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					BOND Program       CGS-LPCA           March 2002




               PROGRAM BOND




    THE EMISSION INVENTORY SPECIFICATIONS




                  CGS-LPCA




                                   MARCH, 2002




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BOND Program                        CGS-LPCA                            March 2002



CONTENTS

Summary of the required specifications

Elements of information and common parameters of the BOND emission inventory

Stationary combustion sources and emission sources from “Industrial, Residential,
service and domestic sectors”

Stationary emission sources : waste treatment and disposal

Mobile sources

Agriculture, forestry and nature



Technical annexes

Annex I : List of the chemical compound of the emission inventory

Annex II : NAPFUE classification

Annex III : websites for further information about the SNAP and NAPFUE
            classifications and the COPERT III methodology.




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SUMMARY OF THE REQUIRED SPECIFICATIONS

     These inventories will be available for the BOND Community i.e. for the people who are
     involved in the research program BOND. The emission inventories include the list of
     the pollutant emission sources, the corresponding emissions flows and the time and
     spatial distribution according to the square kilometer and hour resolutions.

     The emission inventories for both area will concerns the most exhaustive categories of
     atmospheric emission sources. These sources can be divided into four main categories
     which are the followings:

Category A: Fixed Installations of combustion of the industry, the sectors service industry
            and residential as well as the other industrial sources and specialized
            activities

Category B:   Mobile Sources (road, air, railway, maritime and river traffic, etc.)

Category C:   Treatments and elimination of waste (cremation, water treatments, etc.)

Category D: Agricultural and forestry sectors and natural emission sources, including the
            sea surface included in the zone of investigation.


     For the Marseille area, the ESCOMPTE emission inventories will be used as basis to
     provide specific actualized emission inventories for the BOND program. All the
     ESCOMPTE emission data will be used according to the “ESCOMPTE Data policy”
     defined in this program. For the Great Athens Area, …………..




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BOND Program                           CGS-LPCA                                  March 2002



         ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION AND COMMON PARAMETERS
                 OF THE BOND EMISSION INVENTORY




1) Area of interest

    The two areas of study have to be defined in UTM coordinate with an extension domain
    corresponding to the final goal of the project.

    The first zone of study contains region Berre – Marseille in France bounded
    administratively with the districts of the following departments: Alpes de Haute -
    Provence, Bouches du Rhône, Gard, Vaucluse, Var, according to the existing area of
    study defined in the ESCOMPTE program.
    The coordinates of the domain are the following :
    UTM – zone 31/ centered 3° Longitude East
    Ellipsoid International 1909 (/Hayford 1909)
    Datum: European West 1950 = ED50
    In UTM coordinates in meters the upper left corner is (622.290,4.876.780) and the
    lower right corner is (762.290,4.736.780).

    The second zone of study contains the region of Athens in Greece. …….
    The coordinates of the area are the following : ………….



2) The pollutants of the inventories

    The pollutants which are taken into account are classified in 2 categories. The first
    category regroups the pollutants which are under survey by the measurement networks
    as well as those that are subjected to European and National regulations as SO2, NOx,
    CO, total VOC, specific VOC as benzene, PAH, diesel particles, etc. The second
    category consists in additional compounds which are have an interest for the physical
    chemistry modeling of the air quality. The lists are given in Annex 1.

    The emission calculations for a given pollutant depend on the existence of the emission
    factors for this pollutant and the availability of the data related to the activity of the
    source. Regarding the main objectives of the BOND program, a special interest have to
    be given to the biogenic emissions.


3) The emission sources

 3.1) Classifications

    The SNAP (Selected Nomenclature for air Pollution) classification (version 1997) in the
    finest degree possible (level 3 at least) in agreement with available data, should be
    used necessarily to classify the sources of atmospheric emissions and the activities
    which generate emissions. Other classifications can be used for reasons of



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BOND Program                                CGS-LPCA                                        March 2002

    opportunities of collection of data, but the completeness of the work (databases and
    results) should only refer to the code SNAP with all the implications.

