilities can be used to strengthen
             AJEL implementation in the school.

11Mathematic and Language as a basis of competency building can be read in Drost, J (2005), Dari KBK sanpai MBS, Penerbit Buku Kompas, Jakarta;
Mangunwijaya, Y.B. (2004), Dinamika Edukasi Dasar, Jogyakarta. And Science as a focus, from School of Universe Concept.

       d. Teacher creativity in using and managing natural resources such as plants,
          animals, beaches, the ocean, land, community activities, case studies, etc. as
          teaching resources.
       e. Teacher creativity in translating subject learning to day-to-day life
       f. Involving local expertise (medical doctors, businesspeople, farmers,
          fisherpeople, government officers, etc.) as resource persons in special
          subjects as a shadow teacher,
       g. Involving school committees and community participation to support children‟s
          education in wider roles
       h. Strategic alliance with existed institutions in community such as churches,
          mosques, local foundations, Business Companies, cultural institutions, local
          government, etc.

    The education programme in North Maluku should be continued in the next step with
    a more strategic approach through inter-sectored programme and synchronized
    implementation of CLCC with the Government‟s new curriculum (Competency Based
    Curriculum 04). Also, there exists a need to expand the approach to the whole district
    to get a wider and more effective impact in increasing education quality and to
    enhance our experience and best practices in managing this program. It also requires
    strengthening advocacy to the district and provincial levels in order that the CLCC
    programme in North Halmahera can be a learning centre for World Vision as an
    organisation in relation to education reform in Indonesia.

   If the CLCC model is to be replicated in other WV focus areas, it needs to be adjusted
    to find the appropriate model that is in line with WV‟s policies such as ensuring the
    transformational development principles are reflected in the project management,
    gender perspective, managing local culture to ensure contextuality, developing local
    curriculum to build capacity that supports the development programme in the area,

   The Happy houses that have been developed should be integrated into the schools
    as a part of AJEL activities. There is a need to synchronize the HH curriculum to
    match with the school subjects or to become a part of local curriculum in terms of
    promoting peacebuilding due to the area‟s need in building this competency amongst
    children. To support this, some equipment that is needed in HH management should
    be included as a part of school committees‟ programmes. Based on the experience
    that some under-fives also come to the happy houses and the fact that many of the
    areas do not yet have kindergartens or playgroups, it is necessary to sound out the
    possibilities of using or expanding the happy house programme with preschool
    activities. This would increase the access for under-fives to early years education.
    Including the HH programme as a part of the school and school committee system
    would fulfill childrens‟ concern to sustain HH activities. Most of the children in schools
    with HH mention that they wish to keep the HH as a place where they can have fun,
    be creative, build their confidence, enjoy reading, playing and learning, etcetera.

   Attempts can be made to improve district or provincial level interest and commitment
    to the programme by conducting seminars and exposure trips to AJEL schools or
    AJEL exhibitions that involve concern parties such as the head of the Education
    Office, the District head, Bapeda, DPR, education institutions, NGOs, etcetera to

hear, see and discuss the CLCC experience and issues. These events should
provide opportunities to children, teachers, master trainers, and school supervisors
and school committees to present their experiences and their hopes for the future.
They will also help promote the idea that implementation of CLCC is a part of district
preparation in adopting the National Education Department regulations in
implementing the new curriculum (Competency-Based Curriculum 2004).
Implemention of the new curriculum is being done as a pilot project in some areas,
and will be launched at the national level. The Sub-District Education level has
shown their commitment and interest in CLCC implementation proactively.

Annex 1. Project map
                       North Halmahera district is one of eight
                       districts of North Maluku province. It
                       consists of 9 sub districts: Kao, Malifut,
                       Tobelo, Tobelo Selatan, Galela, Loloda
                       Utara,     Morotai     Utara,     Morotai
                       Tenggara, and Morotai Utara sub-
                       Currently, WV Indonesia has worked in
                       eight sub districts of North Halmahera
                       district.    The UNDP-funded CLCC
                       programme has been implemented in
                       Tobelo, South Tobelo and Galela.



                                           South Tobelo

Annex 2. Evaluation Plan Matrix

Narrative/               Indicators (Plan)                               Data / Information                       Operational                           Data Source                   Methods / Tools
Objectives                                                                                                        meanings
Goal / Impact:                        (look at Logframe)                  Data/info needed to testify indicator         Indicators explanation                                         Quantitative  survey
To increase civil                                                                 achievement status                                                                                   Qualitative  FGD, KII,
society’s capacity to                                                                                                                                                                             etc.
engage in activities
that will foster a
sustainable peace
Purpose:                          Community Participation level                   Data       of   community     Types of community participation:     Primary data: FGD, in-depth   1.     FGD:
To           empower                                                                participation                    Involve         in      School    interview, self assessment         a) School
community                                                                                                             Development                Plan                                          Committee
participation       in                                                                                                arrangement (RAPBS)                                                  b) Guru/Teacher
education         and                                                                                                Involve in school environment                                        c) Students
children’s education                                                                                                  improvement (school facility,
activities as a means                                                                                                 playing      ground,    books,                                  2.    In depth interview:
to strengthen the                                                                                                     mobiler, buildings, sanitation,                                        Community Key
education sector’s                                                                                                    security         &      school                                             Person
ability to nurture                                                                                                    atmosphere)
peace in post-                                                                                                       Support children’s education                                    3.    Self-assessment
conflict areas of                                                                                                    Support school physically in                                          (guru,      students,
North Halmahera                                                                                                       funds, material, labor                                                School Principal)
                                  Teacher’s capacity in implementing              Data of class management         Class management (the way
                                   non-violence learning process                    by teacher                        how to manage class                                             4.    Documentation
                                                                                                                      especially          hyperactive                                      Study
                                                                                                                      children, bad child, fighting
                                                                                                                      children, class rules

