islam_powerpoint by xiuliliaofz

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									Islam
                Origins of Islam
 Islam is also a code for social conduct.
 Holy Day is Friday.
 Mosque.
    – Muslim place of worship.
 Muhammad is the last prophet.
 Descendant of Abraham
    – Abraham, father of all prophets, is the first Muslim
    – Christians and Jews also trace their heritage back to
      Abraham.
         The Life of Muhammad
   Born about 570 AD to the leading tribe in Mecca.
    – Orphan and raised by an Uncle.
   He was a caravan manager for a wealthy widow,
    Khadija, whom he eventually married.
    – Muhammad was 25 and Khadija was about 40.
 At the age of 40, he claims to receive visions
  and messages from Angel Gabriel.
 He is not seen as a god or a savior.
 He is the messenger of God.
          The Life of Muhammad
   The angel Gabriel commanded Muhammad to
    “recite”!
   Citizens of Mecca were hostile to the message.
   Muhammad fled north to Yathrib (Medina).
   Muhammad leads 10,000 back to Mecca and
    captures the city.
   He destroys the idols in the Kaaba.
   Most of Arabia were converted to Islam by the
    time of his death in 632.
        Muhammad‟s Teachings
 Each person is responsible for their own
  behavior.
 All are should be humble, show mercy and give.
 All believers are spiritually equal.
 Allah will judge each person and based upon
  their actions.
    – Allah will send them to heaven or hell for eternity.
   Muhammad promoted education even though he
    could not read or write.
             The Quran
 Islam‟s holy book
 Also spelled “Koran”
 God‟s word spoken through Muhammad.
 The direct words of Muhammad‟s
  teachings.
 114 Chapters.
                  The Quran
   Confirms most narratives and prophets of
    the Jewish and Christian faiths.
    – Special place for the Virgin Mary, the only
      female, the Chapter of Mary.
    – Moses and Jesus are seen as prophets.
 Allah is the word for God used by Christian
  and Muslim Arabs.
 One and only one God, no trinity.
 Arabic is the true language of the Quran.
Understanding the Arabic Language
 Written Arabic isn‟t spoken
 Spoken Arabic isn‟t written
 Arabic is the language of the Quran and
  all Arabic speakers insist they speak Arabic
 Arabic has also been divided into 5-6
  distinct languages.
           The Five Pillars of Islam
1.   The declaration of faith:
     – "There is no deity but God, and Muhammad is the
       messenger of God“
2.   Prayer:
     – Five obligatory prayers each day.
     – A direct link between the worshiper and God.
     – No hierarchical authority or priesthood
3.   Zakat:
     – “Purification" by setting aside a portion (2.5%) for the
       needy
     – Obligatory charitable giving.
     – Wealth belongs to God and it is held in trust by humans.
          The Five Pillars of Islam
4.   Fasting:
     – From sunrise to sunset during the holy month of
       Ramadan
5.   Pilgrimage (Hajj):
     – A pilgrimage to Mecca
     – Must be completed once in a Muslims lifetime,
       unless a person is physically unable.
     – The people must march around the Kaaba seven
       times and then kiss the Black Stone.
                A Way of Life
   The Islamic system of law is called Sharia.
    – Regulated moral conduct.
    – Family life.
    – Business practices.
    – Government.
    – Other aspects of a Muslim community.
   Unlike the law codes that evolved in the
    West, the Sharia does not separate
    religious matters from criminal or civil law.
Beyond the Belief
             7th Century Middle East
   The Arabian Peninsula
    –   The origins of Arabs
    –   Mostly desert, few urban areas
    –   Mecca is an urban trading center
    –   Mainly tribal society
    –   Religions
          Christianity, Judaism, and polytheism
 The Persian Empire
 The Byzantine Empire
    – Christianity is the state religion since the 3rd century
    – A foreign occupying power
    – Conflicts with the locals
               The Schism:
           The Division of Islam
   Reasons for the division:
    – Succession to Caliphate.
        Successors of Muhammed.
    – Incorporation of non-Koranic elements into
      Islam.
    – Worldliness of Caliphs, discrimination against
      non-Arab Muslims.
              Sunnis and Shiites
   Sunni
    – 90% of Muslims
    – Follow the Quran as we have it is today, and as
      interpreted by the Sunni scholars
   Shiites
    – Came to be as a sect after 680 A.D.
    – Believe in the Quran, like Sunni
    – However, they place Ali very high as a holy figure,
      and think „main stream‟
    – Islam discriminated against him
    – Today Shittes is mainly in Iran (90%), Iraq (55%)
      and Lebanon (40%)
            Muslim Conquest
 The Byzantine and Persian empires were weak
  from years of fighting each other.
 People in the Fertile Crescent welcomed Arab
  conquerors as liberators.
 The Arabs used bold, efficient fighting methods,
  which overwhelmed traditional armies.
 The common faith of Islam united a patchwork
  of tribes into a determined, unified state.
    The Decline of the Muslim Empire
 Around 850, the caliphs became unable to
  maintain centralized control and the
  empire fragmented.
 In the 900s, Seljuk Turks invaded the
  Middle East and built a large empire in the
  Fertile Crescent.
 In the 1200s and 1300s, Mongol invaders
  dominated the Middle East.

								
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