 3.2) The categories SNAP classification of emission sources

    The detailed content Selected Nomenclature for Air Pollution can be found on the
    European Environmental Agency website :
    http://reports.eea.eu.int/technical_report_2001_3/en.html

    The categories of the following emission sources should be taken into account:

  SNAP1 level

    01     Combustion in energy and transformation industries
           large combustion installations : power plants for energy, electricity, urban heating
           production, Coal mining, oil/ gas extraction, pipeline compressors, stationary engines,
           gas turbines, etc.,
    02     Non-industrial combustion plants
           Commercial, institutional and residential plants, stationary engines, gas turbines, etc.,
           domestic equipments for heaters and cooking, etc.
    03     Combustion in the manufacturing industry
           All combustion installations in the manufactures (except processes) of the industrial
           sector
    04     Production Processes
           All production processes and processes used in the petroleum industries, the iron, steel
           and non-ferrous industries, in the inorganic and organic chemical industries, in the wood
           paper pulp, food, drink and other industries not defined previously (03),
    05     Extraction and distribution of fossil fuels and geothermal energy
           Extraction and distribution of fossil fuels and geothermal energy. This concerns all the
           activities related to the solid, liquid and gaseous fossil fuels extraction, storage and
           distribution (including pipelines, gasoline distribution and refueling of cars).
    06     Solvent and other product use
           Any industrial and craft branches using products with solvents in surface treatments
           (paintings, rundown, degreasing, wood treatments) or in manufacture (glues, ink, textile
           industries, plastics, rubber), as well as domestic uses of solvent and pharmaceutical
           products, dry cleaning, chemical product manufacturing or processing, refrigeration and
           air conditioned, aerosols cans and all other professional uses of solvents, etc.
    07     Road transport
           Road traffic on the various typical of roads (highways, …) for different vehicle types
           (motorcycles, passenger cars, light duty vehicles, heavy duty vehicles) according to the
           different types of engines, Evaporation from vehicles, etc.
    08     Other mobile sources and machinery
           Military, air, railway, fluvial, maritime traffics, non-registered vehicles (agriculture, forest
           machines, industry, Household and gardening), off-road traffic, national fishing, etc.
    09     Waste Treatment and disposal
           All incineration and cremation installations (domestic, industrial, agricultural waste, etc.),
           flare stacks in the petroleum and chemical industries, waste water treatment plants,
           sludge spreading, compost and biogas production, etc.
    10     Agriculture
           Agriculture with and without fertilizers, permanent crops, arable land crops, rice field
           Market gardening, grasslands, fallows, managed forests forestry development, rice field,
           Enteric fermentation and manure management regarding organic compounds from
           breeding (cattle, pigs, goats, poultry farm, etc.), Uses of pesticides, herbicides...
    11     Other sources and sinks including nature
           Natural sources as non-managed forests, wetlands, natural grasslands, soils, water
           surfaces (rivers, lakes, sea), wild fauna, lightning, volcanoes, etc..




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    For different categories of sources, especially related to combustion and road traffic,
    the complementary classification NAPFUE will be used concerning the fuels. This
    classification is detailed in Annex 2 and further information can be found on the EEA
    website : http://www.citepa.org/emissions/methodologie/napfue94_en.pdf

4) Spatial and time resolutions

    Spatial resolution determines the smallest surface unity for all the contributions of the
    inventories. The resolution id defined by the dimension of the regular gridding which
    covers the zone of study. A regular gridding of 1km X 1km for both the area of study is
    required. For the time resolution, the hourly step has been defined. The hourly
    emissions will be considered in local standard time with correspondence with the GMT.


5) Results to be supplied to BOND community

 5.1) Databases of results
    The results to be supplied will make on one hand, on computer support for databases
    and cartographies of sources and emissions and, on the other hand on paper for
    reports. The files results which will be supplied should include the used emission
    factors, results, and uncertainties per sources and per grid cell for each chemical
    compound of the inventory, as well as all the dynamic links between the used
    databases which allowed to obtain the values of emissions. Imperative condition being
    the traceability of the values of obtained emissions.

    For the set from the various sources of emissions, the Persons receiving benefits
    should supply the values of pollutant emissions of first priority (cf Annex 1) necessary
    and those of low priority as far as possible. It will be necessary in every case to
    distinguish the zero emissions (values equal to zero in the strict sense), from unknown
    values (NC) or indefinite although not invalid (INN) or still not calculated / unvalued
    because not raising these sources. The exhaustive list of pollutants concern only high
    priority compounds, but the others can be added in the list for both emission
    inventories for Marseille an Athens area.

 5.2) Uncertainties

    For each of calculated emissions, it will be necessary to provide uncertainties on the
    emissions values. Objective is to assure uncertainties of final results, according to the
    uncertainties of emission calculation steps (primary data, emission factors, etc.) and of
    all emission contributions.

 5.3) Database and System of geographic information

    5.3.1) Geographic coordinates

    In the zone of study, will be used the geographic coordinates of the UTM system
    (Universal Transverse Mercator), which for the exploitation of data have to be of use of
    base to the kilometric gridding. For the graphic representation, the grid should be
    defined according to the system of coordinates.