                                  Teacher as role model in peace                  Data of teacher’s role in     Teacher roles as model in
                                   building in community                            community to promote          community i.e. mediator, non-
                                                                                    peace                         violence behavior, willingness to
                                                                                                                  solve the problem in community.

                                  Trend of student’s attendance in                Data     of       students’   High attendance level in school can
                                   school                                           attendance in the past one    be one of indicators that children
                                                                                    year                          are happy joining the school

1.Enhance the            1.1. 20 School Committee are formed             1.1. List of School Committee, its       Criteria of School Committee:         Primary       data:    FGD,   1. FGD:
capacity    of     20    1.2. Number of good function School                  structure, membership and roles     Has committee structure, roles and    interview, Self-assessment        School      (principal,
school                        Committee, especially in six main target   1.2. Function of School Committee        function, has programs and                                               teacher)
committees,                   schools                                    1.3. SBM implementation.                 implemented the programs, routine     Secondary             data:
Narrative/              Indicators (Plan)                               Data / Information                     Operational                               Data Source                    Methods / Tools
Objectives                                                                                                     meanings
teachers                1.3. Number of school that implemented                                                 meetings, capacity to mobilize            documentation study (report,          School Committee
and schools to work          SBM principles                                                                    community    participation   in           module, minutes of meeting,           Community Leader
 in cooperation with                                                                                           education,  collaboration  with           etc..)                         2.      In-depth interview
the                                                                                                            school.                                                                  3.      Documentation
 community to meet                                                                                                                                                                           Study
the                                                                                                            SBM principles:
 education needs                                                                                                  openness
of their children.                                                                                                School Plan Development
                                                                                                                  School Budget Plan and fund
                                                                                                                   raising sources
                                                                                                                  Availability    of    meeting
                                                                                                                   between school and School
                                                                                                                   Working Group (Kelompok
                                                                                                                   Kerja Guru) and gives good
                                                                                                                   impact to learning process in

2. To enhance the       2.1. AJEL methodology is implemented in         2.1. AJEL implementation               Criteria of AJEL implementation:          idem                           1.     Self assessment:
quality of children’s        class                                      2.2. Data of types of children              Creativity in using learning                                                    teacher
learning           by   2.2. Types of students’ creativity                   creativity                              methodology       (in     group,                                               student
supporting        the   2.3. Trend of average of students’ evaluation   2.3. Data of students’ result since          learning outside the class)                                        2.     Observation class
development        of        result                                          AJEL implementation in past            Various in using teaching                                          3.     FGD on students,
AJEL                                                                         one year                                tools (using of Harmonis                                                  teacher
                                                                                                                     magazine, teaching tools,                                          4.     In-depth interview:
                                                                                                                     using HH, etc.)                                                           School Principal
                                                                                                                    Three       ways      approach:                                    5.     Documentation
                                                                                                                     teacher-student,        student-                                          Study
                                                                                                                     teacher, and student-student,
                                                                                                                    Opportunity      of       child’s
                                                                                                                    Reading corner
                                                                                                                    Display of students’ works
                                                                                                                    Various       of      evaluation
                                                                                                                     methods used by teacher
                                                                                                                    Types of students’ work
3.            Create    3.1. Percentage of children who joining HH      3.1. Data of children who join in HH   About HH implementation:                  Idem                                 CSW              Self
opportunities     for        daily                                      3.2. Data of HH implementation              Types of creative activity                                                assessment
children affected by    3.2. Number of good functioning HH              3.3. Parents roles and schools               created by CSW                                                             (CSW capacity in
conflict to support          (modules, schedule, facility, CSW               (types of moment involvement)          Schedules                           idem                                   maintaining HH)
psychosocial health,         capacity)                                                                              HH facility (games material,                                             FGD:
experience restored     3.3. Parents involvement in HH activity                                                                                                                                 1.           CSW
Narrative/              Indicators (Plan)                          Data / Information                          Operational                        Data Source   Methods / Tools
Objectives                                                                                                     meanings
self esteem and                                                                                                    etc.)                                               2.             Childr
develop     essential                                                                                             Frequency of HH duration per                           en
skills on how to be a                                                                                              activity                                      (HH usage, its support to
peaceful individual                                                                                               CSW capacity to conduct HH                   comfortable environment
                                                                                                                                                                and friendly for children, its
                                                                                                                                                                     Documentation
4. Capacity building    4.1. Number of staff who received needed   4.1. Number and types of training                                              idem          5. Self         assessment
for staff to improve         training                                    received by staff                                                                            (capacity)
their         working   4.2. Kinds of training                     4.2. Feedback from supervisor for                                                            6. FGD          (programme
performance             4.3. Capacity in facilitating AJEL, SBM,         self development                                                                             effectiveness)
                             Community Participation, and HH.      4.4. Plan       for     implementation                                                       7. Documentation
                                                                         program,          documentation,                                                             Study
                                                                         monitoring             programme
                                                                   4.5. Coordination Meeting (internal)
                                                                   4.6. Stakeholder          identification&
                                                                         frequency        of        meeting
                                                                   4.7. Types of agreement with
                                                                   4.8. Monitoring tools and types has
                                                                         been used in AJEL intervention,
                                                                         SBM, Community Participation,
                                                                         and HH
                                                                   4.9. Visit schedules to schools and
                                                                   4.10. Training modules for CSW

Project Activities                                                                             Activity Achievements                                Input (Sources: Budget, People, etc.)

