Contoh Management Proyek Systems Development Life Cycle by jbt11401

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									Systems Development Life Cycle

       The business’s
        information &
       The architecture &
    structure of new systems

     Actual construction,
     testing, installation

Development Activities
In Information System Terms, each set of activities is
   a phase. & a development project has 3 phases :
          Analysis, design, implementation

 On The information Systems Development, adds 2
  more phases : Planning , Operation & Support
Operation &

     Systems Planning

Project Identification and Selection

  Project Initiation and Planning
     Project Identification and Selection
1.   Projects are identified by
         •   Top management
         •   Steering committee
         •   User departments
         •   Development group or senior IS staff

     –   Top-Down Identification
         •   Senior management or steering committee
         •   Focus is on global needs of organization
     –   Bottom-up Identification
         •   Business unit or IS group
         •   Don’t reflect overall goals of the organization
                                    The project Identification (1)

2.    Classify and rank development projects
      Performed by top management, steering
        committee, business units of IS development
      Value chain analysis is often used
        •   Method to analyze an organization’s activities to
            determine where value is added and costs are
                                     The project Identification (2)

3.    Select development projects
     – Factors:
       •   Perceived (dapat diterima) needs of the organization
       •   Existing systems and ongoing projects
       •   Resources available
       •   Evaluation criteria
       •   Current business conditions
       •   Perspectives of the decision makers
Selecting IS Development Projects
      Project Initiation and Planning

 Traditional Project             Planning-Based Approach
  Identification and               to Project Identification
  Selection                        and Selection
   – Solves isolated problems       – Focuses on present and
                                      future information needs
   – Focuses on business
     processes                      – Information needs change
                                      slower than business
   – Does not easily allow for
     organizational change
                                   The Initiation (1)

 When a project is initiated, it is assumed
  that a new system is feasible to develop &
 Project Feasibility :
  –   Economic Feasibility
  –   Organizational Feasibility
  –   Technology Feasibility
  –   Schedule Feasibility
  –   Resource Feasibility
                                        The Initiation (1)
 Economic Feasibility
  – The anticipated value of the benefits greater
    than projet costs of development
  – Does the organization have adequate(cukup)
    cashflow to fund the project during the
    development periode?
  – Developing a cost/benefit analysis :
      • The anticipated development & operational cost
      • Estimate the anticipated financial benefits
      • Calculated based on detailed estimate of costs &
                                    Development Cost

 Development Cost
  – Salaries & Wages
  – Equipment & Installation
  – Software & Licenses
  – Consulting Fees & Payments to third Parties
  – Training
  – Facilities
  – Utilities & Tools
  – Support staff
  – Travel & miscellaneous
                          Sources of Ongoing of Operations

 Sources of Ongoing of Operations – the
  major category costs that may be allocated
  to the operation of the new system :
  –   Connectivity
  –   Equipment (peralatan) maintance
  –   Computer operations
  –   Programming support
  –   Amortization (kelengkapan scr berkala) of equipment
  –   Training & ongoing assistance (Help Desk)
  –   Supplies
            Information Systems Planning (ISP) (1)
 An orderly means of assessing the information
    needs of an organization and defining the
  systems, databases and technologies that will
             best satisfy those needs

Three key activities:
   • Describe the Current Situation
   • Describe the Target (or Future) Situation
   • Develop a Transition Plan and Strategy
              Information Systems Planning (ISP) (2)

1. Describing the Current Situation
  – Top-down Planning
     • Generic methodology that attempts to gain a broad
       understanding of the information system needs of the
       entire organization
  – Bottom-up Planning
     • Generic methodology that identifies and defines IS
       development projects based upon solving operational
       business problems or taking advantage of some
       business opportunities
           Information Systems Planning (ISP) (3)
– Planning team is chartered to model existing
– Identification of Organizational:
   • Locations
   • Units
   • Functions
   • Processes
   • Data
   • Information Systems
            Information Systems Planning (ISP) (4)
– Matrices are developed to cross-reference
  units :
  •   Location-to-Function
  •   Location-to-Unit
  •   Unit-to-Function
  •   Function-to-Objective
  •   Function-to-Process
  •   Function-to-Data Entity
  •   Process-to-Data Entity
  •   Process-to-Information System
  •   Data Entity-to-Information System
  •   Information System-to-Objective
                 Information Systems Planning (ISP) (5)