    5.3.2) The Geographic Information System



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    The set of file results (structure and contents) will be built with the help of a Geographic
    Information System (GIS). The emissions will be localized and distributed
    geographically with the required spatial resolution. This stage will be made by means of
    a GIS. This will allow to aggregate if necessary the grid cells to obtain lower resolutions
    (2 x 2 km², 3 x 3 km²) from the initial spatial resolution of 1 x 1 km². For convenience,
    the use of Arcview GIS is encouraged. On the contrary the final data files will have to
    be compatible with Arcview GIS.




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                              STATIONARY SOURCES :
Combustion sources for industrial, residential and Service sectors… " SNAP1
01, 02 and 03
Other industrial sources and the specialized activities. SNAP1: 04, 05 and 06
Disposal and waste treatments. SNAP1 : 09




1.1) Definition of the stationary combustion installations in the industry,
     service sectors and residential (code SNAP1: 01; 02; 03)

    The stationary combustion installations correspond to the categories :
    SNAP1 01 : Combustion in energy production and energy transformation in the
    industries.
    SNAP1 02 : Non industrial combustion plants as commercial, institutional, residential
    sectors and agriculture, forestry, fishing
    SNAP1 03 : Combustion in manufacturing industry, including all stationary equipments
    and process furnaces
    The data collection for this sources categories, it should be convenient to use in
    parallel other classifications which differentiates these stationary combustion
    installations into point and surface sources.

    Generally, the point sources are defined by large emitters that generate important
    emissions from very located sources ,(compared to the spatial resolution). Specific
    classifications for the point sources can exist, but a common classification have to be
    defined for both Marseille and Athens inventories. The point sources regroups the most
    important emission sources of a the domain of interest and the criteria which determine
    these source types of can be defined separately for both inventories per surface unit.

    At the opposite, surface sources regroup more diffuse emission sources either by their
    levels of low emissions, and by the big number per surface unit. An example is the
    heating of the residential sector. However this classification depends on the spatial
    level of precision required to establish the inventory.

    The residential, service and small industry sectors and regroup the small installations
    of combustion for the heating of residences or offices, for warm water production and
    others functions (as for example cooking). For the residential sector, the domestic use
    of solvents and devices generating emissions (motor lawn mowers, barbecues, etc.)
    will be also taken into account as far as possible. Any activity in the industry service
    assuring a office of housing will also be taken into account for this particular function:
    Health service and social establishments, education, hotels, business, restoration,
    cultural and sport installations, etc.

    Places of residences, flats or establishments supplied with a heating plant must be
    identified specifically to be removed from the emission area where other heating
    systems and warm water production exist. It will be advisable It should be
    recommended to check that this heating power plants are taken into account with the
    point sources. The methodology of emission calculations will be explained in a joined
    report. These reports will allow to compare the methodology used and to compare the
    results obtained for both emission inventories.



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1.2) Definition of the other industrial sources and the specialized activities
     SNAP1: 04, 05 and 06

    These 3 categories of industrial sources and specialized activities regroup in an
    exhaustive way the industrial and other concerns:
      SNAP1 04 : Production processes in industry : petroleum industry (including
        storage and handling), steel, iron and non-ferrous metal industries, inorganic and
        organic chemical industries, wood, paper pulp, food, drink and other industries,
      SNAP1 05 : Extraction and distribution of fossil fuels and geothermal energy. This
        concerns all the activities related to the solid, liquid and gaseous fossil fuels
        extraction, storage and distribution (including pipelines, gasoline distribution and
        refueling of cars).
      SNAP1 06 : Solvent and other product use as paint application in all activity
        sectors (industrial and non-industrial), domestic uses of solvent and
        pharmaceutical products, degreasing, dry cleaning, chemical product
        manufacturing or processing, refrigeration and air conditioned, aerosols cans and
        all other professional uses of solvents, etc.



1.3) Definition Sources relative to the waste treatment and disposal
    (Code SNAP1: 09)

    This class SNAP1 which regroups various categories of sources, includes the main
    following categories :

          Waste incineration : all cremation installations relative to the waste industry,
           hospitals, etc.,
          Other waste incineration installations
          Flare stacks in industrial installations,
          Solid and managed waste disposal on land
          Open burning of agriculture wastesires in agriculture,
          All installations of waste water treatments, including the sludge spreading,
          Compost and biogas production,
          Latrines, etc...

    Surfaces corresponding to these sources should be defined and geographically
    localized as surface sources. For the third and last categories, sources should be
    inventoried as surface sources, but in the case where exhaust are concentrated in
    large emissions, it can be consider as point source. These exhaust point should be
    geographically localized in the GIS.