Output 1
                                                                               (data from project office, Internal-Report, Finance department, or      (from Internal-Report / Finance department)
Activity:                                                                                               monitoring result)
1.1.1.      Select target schools out of previous peace building programme
            school target
1.1.2.      Assist the School Committee arrangement process in six
            schools based on Education Department guidelines
1.1.3.      Train School Committee on AJEL methodology, SBM, and
            Community Participation in Education
1.1.4.      Provide support to School Committee in programme
            arrangement and management.
Output 2
2.1.1.    Provide refreshing workshop to 50 Master Trainer based on
          identified problems in AJEL and SBM implementation, and to
          develop practical skill alternatives in non-violence class
2.1.2.    Support 21 Teacher Working Group as learning forum due to
          AJEL implementation.

Output 3
3.1.1.    Provide training to 32 CSW on psychosocial health principles,
          facilitate creative children’s activity, and approach to children
3.1.2.    Provide creative programme activity for children in 10 HH.

Output 4
4.1.1.    Train WVI staff on ‘peace building’ skill including: LCP, mediator
          skill, mobilize community and monitoring & evaluation.

Annex 3. FGD and In-depth interview guide line
Peserta     : Guru
Waktu : 90 menit
Durasi     Materi                                                             Topik / Keterangan
15 menit     Pembukaan:
             Selamat dating, ucapan terimakasih telah diberi
            Penjelasan tujuan diskusi
            Perkenalan
            Penjelasan topik-topik/pokok diskusi
60 menit   1. Apakah yang dimaksud dengan PAKEM? Apa criteria                 Pengetahuan tentang
              atau cirri-ciri dari PAKEM?                                     PAKEM
           2. Apa bedanya PAKEM dengan metode lain yang
              Bapak/Ibu ketahui?
           3. Faktor-faktor apa yang menarik dalam PAKEM?

           4. Berapa kali mengikuti pelatihan PAKEM? Apa manfaat              Ketrampilan
               pelatihan tersebut bagi Bapak dan Ibu?
           5. Apakah pelatihan tersebut sudah cukup membekali
               Bapak/Ibu dalam menerapkan PAKEM di kelas?
           6. Apakah telah membagikan pengetahuan dan
               ketrampilan PAKEM pada guru lain, bagimana
           7. Hal-hal apa saja yang perlu dipersiapkan untuk
               menerapkan PAKEM?
           8. Apakah ada kesulitan dalam mempersiapkan bahan-
               bahan PAKEM?
           9. Apakah ada kesulitan dalam melakukan PAKEM di
               kelas? Bagian mana yang paling sulit diterapkan?
               Bagaimana cara mengatasi kesulitan tersebut?
           10. Apakah Bapak/Ibu terlibat dalam Kelompok Kerja
               Guru, apa yang dilakukan dalam KKG dan apa

           11. Apa manfaat dari PAKEM bagi Bapak/Ibu? Manfaat Sikap dan perilaku guru
               bagi siswa?
           12. Bagaimaa perubahan yang Bapak/Ibu rasakan dalam
               mengajar dengan metode PAKEM ini?
           13. Bagaimana perubahan yang terjadi pada anak?
           14. Apakah PAKEM bisa menciptakan suasana kelas yang
               lebih nyaman dan damai? Bagaimana hal itu bisa
           15. Apakah Bapak/Ibu sering berkoordinasi dengan dengan pelatih    Efektifitas & keberlanjutan
               atau guru lainnya? Bagaimana dan berapa sering? Hal apa saja   strategi pelatihan PAKEM
               yang dibicarakan dalam koordinasi tersebut? Koordinasi yang
               dilakukan atas inisiatif siapa?
           16. Apa yang Bapak/Ibu lakukan agar metode PAKEM dapat terus
               berlangsung dan bermanfaat bagi anak?

