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					Woodrow Wilson, Progressivism
 in America, and World War I
         Election of 1912:
            Name the
• “New            • “New Freedom”
  Nationalism”    • unregulated
• social            economy-
  insurance,        favored
• minimum wage,     competition (on
• woman             small scale),
  suffrage,       • no social-
• increased         welfare,
  regulations     • lower tariffs
                   Election of 1912
• Wilson gets
•   Roosevelt and Taft
    split Republican/
    Conservative vote.
•   Socialist Eugene
    Debs gets over
    900,000 votes.
•   Prohibition Party
    gets another
•   Progressivism was
    the clear winner.
             Under the Gun
• Progressive Wilson targets:
• 1) Banks- Federal Reserve Act of 1913
• 2) Trusts- Federal Trade Commission,
  and Clayton Antitrust Act
• 3) Tariffs- Lowered tariffs, began
  income tax (16th Amendment allowed).

• Federal Reserve

    Wilson’s Foreign Policy
• Teddy Roosevelt’s “Big Stick” =

• Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy” =

• Wilson seen as a moralistic anti-
  imperialist everywhere except in the
  Western Hemisphere (Monroe
• Sent U.S. forces to intervene in Haiti,
  Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and
      Intervention in Mexico
• Pancho Villa
  causes trouble.
• 1916- Columbus,
  NM: kills 19.
• U.S. responds-
  Gen. Pershing
  invades north
• Comes up empty.
World War I-Origins

“Entangling Alliances”

       As Fate Would Have It?:
  The Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
• Mistakes:
  • Bungled security
  • Traveled in an open car-slowly
  • First attack failed
  • Instead of leaving town, after the town hall event he
    goes to visit hospital
  • Left by the same route they traveled on before
  • Drivers not informed of the unscheduled visit to the
  • Driver of Archduke’s car braked sharply, the gears
    locked and the car stalled- right in front of the assassin
        World War I- Summarized
• 1914- August: War is declared in
  Europe. Austria-Hungary attacks
  Serbia. Germany attacks France
  through Belgium.
• 1915 and 1916: Heavy fighting
  continues. Little territory gained.
  Already millions of lives lost.
• 1917: German offensive knocks
  Russia out of war. Bolshevik
  communist revolution begins.
• 1918- March: German offensive
      American Troops Go “Over There”
• American policy of not taking sides in
  the war is “neutrality.”
• German submarine attacks:
   • Lusitania- British passenger ship sunk May
   • Arabic- British ship sunk August 1915
   • Sussex- French vessel torpedoed March
      • “Sussex pledge” by Germany not to attack
        passenger/ merchant vessels without warning
   • January 1917, Germans began unrestricted
     submarine warfare- 4 American vessels
     were destroyed soon after.
   • April 2, 1917- Wilson asks Congress to
     declare war                                      11
         American Home Front
• Civil Liberty Restrictions:
   • Espionage Act- forbade obstructing the operation
     and success of the armed forces.
   • Sedition Act- illegal to use “disloyal, profane,
     scurrilous, or abusive language about the
     government, flag, or military during war.
   • Used to jail Socialist leader Eugene Debs. Used
     against labor unions, pro-German organizations,
     Socialist newspapers and magazines, etc., - seen
     as radical forces in society and threats to
   • Compare to today

         Americans Fill the Gap
• Took almost a year to send a sizable
    American force to Europe.
•   U.S. forces made a difference defending
    against the German spring offensive in
•   Germans wear out, despair at prospect of
    millions more Americans coming to fight.
•   Look to Wilson’s 14-Point plan for the
    war’s end, surrendered according to its
    terms, exiled the Kaiser.
•   German surrender took effect on Nov. 11,
    1918 at 11pm. Today that is Veterans’
    Day.                                       13
               Making the Peace
• President Wilson went to Paris Peace
  Conference in 1919 with 14 Points in mind.
• British and French opposed these as too
  generous, sought revenge by making losers
  pay massive reparations and cede (give up)
  territory. Germany was further singled out
  and forced to accept guilt for starting the
  war and limit the size of its military. (war
  guilt clause).
• Opposition in the United States to some of
  Wilson’s 14 Points undermined Wilson’s
  bargaining position at the Conference.
• Treaty of Versailles became largely a          14
  revenge document.
             League of Nations
• Although League of Nations was approved
    in Treaty of Versailles, U.S. Congress
    rejected League.
•   Many Americans still held onto belief that
    America could and should avoid
    entanglement in problems of Europe.
•   Wilson campaigned around the country for
    League approval by Congress.
•   Suffered serious stroke.
•   His wife became the gatekeeper for him for
    the remainder of his term.

Map of the League of Nations

               Election of 1920

• Republican Party reunited
• Democrats had issues:
   • Wilson’s Democratic successor, James Cox, strongly
     supported the League
   • Lacked charisma
   • Women’s vote largely went for Republican ticket of
     Warren Harding and his VP Calvin Coolidge
• After years of turmoil and conflict, Americans
  were voting for a “return to normalcy.”