 1.4) Pollutants
    The list of chemical compounds of the inventory is listed in the corresponding Annex

 1.5) The emission calculations

    In case of lack of specific emission factors, some by default can be found in the catalog
    of the emission factors " Atmospheric Emission Inventory Handbook " (Joined
    EMEP/CORINAIR - European Agency of the Environment, Second Edition - 1999) or


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BOND Program                            CGS-LPCA                                   March 2002

    still quite other referenced source of data amounts at least in reliability, or to determine
    by a method giving evidence of its equivalence. The emission factors should be defined
    for the relevant year and must be differentiated to be adapted to the zone of study.

    Emissions are estimated by activity SNAP from the emission factors and the available
    data. It is important to remind that an establishment can contain several activities
    SNAP and so several sources SNAP. Uncertainties should be determined for the
    emission (by source, by activity SNAP and by pollutant) as far as possible.

    For all the point sources, will be mentioned the heights to which the emissions are
    rejected in the atmosphere. These heights will be indicated with slices of 10 meters
    referred to ground level : 10 = 0-10 m, 20 = 10-20 m, 30 = 20-30 m, 40 = 30-40 m, 50 =
    40-50m,..., 110 = 100-110 m, etc.

1.6) Emission files of the database

    Data and results will be regrouped, in respect with the specific conditions of use of
    such data (confidentiality, etc.), in databases which structures facilitate extraction of
    different emission files at various spatial and time resolution. If necessary the organism
    in charge of the inventory may includes primary data for the traceability of the
    calculated emissions. The structure of the database of the emission sources defined
    this above is the following one.

    1.6.1) Identification file of the emission sources

    This file contains the data set which allows to define and localize the sources. Every
    source will be identified by an unique number of source, by the corresponding SNAP4
    activity(ies) and its geographic coordinates UTM for the point sources and for surface
    sources, the coordinates will be centered on the domain of extension of sources or on
    remarkable points such as stacks, flare stacks, etc.). If any criteria of use of
    confidentiality exist they must be respected in the emission inventory by :
              - Aggregating of several source in a grid cell or in an area or
              - Representation which preserve the confidentiality


    1.6.2) Emission files

    Files results 1 km x1 km
    The yearly emissions and the schedules of the previous file will be spatialized with the
    GIS, on the scale of 1 km² according to the UTM grid of the zone. The grid cells will be
    identified with the percentage of activity of the source. Uncertainties on the emissions
    will be also determined at the level of grid cells. In case extended point sources over
    several grid cells, emissions will be distributed on these by mentioning the percentages
    of occupation on each of them as well as the uncertainties. These last ones will be
    calculated in proportion to percentages occupied in each of the grid cells or by a similar
    method reflecting this distribution.




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                                " MOBILE SOURCES "



Road, air, river, maritime traffics …
(Code SNAP1: 07 and 08)

1) Road traffic (Codes SNAP1: 07)

    The emissions of road traffic can be determined with the help of various traffic models
    and emission factors databases. However, a lot of traffic emission inventories (national
    and regional) are generally realized according to the CORINAIR / COPERT
    methodology consistent with the SNAP and NAPFUE classifications (see annex III).
    This emission model calculation is specific for European vehicle and mission factor re
    available for every vehicle categories. For this reason, the COPERT IIII methodology
    will be used for the pollutant emission calculations (for further information on COPERT
    III see annex III).

    The implementation of the COPERT III methodology on the zone of study requires
    knowledge of the composition of the vehicle fleet (diesel, gasoline, technologies used,
    vehicle equipped with emission reduction devices, etc..), the traffic conditions, the road
    types, and road / street counting.

    The data of traffic and park can be determined by a double approach:
       From the available information on the national and regional levels, as keys of
          time and space distribution functions.
       From available local data at the finest geographic level; this type of data are very
          interesting to obtain related local results and to describe fluctuating character of
          this category of emission sources.

    The methodology COPERT III requires for each investigation area :
       The data collection related to the traffic flows and the driving conditions, as well
         as the number of parked vehicles, at the finest geographic level available, and
         for the different time steps (yearly average, hourly for the specific periods).
       The composition and the classification of the vehicle fleet (% of the different
         vehicle categories) to allow the use the corresponding COPERT III emissions
         factors.

    To perform the emission calculation, it will be necessary to collect the further following
    information :

          The description and localization of the different road types : highways, main
           roads, and urban street network.
          The composition of the traffic for each type of roads and streets per vehicle type
           (COPPERT III categories) for the whole area of study.
          Meteorological conditions (mainly temperature) for the hourly calculations
           periods, especially for the emission due to the fuel evaporation contribution.
          The composition of the vehicle fleet per motor fuel types : gasoline, diesel, LPG,
           etc. These categories are not taken into account in the SNAP3 classification :
           one can refer to the NAPFUE nomenclature to differentiate them (see Annex 2).