15 menit   Penutup:
           - Kesimpulan
           - Ucapan terimakasih

Peserta     : Siswa (6-12 anak)
Waktu : 60 menit
Durasi     Materi                                                    Topik / Keterangan
10 menit   Pembukaan:
           Selamat datang, ucapan terimakasih telah diberi
           Penjelasan tujuan diskusi
           Penjelasan topik-topik/pokok diskusi
45 menit   1. Pada saat belajar di kelas, kegiatan apa saja yang     Pengetahuan tentang
               dilakukan murid?                                      PAKEM
           2. Bagaimana murid menjalankan tugas di sekolah sehari-
           3. Kegiatan apa saja yang kalian sukai? Mengapa?
           4. Setelah membuat PR apa yang dilakukan gurumu
               dengan PR tersebut?
           5. Apa saja perbedaan yang kamu lihat/alami di kelasmu
               dulu dan sekarang?
           6. Apakah kamu suka dengan Classroom kits? (Classroom
               kits=perlengkapan mengajar dalam kotak kayu, yang
               diberikan WVI)
           7. Apakah di sekolahmu ada tambahan tempat belajar
               untuk murid? Apa saja tambahan itu?
           8. Apa yang dimaksud dengan damai? Apa yang kamu
               lakukan untuk mendapatkan keadaan yang damai?
           9. Kegiatan apa yang paling menarik di kelas?             Ketrampilan guru
           10. Jika kamu menanyakan pelajaran sulit di kelas, apa
               yang dilakukan gurumu?
           11. Kalau ada murid yang ribut atau berkelahi apa yang
               dilakukan gurumu? Bagaimana caranya?
           12. Bagaimana perbedaan cara gurumu mengajar yang
               dulu dengan yang sekarang? Alat-alat mengajar apa
               saja yang digunakan gurumu?
           13. Apakah kamu lebih suka suasana kelas seperti          Sikap dan perilaku guru di
               sekarang ini? Hal-hal apa saja yang kamu sukai di     kelas
               kelas kamu?
           14. Apa yang dilakukan gurumu sewaktu kamu melakukan
               kesalahan?      Bagaimana     perasaanmu   terhadap
               perlakukan gurumu tersebut?
           15. Apa yang gurumu lakukan bila anak-anak ribut atau
           16. Apakah gurumu pernah marah di kelas? Apa saja yang
               dikatakan gurumu sewaktu marah di kelas?
           17. Sikap    guru seperti apa yang kamu sukai ketika      Harapan terhadap guru
               mengajar di kelas?
           18. Apa yang kamu inginkan dari teman-temanmu ketika
               belajar di sekolah?
           19. Supaya keadaan kelasmu menyenangkan, apa yang
               akan kamu lakukan?
5 menit    Penutup:
           - Kesimpulan
           - Ucapan terimakasih

Peserta     : Komite Sekolah/Orang Tua Murid (6-12 anak)
Waktu : 90 menit

Durasi     Materi                                                               Topik / Keterangan
15 menit   Pembukaan:
           Selamat datang, ucapan terimakasih telah diberi kesempatan
           Penjelasan tujuan diskusi
           Penjelasan topik-topik/pokok diskusi
70 menit   1. Apakah Bapak/Ibu pernah mendengar bahwa di sekolah sekarang       Pemahaman     tentang
               ini ada cara-cara yang berbeda yang diterapkan oleh guru dalam   PAKEM & dampaknya
               mengajar anak-anak? Bagaimana perbedaan tersebut?                terhadap anak
               Bagaimana pendapat Bapak dan Ibu tentang perbedaan cara
           2. Apakah anak Bapak dan Ibu pernah menceritakan bahwa kegiatan
               di sekolah sekarang ini menyenangkan?
           3. Bagaimana pengamatan Bapak/Ibu sendiri apakah sekarang anak-
               anak lebih senang pergi ke sekolah dan menjalankan tugas-tugas
               sekolah? Mengapa?
           4. Apakah anak Bapak/Ibu juga pernah menceritakan bahwa dirinya
               berbuat salah di sekolah dan diperingatkan/ditegur oleh guru?
               Bagaimana perlakuan guru terhadap anak yang salah? Bagaimana
               pendapat Bapak dan Ibu tentang perlakuan tersebut?
           5. pakah anak Ibu/Bapak pernah mendengar PAKEM? Bagaimana            Efektifitas   Sosialisasi
               Bapak/Ibu mengetahui PAKEM?                                      tentang PAKEM
           6. Seperti apa pelaksanaan PAKEM di sekolah?
           7. Apakah PAKEM baik diterapkan di sekolah? Mengapa?
           8. Bagaimana peranserta orang tua murid untuk mendukung kegiatan
               PAKEM di sekolah?

           9.  Apakah Bapak/Ibu pernah diundang sekolah untuk membicarakan      Peran Serta Masyarakat
               masalah pendidikan anak? Apa yang dibicarakan orang tua          dalam pendidikan
               sewaktu diundang ke sekolah?
           10. Perlukan orangtua datang ke sekolah? Apa alasan orangtua
               datang ke sekolah?
           11. Apakah Bapak/Ibu melihat bahwa saat ini sekolah-sekolah lebih
               terbuka dalam pengelolaan sekolah, pengelolaan dana, dsb.?
               Mengapa demikian?
           12. Apa saja dukungan orang tua kepada sekolah?
           13. Bagaimana peran Komite Sekolah? Apakah peran tersebut telah      Komite Sekolah
               berjalan dengan baik?
           14. Siapa yang membentuk Komite Sekolah? Bagaimana
           15. Apakah saja programme kerja Komite Sekolah? Apa sudah
           16. Bagaimana keuangan Komite Sekolah?
           17. Bagaimana kerjasama antara Komite Sekolah dengan Sekolah?
               Dalam hal apa saja bekerjasama?
           18. Apa harapan Komite Sekolah terhadap sekolah?
           19. Apakah di sini ada Rumah Gembira? Milik siapakah Rumah           Rumah Gembira
               gembira tersebut?
           20. Apa saja kegiatan Rumah gembira dan apa manfaatnya?
           21. Bagaimana kemampuan & kemauan Pendamping anak dalam
               mengelola Rumah Gembira?
           22. Bagaimana kelanjutan Rumah Gembira nantinya?
           23. Apakah Rumah Gembira perlu dipertahankan? Siapa yang
               bertanggungjawab? Menapa demikian?
10 menit   Penutup:

Durasi     Materi                                                                     Topik / Keterangan
           - Ucapan terimakasih & pamitan

Peserta     : Staf Proyek
Waktu : 90 menit
 Durasi                                    Materi                                      Topik / Keterangan
10 menit   Pembukaan:
           - ucapan terimakasih telah diberi kesempatan
           - Penjelasan tujuan diskusi
           - Perkenalan
           - Penjelasan topik-topik/pokok diskusi
70 menit   20. Apa garis besar kegiatan dan tujuan Proyek Peningkatan                 Rasionalisasi Proyek       &
               Kapasitas Guru dalam Pendidikan Perdamaian?                            manajemen proyek
           21. Apa latar belakang dilakukan proyek ini?
           22. Apa saja strategi yang dilakukan untuk mengimplementasikan /
               mencapai tujuan program ini?
           23. Persiiapan/Pelatihan-pelatihan/ peningkatan kapasitas yang
               pernah dterima staf untuk melakukan proyek ini?
           24. Bagaimana staff melakukan koorinasi dengan team pendidikan?
           25. Bagaimana staff melakukan koordinasi dengan team lain yang
               berkaitan dengan pendidikan ini (misalnya Harmonis, Happy
           26. Apa saja yang dilakukan staff dalam mempersiapkan jadual
               pekerjaan baik di kantor maupun di lapangan?
           27. Dukungan yang diterimana dari organisasai – di tingkat proyek,
               dukungan NO
           28. Bagaimana pandangan staf tentang PAKEM, MBS, Peran serta               Pemahaman staf tentang
               masyarakat dalam pendidikan dan Happy House?                           PAKEM, MBS, Partisipasi
           29. Bagaimana pendekatan-pendekatan tersebut dapat mendukung               Masyarakat           dalam
               terciptanya ‘peace education’ (yg menjadi tujuan dari proyek ini)?     pendidikan dan Happy
                                                                                      House (focus proyek)
           30. Bagaimana sosialisasi dan peningkatan kapasitas guru dalam             Pelatihan, pendampingan,
               PAKEM, MBS, Peran serta masyarakat?                                    monitoring
           31. Pelatihan-pelatihan apa saja yang telah dilakukan?
           32. Bagaimana       memfasilitasi/mengorganisir      pelatihan-pelatihan
           33. Bagaimana efektifitas dari pelatihan-pelatihan tersebut?
           34. Dukungan apa saja yang diberikan proyek kepada semua stake
               holder dalam penerapan PAKEM, MBS? Bagaiimana dukungan-
               dukungan tersebut diberikan?
           35. Bagaimana pendampingan ke sekolah, hapy house dilakukan?
           36. Bagaimana monitoring dan evaluasi dilakukan? Alat-alat
               monitoring apa saja yang digunakan?
           37. Bagaimana koordinasi dilakukan di tingkat proinsi, kabuaten,           Koordinasi/ aliansi strategis
           38. Bagaimana kerjasama dengan NGO lain, badan PBB yang ada?
           39. Bagaimana tingkat pencapaian program ini?                              Efektifitas, dampak      dan
           40. Dampak bagi lembaga sekolah, anak, penciptaan perdamaian dan           keberlanjutan
               bagi organisasi?
           41. Hambatan-hambatan dan cara mengatasinya? Strategi yang perlu
           42. Kesinambungan penerapan PAKEM, MBS, Peran Serta
               Masyarakat, Happy House?
           43. Saran-saran untuk ke depan? Harapan staf ke depan?
10 menit   Penutup:
           - Kesimpulan & ucapan terimakasih