2.    Describing the Target Situation
     –   Update list of organizational locations, functions, etc.
         to reflect desired locations, functions, etc.
     –   Matrices are updated to reflect future states
     –   Planners focus on differences between current lists and
         matrices and future lists and matrices

3.    Developing a Transition Strategy and Plans
     –   Broad(high level management), comprehensive
         document that looks at both short and long-term
         organizational development needs
     –   Consists of a series of projects
The Initiation
             Preliminary Investigation Objectives

         Understand The Problem
 Define The Project Scope & Constraints
    (Present vs Future, Internal vs Eksternal)
           Identify the Benefits
        Estimate the Time & Cost
          Report to Management
                          Preliminary Investigation Steps (1)

 Obtain (memperoleh) Authorization to Proceed –
  could be a memo or an email message to all
  affected departements.

 Identify the Necessary Information, what
  information do you need to :
   – Understand the problem, define the project scope &
     constrains, identify the benefits, estimate the time &
     costs, report to management
                         Preliminary Investigation Steps (2)

 Perform Fact-Finding to Gather the Required
  Information :
   – Analize Organization Charts, conducting interviews(ask
     effective question & listen carefully),
   – reviewing current system documentation (accurate &
     complete information),
   – observing current operations (trace or follow the actual
     paths taken by input source documents or output of the
   – conduct a brief survey of people who use the system
     (you should consider a brief survey that people can
     complete quiickly & return to you)
                         Preliminary Investigation Steps (3)

 Analyze the Information
  – the data that you get from step 2, now you must analyze
    the information, identify alternatives with costs &
    benefits & recommend a course of action

Ex. Business benefits :
   – Reduce errors caused by manual processing of orders
   – Maintain or reduce staffing levels in mail-order &
     phone-order processing
   – Open a new sales channel through the internet
   – Increace turnover by tracking sales of popular items &
     slow movers
                 Case Study - customer support system

 The customer support System shall meet the
  following objectives:
   – Be a high-support system with on-line customer, order,
     back order, & returns information
   – Support traditional telephone & mail catalog sales with
     rapid-entry screens
   – Include internet customer & catalog sale capability,
     including purchase & order tracking
   – Maintan adeque database & history information to
     support market analysis
   – Provide a history of customer transactions for customer
   – Support 24 hour shipment of new orders
   – Coordinate order shipment from multiple warehouses
                            Preliminary Investigation Steps (3)
 Present Your Result & Recommendations to Management. A
  typical report includes the following 7 sections:
   – Introduction : contains a brief description of the system,
     the name of person or group who performed the
     investigation, the name of person or group who initiated
     the investigation
   – Systems Request Summary : the summary describes the
     basis of the systems request
   – Finding : contains the results of your premilinary
     investigation, including a description of the scope of the
     proposed project & the main conclusions you reached
   – Recommendations : for further actions by the IS
   – Time & cost Estimates
   – Expected Benefits : the anticipated tangible (nyata) &
     intangible benefits of implementing the
   – Appendix
                                         Intangible Benefits