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          All the road counting (yearly, daily or hourly) available.

1.1) The description of the road network
    The road network should be defined as line sources split into arcs for the non urban
    roads and highways and also as far as available counting for the main highways and
    roads inside the cities, and surface source for the urban street network traffic. All the
    road traffic sources will have to be defined in the GIS. These sources have to be
    defined to allow extraction and actualization of the emission to perform hourly
    emissions inventories with specific road counting for example.

    If available information about the topographical data, the road sections which are
    significant elevated or in trench must be indicated with the depth or height of these
    sections is (more than 10 m with regard to the ground for example); the length the
    concerned section will be indicated too. Road tunnels will be indicated with the length
    the concerned section.

    Emissions due to the evaporation of fuels will have to be quantified. There exist several
    contribution to the evaporation : running cars, stopped car (hot engine, and breathing of
    the fuel tanks mainly). A special section in COPERT III is described for the calculation
    of the evaporation. To estimate this contribution, it will be necessary to identify and to
    localize (on the GIS) the parking area for the vehicles (public, highways, underground
    and commercial parking also along the streets in the cities especially in the residential
    area), as well as the average durations of car parked for every type of area and the
    number of vehicles concerned. The refueling of the vehicle (filling station) are not
    considered in this section but refers to the SNAP2 0505 code.

 1.2) The volume of road traffic
    The main roads should be represented as line sources (roads or sections of road) with
    homogeneous characteristics of traffic (velocity and vehicle flows). The traffic volume of
    (number of vehicles x km by unit of time) can be the basis of the emission calculation.
    For every section of the network main roads (line sources) and of the network of minor
    roads (surface sources), the emission will correspond to the length of the section (km)
    x by the traffic (number of vehicles by unit of time). The secondary road network will be
    treated as surface source. Objective being to establish an inventory of traffic with the
    highest resolution possible.

    For each kind of traffic source, spatial and time distributions for the relevant year and
    for the hourly periods should be detailed to allow the possibility to calculate the hourly
    contributions from the yearly emissions.

1.3) The traffic conditions

    Data concerning the road network and the traffic have to be accompanied by conditions
    of traffic for the hourly periods and for every step of time in the emission inventory. To
    obtained the condition of road traffic, il will be necessary to define :

          The average velocity of the traffic,
          The average length of travels for the cars
          Percentage of the mileage traveled with cold engine.


 1.4) The composition of the vehicle fleet in the area of study

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    The implementation of the methodology COPERT III to calculate the road traffic
    emissions requires to determine the amount of traffic (number of vehicles X km), per
    vehicle categories (motorcycles, passenger cars, light duty vehicles, heavy duty
    vehicles), and for each categories per engine fuel types (gasoline, diesel, etc..) and
    also per technical characteristics (vehicles equipped with catalyst exhaust pipes or
    other emission reduction devices).

    The five main categories of vehicles are the following :
       Motorcycles,
       Passenger cars,
       Light duty vehicles < 3,5 t,
       Heavy duty vehicles > 3,5 t, including tourism buses
       Bus urban of public transport;

    The COPERT III emission factors are given for numerous categories of vehicles, for
    different types of motorization, capacity, and technologies. The precise knowledge of
    each of these traffic data for the investigation area will be difficult or for some
    impossible to obtain. The fine structure of the car fleet will can be derived from the
    national vehicle fleet composition. In case of use of national data and statistic, this will
    have to be mentioned especially for the period of strong tourist activities. The
    composition of the vehicle fleet and the traffic conditions should be established for the
    relevant year.

 1.5) Climatic conditions

    According to the methodology COPERT, it is necessary to obtain the meteorological
    parameters of temperature (with the 1 km x 1 km spatial distribution) over the
    investigation area. The temperature will affect the calculation of over-emissions of cold
    starting as well as evaporation of fuels (mainly gasoline). The temperatures that will be
    used will be the same as those defined within the framework of the Air Quality
    modeling of the BOND project for reference periods.

 1.6) Chemical species of the road traffic inventory
    For the linear sources and surface, the fuel consumption will be calculated according to
    the CO emissions. These consumption will allow to calculate the CO2 emissions. For
    the other compounds, it will be calculated from the methodology COPERT III. The list
    of chemical species which is given in the annex I can bee more detailed than the list
    which can be calculated with COPERT III. The final VOC and particle speciation will be
    defined in agreement with the participants of BOND.