Informan: Dinas Pendidikan Kabupaten, Kecamatan
Topik: Tentang Pelaksanaan PAKEM, MBS, Peran Serta Masyarakat
Waktu : 60 menit
     Durasi                               Materi                                   Topik / Keterangan
5 menit       Pembukaan:
              - ucapan terimakasih telah diberi kesempatan
              - Penjelasan tujuan diskusi
              - Perkenalan
              - Penjelasan topik-topik wawancara
50 menit      o Bagaimana penerapan PAKEM 12di sekoah?                           Pemahaman           tentang
              o Apa saja kompotensi yang seharusnya dimilki oleh seorang guru    Pakem
                 dalam menerapkan PAKEM di kelas
              o Bagaimana interaksi dalam proses KBM di kelas?
              o Apakah alat Bantu bisa menunjang proses KBM di kelas?
              o Bagaimana seorang guru bisa memanfaatkan alat Bantu dalam
                 proses KBM?
       o          Faktor-faktor positif/negatif apa saja yang terdapat dalam     Pandangan       terhadap
                 penerapan PAKEM di dalam proses belajar-mengajar (KBM)          PAKEM
              o Bagaimana keterkaitan PAKEM dengan proses pembentukan
                 pribadi anak (proses pendidikan anak)
              o Bagaimana keterkaitan PAKEM bisa menyumbang/memberikan
                 pengaruh bagi kehidupan masyarakat di halmahera
              o Faktor-faktor apa saja yang bisa menjadi pendukung atau
                 penghambat keberlangsungan PAKEM di sekolah
              o Bagaimana Dinas Pendidikan memberikan dukungan bagi              Dukungan        terhadap
                 keberlangsungan PAKEM di sekolah?                               PAKEM
              o Dalam bentuk apa saja dukungan yang diberikan Dinas Pendidikan
                 dalam pelaksanaan PAKEM?
              o Bagaimana Dinas mengkoordinasikan penerapan PAKEM di             Sosialisasi PAKEM
                 sekolah-sekolah di wilayah pengawasannya
              o Apa saja yang sudah direncanakan/dilakukan Dinas Pendidikan      Membangun       kapasitas
                 bagi pengembangan kapasitas guru dalam menerapkan PAKEM di      Guru
                 dalam proses KBM?
              o Berapa kali dalam setahun Dinas Pendidikan memfasilitasi
                 pengembangan kapsitas guru? Bentuk apa saja yang diberikan?
              o Apakah system pelatihan yang selama ini dilakukan (Pelatih       Efektifitas
                 Utama-Guru kelas 4-6– guru-guru) efektif?
              o Apakah KKG efektif?
              o Bagaimana Dinas melakukan monitoring & evaluasi terhadap
                 pelaksanaan PAKEM? Bagaimana mengukur keberhasilan
                 PAKEM? Alat ukur apa saja yang digunakan?
              o Selama 6 bulan terakhir ini khsusunya apakah pelaksanaan
                 PAKEM cukup efektif dengan kurikulum yang sudah disediakan
                 oleh pemerintah?
              o Rencana Dinas ke depan tentang pelaksanaan PAKEM, MBS,           Keberlanjutan
                 Peran Serta Masyarakat?
              o Apakah ada dana yang dialokasikan secara khusus untuk program
              o Bagaimana Dinas melakukan advokasi kepada eksekutif &
                 legislative (Komisi E: Kesra) tentang PAKEM, MBS, Peran serta
                 masyarakat & Rumah Gembira?
5 menit       Penutup:
              - Kesimpulan
              - Ucapan terimakasih

   Rumah Gembira & majalah harmonis  menjadi salah satu komponen penerapan PAKEM dalam
proyek ini.

Annex 4. Self-assessment form
(Menciptakan Masyarakat Peduli Pendidikan Anak)

Nama:       _______________________
Guru Kelas: _______________________

Nama Sekolah:                      Klaster:      Kecamatan:              Tanggal:

Formulir ini akan digunakan oleh Guru untuk melakukan penilaian terhadap diri sendiri tentang
penerapan Program Peningkatan Pendidikan Dasar melalui Manajemen Berbasis Sekolah dan Peran
Serta Masyarakat di sekolahnya.

Petunjuk pengisian:
Tuliskanlah jawaban anda dengan melingkari nomor di depan jawaban atau mengisi titik-titik pada kolom
jawaban yang tersedia sesuai dengan kondisi yang terjadi di sekolah anda. Ada beberapa pertanyaan
yang dapat diisi lebih dari 1 jawaban, perhatikan keterangan yang tertera dalam tiap pertanyaan tersebut.
Kolom „kode‟ harap jangan diisi karena yang akan mengisi adalah petugas evaluasi. Terimakasih atas
partisipasi anda.

KOMPONEN PENILAIAN                      RESPON                                     KODE
                                                                                   (diisi petugas)
Bagian 1: PAKEM (Pembelajaran Aktif, Kreatif, Efektif dan Menyenangkan
Apakah        pernah      mendapatkan Ya
pelatihan        tentang      PAKEM, Tidak
Manajemen Berbasis Sekolah dan
Peran Serta Masyarakat dalam
Kalau ya, berapa hari pelatihan Jawab:
tersebut dilakukan?
Siapa yang menjadi fasilitator dalam Pelatih Nasional
pelatihan tersebut?                   Pelatih Master (Master Trainer)
                                      Guru yang telah dilatih (guru kelas 4-6)
                                      Lainnya, sebutkan:……..
Sejauh mana pelatihan yang diterima Tidak mendukung
telah    mendukung       guru   dalam Hanya memperkenalkan konsep PAKEM
menerapkan PAKEM?                     saja
                                      Telah memberikan sedikit ketrampilan
                                      tentang PAKEM
                                      Cukup memberikan ketrampilan tentang
                                      Memberikan ketrampilan tingkat mahir
                                      tentang PAKEM
Pernahkah membagikan pengetahuan Ya
& ketrampilan PAKEM, MBS dan Tidak
Peranserta Masyarakat kepada guru-
guru lain yg. belum pernah pelatihan?
KOMPONEN PENILAIAN                      RESPON                                     KODE
                                                                                   (diisi petugas)
Apakah      pernah       membagikan     Ya

  Formulir ini diadaptasi dari “School Self-Evaluation Data Form” , Creating Learning Communities for
Children Monitoring and Evaluation System Manual,Unicef, Jakarta, September 2004.

pengetahuan dan ketrampilan tentang      Tidak
PAKEM,    MBS      dan   Peranserta      Alasan   membagikan   atau   tidak
Masyarakat kepada orang tua murid        membagikan, sebutkan:
atau masyarakat sekitar?                 ________________________________

Apakah anda telah merancang dan          Ya
mengelola Kegiatan Belajar Mengajar      Tidak
yang mendorong siswa berperan aktif      Kalau      ya,              sebutkan
dalam     pembelajaran      dengan       contohnya:………..
menggunakan       metoda      yang
Apakah anda telah menggunakan alat       Ya
bantu dan sumber belajar yang            Tidak
beragam?                                 Kalau ya, sebutkan contohnya:………..