 Ex. Of Intangible benefits include the following:
   – Increased levels of service
   – Increased customer satisfaction
   – Survival : a standart capability common in the industry
     or common to many competitors)
   – The need to develop in-house expertise (such as with a
     pilot program with new technology)
                 Contoh Kasus
 Latar Belakang
P.T. Arief Kurniawan didirikan pada tahun 1960 yang
   merupakan perusahaan dibidang produksi alat-alat
   elektronik. Saat ini(1989) perusahaan memperkerjakan
   sebanyak 250 tenaga kerja & mempunyai langganan
   sebanyak 2000 langganan dengan penjualan bersih tahun lalu
   sebesar Rp. 950.000.000,-. Rata-rata order penjualan yang
   masuk tiap harinya adalah sebanyak 200 order langganan.
   Produk yang dihasilkan oleh P.T.Arief Kurniawan beraneka
   ragam sebanyak 250 macam produk standar. Untuk maksud
   memproduksi produk yang beraneka ragam ini, P.T. Arief
   Kurniawan membutuhkan sebanyak 500 macam bahan baku
   & suku cadang dari 150 pemasok.
 Permasalahan-permasalahan yang terjadi adalah sebagai
  berikut :
   – Rata-rata waktu untuk menangani order penjualan
     dianggap terlalu lama, sehingga banyak janji-janji
     pengiriman kepada langganan yang tertunda, sebagai
     akibatnya banyak terjadi keluhan dari langganan
   – Penanganan kredit tidak efektif
   – Persediaan bahan baku & persediaan barang dagangan
     sering terjadi out of stock, sehingga sering terjadi back
     order & penundaan pengiriman
   – Disamping persediaan bahan baku & persediaan barang
     dagangan sering out of stock, juga sering mangalami over
     stock, sehingga mengakibatkan besarnya biaya persediaan
   – Saldo kas sering dibawah saldo yang dinginkan,
     mengakibatkan likuiditas perusahaan rendah & akibat
     lebih lanjut terpaksa melakukan pinjaman bank jangka
     pendek dengan suku bunga yang cukup tinggi.
 Proyek-proyek Sistem Informasi yang
  –   Sist. Inf. Untuk pengendalian penjualan & Pemasaran
  –   Sist. Inf. Untuk pengendalian distribusi
  –   Sist. Inf. Untuk pengendalian produksi
  –   Sist. Inf. Untuk pengendalian keuangan
  –   Sist. Inf. Untuk pengendalian persediaan
 Sasaran Pengembangan Sistem Informasi :
  Sasaran pengembangan sistem informasi akan sejalan
  dengan sasaran perusahaan. Sebagai sistem yang akan
  mendukung pencapaian sasaran perusahaan, sistem
  informasi yang akan dikembangkan diarahkan untuk dapat
  mengatasi kelemahan-kelemahan dari sistem lama serta
  untuk meraih kesempatan-kesempatan yang sesuai dengan
  startegi yang telah ditetapkan oleh perusahaan.
 Kendala pengembangan Sist. Inf :
 Dana
   – Dana yang disediakan untuk pengembangan sistem
     informasi secara keseluruhan adalah tidak lebih dari
     Rp. 250.000.000,-
 Waktu
   – Proyek sist. Inf. Harus telah selesai & siap dioperasikan
     dengan baik dalam jangka waktu 5 tahun
 Struktur Organisasi
   – Perubahan struktur organisasi yang diperbolehkan
     adalah terbatas pada pembentukan dept. baru
 Prinsip Akuntansi Indonesia
   – Metode pelaporan yang berhub. Dengan akuntansi
     sesuai dengan standar yang berlaku.
 Prioritas Proyek
   – Sist. Inf. Untuk pengendalian penjualan &
     pemasaran merupakan prioritas pertama dengan
     • Peningkatan keuntungan karena pelayanan kepada
       langganan untuk meningkatkan penjualan sehingga
       laba perusahaan akan lebih meningkat
     • Dapat meningkatkan pangsa pasar sesuai dengan
       startegi perusahaan
     • Untuk memperbaiki kondisi kelemahan didalam
       pengendalian penjualan.
 Rincian Proyek :
  – Ruang lingkup
  – Sasaran Proyek
  – Kendala proyek
 Proyek : Pengendalian penjualan & pemasaran
 Ruang lingkup :
  – Penelitian terhadap prosedure, formulir & laporan yang
    berhubungan dengan perencanaan
  – Menganalisa operasi, perencanaan, pengendalian yang
    berhub. Dengan pengendalian penjualan & pemasaran
  – Mengintegrasikan sist. Inf dengan sistem yang lain.
 Sasaran
   – Memberikan pelayanan order langganan dengan lebih
   – Meningkatkan pangsa pasar sebesar 25% selama
   – Penanganan kredit langganan lebih efektif sehingga
     mengurangi piutang tak tertagih sebanyak 20%
 Dana
   – Dana untuk pengembangan Sist. Inf. Tidak lebih dari
     Rp. 105.000.000,-. Sebagai suatu proyek investasi yang
     mempunyai manfaat paling sedikit sebesar tingkat
     bunga pengembalian 25% setahun selama umur
 Waktu
   – Sist. Inf. Dikembangkan dalam waktu 1 tahun.

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