 1.7) The emission factors
    The calculation methodology (emission factors for he the different contributions) can be
    be found in the document “COPERT III : Methodology and emission Factors " available
    with the European Agency of the Environment.
        Emissions from exhaust pipes due to running vehicles (warm engine and over-
           emissions for starting cold engines),
        The VOC emitted by evaporation, as in traffic as for the parked vehicles during
           the cooling of the engine, as well as those from the tank due to the variations of
           daily temperature.

 1.8) Uncertainties


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     A particular care will be given to the estimation of uncertainties for the traffic data,
     according to those concerning the average conditions of traffic.
     As possible, the uncertainties on the composition of the vehicle fleet and the traffic
     conditions used for the emission calculation on the investigation area should be
     established.



 1.8) Results
     The traffic volumes, the fuel consumption of and the emissions should be quantified
     with their uncertainties, as average daily values for the reference year for the line
     sources (network of the main roads) and surface sources (network of the rural and
     urban street network). Results should be distributed by source types on the basis of the
     gridding UTM of 1 km x 1 km of the BOND area. Hourly road traffic emissions will be
     established from generic time distribution profiles and\or the emissions (working days /
     holidays / Saturday / Sunday / seasons). These profiles will also be supplied.

     The yearly emissions of chemical compounds mentioned in the Annex I should be
     distributed spatially as emission lines and surfaces, as well as on the BOND gridding of
     1 km x 1 km. Hourly files will be identified with the date of day (year, month, day) and
     the legal hour (1 file by hour).


2) Traffic other the other mobile sources (codes SNAP1: 08)

 2.1) Air traffic
     The emissions from airports / airfields will be consider as surface sources until the
     takeoff then as linear sources until a height of 3000 feet (1000m). VOC used for
     defrosting technique will also be considered. The operation of supply (fuel plane) as
     well as the storage of the specific fuels on airports/airfields should also be taken into
     account in this category of sources for the calculation of emissions due to air traffic.

     Methods for the evaluation of emissions for the relevant year and for the hourly periods
     should be detailed in joined for every type of source.

     The files of results should include the following data:
        The characteristics of planes (types of devices and engines),
        The number of movements LTO (Landing - Take Off) for every type of device
            with the durations of each of the phases of the cycle LTO,
        The emission factors used with their uncertainties,
        The emissions calculated with their uncertainties (planes, supply and storage on
            the ground).

     These emissions are then localized in the space as line and surface sources as for
     cities and municipalities, as well as on gridding of 1km by 1km. Heights average
     emissions will be indicated with grid cell for the phases of the cycle LTO (takeoff,
     climbing after reduction, and landing, ground idle) and for the part of the cruise
     included in the investigation area. Hourly files will be identified with the date of day
     (year, month, day) and the legal hour (1 file by hour). Generic temporal profiles of
     typical distribution of air traffic and emissions (working days / holidays / Saturday /
     Sunday / seasons) should also be supplied.




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 2.2) Fluvial and maritime traffic
    The fluvial and maritime transports (canals and sea) as well as the movement in the
    ports in ports (surface sources) should be determined separately. Ships will be
    classified with category according to their weight and to engine types. As for air traffic,
    counting will be collected on the basis of movements (whose characteristics must be
    defined) in ports.

    The emissions will be localized spatially as line and surface sources on the basis of the
    1km by 1km grid. The heights of emissions will be also mentioned for the largest ships
    for which the height of fireplaces exceeds 10 meters with regard to the water level.
    Hourly files will be identified with the date of day (year, month, day) and the legal hour
    (1 file by hour). Generic temporal profiles of typical distribution of the sea and river
    traffic and the emissions (working days / holidays / Saturday / Sunday / seasons)
    should also be supplied.

 2.3) Railway diesel traffic
    The traffic (linear sources) and the manoeuvres in the stations (surface sources) are to
    take into account only for Diesel locomotives. Counting or statistics will be collected for
    railroads equipped with engines diesel and on working schedules for the other
    transportation operations.

    The emissions will be localized spatially as line and surface sources on the basis of the
    1km by 1km grid. Generic temporal profiles of typical distribution of rail traffic diesel
    and emissions (working days / holidays / Saturday / Sunday / seasons) should also be
    supplied.

 2.4) Other mobile source traffics

    Emissions related to the use of other mobile sources that those described previously
    must be taken into account as far as available data or at least be estimated from local,
    regional socioeconomic data or national statistics by default. Example of such mobile
    sources are trucks used in agriculture (tractors for example), forestry, industry, and on
    building sites. Also in this category, are taken into account all the other special
    machines such as those used for leisure activities, gardening, etc. (motor lawn mower,
    motorized cultivators, etc..)