Apakah anda menggunakan bahan            Ya
pembelajaran yang tersedia di alam?      Tidak
                                         Kalau ya, sebutkan contohnya:

Apakah anda menggunakan alat             Ya
bantu belajar yang dibuat sendiri?       Tidak
                                         Kalau ya, sebutkan contohnya:

Pernahkah anda mengundang nara           Ya
sumber setempat seperti petugas          Tidak
kesehatan, PPL pertanian, tokoh          Kalau pernah, siapa dan dalam
masyarakat dan lainnya untuk menjadi     hal apa?
nara sumber dalam KBM?

Pernahkah anda menghubungkan             Ya
kejadian     sehari-hari/   peristiwa-   Tidak
peristiwa penting yang terjadi dalam     Kalau ya sebutkan contohnya:
masyarakat dalam kegiatan belajar
mengajar di kelas?
Bagaimana cara anda           untuk      Jelaskan:
membangkitkan kreatifitas dan jiwa
eksplorasi siswa dalam kegiatan
belajar mengajar?
Apa saja yang dilakukan untuk            Jelaskan:
memberikan kesempatan kepada
siswa agar dapat mengungkapkan
gagasannya sendiri secara lisan
ataupun tulisan?
Berapa persentase anak yang sering       < 25%
mengungkapkan pendapatnya seperti        25-50 %
menjawab      pertanyaan, bertanya,      51-75%
mengemukakan ide, dll.                   > 75%
                                         Tidak tahu
KOMPONEN PENILAIAN                       RESPON                                 KODE
                                                                                (diisi petugas)
Sebutkan     contoh-contoh     bentuk    Jawab:
kreatifitas siswa dalam       kegiatan
belajar mengajar!

Apakah     hasil      karya     siswa    Ya
dipajangkan?                             Tidak

                                        Kalau ya, sebutkan contohnya:
Apa manfaat memajangkan hasil           Jelaskan:
karya siswa atau sumber belajar yang
Apakah siswa mempelajari Ya
pajangan     seperti    hasil Tidak
                              Tidak tahu
percobaan, hasil pengamatan
dan yang lainnya di luar jam
Bagaimana     anda   mengatur   ruang   Jelaskan     bentuk      ruangan       dan
kelas?                                  alasannya:

Apakah tersedia sudut baca di kelas     Ya
anda?                                   Tidak, mengapa?

Berpa jumlah koleksi buku yang ada?     Jawab:

Apakah   jumlah       dan    jenisnya   Ya
memadai?                                Tidak, mengapa?

Dari   mana     buku-buku    tersebut   Sebutkan:
Bila ada sudut baca, berapa < 25%
prosentase anak yang sering 25-50%
membaca buku?               > 75%
                                        Tidak tahu
Apakah di sekolah terdapat              Ya
perpustakaan?                           Tidak
Apakah anda menggunakan Ya
Majalah Harmonis dalam KBM? Tidak

Apakah anda terlibat dalam Ya
membina/mengawasi    Rumah Tidak
Gembira (Happy House)?     Mengapa?

Apakah anda menggunakan Ya
Rumah Gembira sebagai salah Tidak
satu media pembelajaran aktif? Mengapa?
Apakah    Rumah             Gembira Ya                 3. Tidak
bermanfaat?                             Kurang         4. Tidak Tahu

KOMPONEN PENILAIAN                      RESPON                                       KODE
                                                                                     (diisi petugas)
Apakah Rumah Gembira akan Ya                3. Tidak tahu
berlanjut bila WVI sudah tidak Tidak
                               Kalau ya, siapa yang akan melanjutkan?
mendukung lagi?
Bagaimana guru mengevaluasi hasil       Test tertulis
belajar siswa?                          Tanya jawab di kelas secara langsung
                                        Melalui praktek

(jawaban bisa lebih dari 1)             Penugasan khusus, misalnya memecahkan
                                        masalah dengan mencari sumber-sumber
                                        Tugas kelompok
                                        Lainnya, sebutkan……….
Apakah guru memberikan umpan balik      Ya
kepada      siswa  tentang   hasil      Tidak
belajarnya?                             Kalau ya bagaimana caranya:……….

Apa yang anda lakukan bila ada siswa    Jawaban:
yang mengalami masalah „lambat
belajar‟ dibanding teman lainnya?
Apa yang dilakukan oleh guru bila ada   Jawaban:
anak yang „cepat belajar‟ dibanding
teman lain?
Apa yang dilakukan guru bila ada        Jawaban:
anak yang berkelahi?

Apa saja dampak penerapan PAKEM,        Jawaban:
bagi siswa?

Apa saja dampak penerapan PAKEM         Jawaban:
bagi guru?

Bagian 2. Manajemen Berbasis Sekolah
Apakah sekolah membuat rencana Ya                  3. Tidak tahu
pengembangan sekolah?              Tidak
                                   Kalau ya apa rencananya:………

Siapa saja yang terlibat dalam          Kepala sekolah
pembuatan              Rencanaan        Guru
                                        Komite Sekolah
Pengembangan            Sekolah?        Lainnya, sebutkan……
(jawaban bisa lebih dari 1)
Apakah      Sekolah     membuat         Ya
RAPBS (Rencana Anggaran                 Tidak
                                        Tidak tahu
Pendapatan         dan    Belanja
Siapa saja yang terlibat dalam          Kepala sekolah
pembuatan RAPBS? (jawaban               Guru
                                        Komite Sekolah
bisa lebih dari 1)                      Lainnya, sebutkan……
Dari mana saja sumber dana              Pemerintah pusat
RAPBS diperoleh? (Jawaban               Pemerintah Daerah
                                        BP3/ Komite Sekolah
bisa lebih dari 1)                      Masyarakat
                                        Donatur lain, sebutkan:…
Apakah sekolah telah memajangkan        Ya
RAPBS di depan umum (yang dapat         Tidak
dibaca oleh semua pihak)?               Tidak tahu
Apa tujuan dari pemajangan RAPBS        Jelaskan:
di depan umum?
Apakah anda terlibat dalam KKG          Ya
(Kelompok Kerja Guru?)                  Tidak
                                        Kalau ya, di KKG mana:…………….

Bagaimana     frekuensi   pertemuan     1 minggu sekali
dalam KKG?                              2 minggu sekali
                                        3 minggu sekali

                                        1 bulan sekali
                                        Lebih dari 2-3 bulan sekali
Apa saja yang dilakukan dalam KKG?      Jelaskan:

Siapa yang memimpin pertemuan           Jawab:
Apakah ada jadual dan agenda            Ya
pertemuan KKG?                          Tidak
                                        Tidak tahu
Bagian     3.           Peranserta
Apakah di sekolah telah terbentuk       Ya
Komite Sekolah (Komsek)?                Tidak
                                        Tidak tahu
Siapa saja yang membentuk Komite        Jelaskan:
Apakah ada struktur kepengurusan        Ya
yang jelas dari Komsek?                 Tidak
                                        Kalau ya bagaimana                       struktur
Apa    saja   fungsi/peran    Komite    Jawab:

Apakah    Komite   Sekolah Ya, berapa kali dalam setahun? …….
melakukan pertemuan secara Tidak pernah
                           Tidak tahu

Apakah      Komite      Sekolah Ya, kalau ya sebutkan:
memiliki program kerja?
                                        Tidak tahu
Gambarkan jenis dan tingkat
                                          Jenis        Tidak   sedikit   cukup   banyak
peran serta masyarakat untuk                           ada
sekolah, dengan memberi tanda             Hadir dlm
silang (X)!                               Uang

KOMPONEN PENILAIAN                      RESPON                                              KODE
                                                                                            (diisi petugas)
Bagaimana        bentuk     dukungan    Jawab:
masyarakat      untuk     menciptakan
lingkungan sekolah yang aman,
nyaman, bersih dan menyenangkan
bagi anak-anak?
Bagaimana bentuk dukungan orang         Terlibat memikirkan ttg.aktifitas sekolah
tua murid terhadap sekolah anaknya?     dan perkembangan anak.
(jawaban bisa lebih dari 1)             Mendampingi anak belajar di rumah
                                        Membantu sekolah dengan menjadi nara
                                        sumber belajar
                                        Membantu mengorganisir anak waktu
                                        pembelajaran di luar sekolah
                                        Membantu guru dalam membuat alat

                                       bantu belajar
                                       Lainnya, sebutkan:………..
                                       Tidak ada
                                       Tidak tahu
Bagian 4. Monitoring dan Dukungan Teknis
Berapa sering pemantauan dilakukan
dlm. 6 bulan terakhir oleh
Dinas Pendidikan Kabupaten
Dinas Pendidikan Kecamatan             ………kali
Pengawas Sekolah                       ………kali
Master Trainer                         ………kali
Staf WVI                               ………kali
Apa saja yang dilakukan dalam          Jelaskan:
supervisi     dalam      mendukung
penerapan PAKEM?
Apakah    pernah    mengikuti studi    Ya, di mana:………………………
banding ke sekolah yang telah          Tidak
menerapkan PAKEM?

Bagaimana cara mendapatkan alat        Dari Dinas
bantu belajar yang beragam dan buku-   Usaha sekolah sendiri
buku sumber bagi guru          untuk   Sumbangan Komite Sekolah
mendukung penerapan PAKEM?             Sumbangan orang tua murid
(jawaban bisa lebih dari 1)            Sumbangan                   Yayasan,
                                       Sumbangan     dari    lembaga   lain,

Hambatan-hambatan apa saja yang        Jawab:
dialami dalam menerapkan PAKEM?

Tuliskan saran-saran anda untuk        PAKEM:
meningkatkan penerapan PAKEM,
MBS dan Peranserta Masyarakat!         MBS:

                                       Peran Serta Masyarakat:


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