 2.5) Sizes of the files of data and results for transport

    As first, these sizes are indicative, but the files have to contain all the necessary
    elements to allow the representation of these sources (cartographic, emission
    calculations). Uncertainties must be as well quantified for primary data, as for
    intermediate results and emissions. Hourly files will be identified with the date of day
    (year, month, day) and the legal hour (1 file by hour).




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BOND Program                           CGS-LPCA                                  March 2002




                    " AGRICULTURE, FOREST AND NATURE "



Emissions sources from agriculture, forests (Code SNAP1: 10) and
nature (Code SNAP1: 11)

1) Definition

    It is about a rather vast set of sources of which it is advisable to estimate emissions as
    far as data exist and are available.

    SNAP1 10 : Sources of farming sector (code SNAP2: from 10 01 to 10 06) including
    the following activities:
        Permanent cultures with and without fertilizers, crops, grasslands, market
            gardening, fallows
        Specific cultures: rice field, vineyards, orchards, etc.
        Stubble burning
        Enteric fermentation and manure management regarding organic compounds
            from breeding (cattle, pigs, goats, poultry farm, etc.)
        Uses of pesticides, herbicides,.

    The sources of the forestry sector (code SNAP2: from 1007 to 1010) :
       Managed forests of broad-leaved trees and conifers exploited

    SNAP1 11 : Other sources an sinks as natural sources which regroup the following
    emissions:
       Natural (non –managed) forests and soils (excluding CO2)
       Forest and other vegetation fires
       Natural grassland and other low vegetation as Mediterranean scrub, wetlands,
          swamps, bogs, etc.
       All waters surfaces in (rivers canals, drainage, salt flats, etc.)
       The free sea
       Wild fauna
       Lightning,
       Changes in forest and other woody biomass stocks,
       CO2 emissions from / or removal into soils

    Surfaces corresponding to these sources should be defined and be localized
    geographically by GIS (with the help of the land use database) as surface sources.


2) Pollutants
    It will be advisable to spread, every time when necessities, the pollutants investigation
    of which is indispensable to see necessary or interesting for this category of emissions
    the list of which is given in the Appendix.




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BOND Program                            CGS-LPCA                                  March 2002


3) The emission calculations
    Every specific and relevant emission factors from literature will have to be used. In
    case of lack, emission factors can be found in the Handbook of Default emission
    factors CORINAIR of the EEC or determined by appropriate methods. The emission
    factors should be defined for the relevant year and differentiated to be adapted to the
    area of study.

    By considering the specificity of that Mediterranean investigation area and the goal of
    the BOND program, it will be necessary as far as possible to use the existing literature
    concerning the Mediterranean zone for determination of the emission factors and all
    data necessary for the emission calculations.

    Surfaces, and corresponding emissions as well as relevant uncertainties for every type
    of data and results should be defined for the sources as average yearly values and
    daily values over the reference year. For convenience, the generic time distribution
    profiles should be joined to the database with the emission files, including the
    parameters which are necessary to estimate the emissions (temperature, wind speed,
    nocturnal/ diurnal duration, solar irradiation, etc.)

    The yearly emissions of calculated emissions should be spatially distributed to reach
    resolution required : grid cells of 1km by 1km.


4) Files of the database

    The set of collected data as well as the used emission factors and the results obtained
    with the set of uncertainties should be shaped according to the various files below with
    the detailed structures:

    Data files
    Emission factors files
    Results Files (per 1km x1 km grid cell) with their uncertainties
       Yearly emission Files
       Hourly emissions Files (1 file by hour at least)

    These sizes are indicative and can be modified. Hourly files will be identified with the
    date of day (year, month, day) and the legal hour (1 file by hour).




                                                                                               17
BOND Program                          CGS-LPCA                         March 2002



                                    ANNEX 1


         List of the chemical compounds for the BOND emission inventories




                                 Chemical compounds
Sulfur Dioxide: SO2
Nitrogen oxide (NOx = NO+NO2) in equivalent nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
Nitrogen monoxide (NO)
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
Acid nitrous HNO2
Nitrous oxide (N2O)
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Methane (CH4)
Total alkane except methane
Ethane
Propane
Butane: iso-+ n-butane
n-butane
iso-butane
Pentanes: n-and iso-pentane
n-pentane
iso-pentane
Hexane
Heptanes + Octane
C8 < alcanes < C12
Alcanes > C12
Ethene
Propene
Butene
1-butene
2-butene
1,3 butadiene
Isoprene
Sum of alkenes except terpene
Sum of terpene
a-pinene
b-pinene
Acetylene
Sum of alkynes
Benzene
Toluene
Alkyl benzene (one substituant) except toluene
Xylols + ethyl toluene
Sum of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Sum of aromatic oxygenated monocyclic compounds
Formaldehyde


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BOND Program                            CGS-LPCA                            March 2002

Acetaldehyde
Sum of acetaldehydes
Methanol
Ethanol
Sums of alcohols
Acetone
Methyl ethyl ketone
Sum of ketone
Diethyl-ether
Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) + ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE)
Sums of ethers
Methylic esters of vegetable oil (EMHV)
Sum of other esters
Sum of halogenated volatile organic compounds
Sum of unsaturated halogenated VOC
Formic acid
Sum of organic acids
Sum of other VOC
Ammoniac (NH3)
Hydrochloric acid HCl
Hydrofluoric acid HF and other fluoride inorganic gas in equivalent HF
Sulphuric acid H2SO4
Nitric acid HNO3
Particles
Soot

Other compounds (2)

    (2): In the column “Other compounds" , pollutants can be added if necessary. In that
        case names are to clearly mentioned according to the international chemical
        nomenclature.




                                                                                     19
BOND Program                       CGS-LPCA                March 2002


                                  ANNEX 2

   European Environment Agency / European Topic Centre on Air
                     Emissions NAPFUE 94
                  version 1.0 dated 21/11/1995


NAPFUE                         FUEL IDENTIFICATION
CODE
                                   solid fuels

101   COKING COAL (GHV > 23 865 kJ/kg)
102   STEAM COAL (GHV > 23 865 kJ/kg)
103   SUB-BITUMINOUS (17 435 kJ/kg < GHV < 23 865 kJ/kg)
104   PATENT FUELS (from hard/sub-bituminous coal)
105   BROWN COAL / LIGNITE (GHV < 17 435 kJ/kg)
106   BROWN COAL BRIQUETTES
107   COKE OVEN COKE FROM HARD COAL
108   COKE OVEN COKE FROM BROWN COAL
109   GAS COKE
110   PETROLEUM COKE
111   WOOD AND SIMILAR WOOD WASTES
112   CHARCOAL
113   PEAT
114   MUNICIPAL WASTES
115   INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTES
116   WOOD WASTES (except wastes similar to wood)
117   AGRICULTURAL WASTES (corncobs, straw, etc.)
118   SEWAGE SLUDGE
119   REFUSE DERIVED FUELS
120   OIL-SHALE
121   OTHER SOLID FUELS (tar, benzol, pitch, etc.)
                                   liquid fuels

201   CRUDE OIL
202   Item not used
203   RESIDUAL OIL
204   GAS OIL
205   DIESEL OIL FOR ROAD TRANSPORT
206   KEROSENE
207   JET FUEL
208   MOTOR GASOLINE
209   AVIATION GASOLINE
210   NAPHTA
211   SHALE-OIL
212   GASOLINE ENGINE WASTE OIL
213   DIESEL ENGINE WASTE OIL
214   WASTE SOLVENTS
215   BLACK LIQUOR
216   MIXTURE OF FUEL OIL AND COAL
217   REFINERY FEEDSTOCKS AND ADDITIVES
218   OTHER LIQUID WASTES



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BOND Program                     CGS-LPCA                  March 2002

219   LUBRICANTS
220   WHITE SPIRIT
221   PARAFFIN WAXES
222   BITUMEN
223   BIO-ALCOHOL
224   OTHER PETROLEUM PRODUCTS (grease, aromatics, etc.)
225   OTHER LIQUID FUELS
                            gaseous fuels

301   NATURAL GAS (except liquefied natural gas)
302   NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS
303   LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES (LPG)
304   COKE OVEN GAS
305   BLAST FURNACE GAS
306   MIXTURE OF COKE OVEN AND BLAST FURNACE GASES
307   WASTE GAS (especially chemical industry)
308   REFINERY AND PETROCHEMICAL GAS (not condensable)
309   BIOGAS
310   GAS FROM WASTE TIPS
311   GAS WORKS GAS
312   STEEL PLANT FURNACE GAS
313   HYDROGEN
314   OTHER GASEOUS FUEL




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BOND Program                           CGS-LPCA                    March 2002



                                       ANNEX III

  Websites for further information concerning The SNAP and NAPFUE
  classifications and The COPPERT III methodology :


    SNAP :
    http://reports.eea.eu.int/technical_report_2001_3/en.html


    NAPFUE :
    http://www.citepa.org/emissions/methodologie/napfue94_en.pdf


    COPERT III :
    http://vergina.eng.auth.gr/mech/lat/copert/copert.htm




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