Contract for Flower Design - PowerPoint by anm13008

VIEWS: 17 PAGES: 36

More Info
									“Synchronous Streaming Video
  from the Classroom to the
 Remote Student‟s Desktop”
    Eric Flower and Stacey Sawa
   University of Hawai„i-West O„ahu
          flower@hawaii.edu
          ssawa@hawaii.edu
     StreamingVideoOnTheNet.com

      E-Learn 2005, Vancouver
                    Table of Contents
• Introduction/Purpose
• System Design
• Methodology
• Results
• Methodological Problems
• Classroom Management
• Secondary Observations
• Future Research
Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   2
         Purpose of the Study (1)
 • To identify levels of preparation and
     support (equipment, software, staffing,
     training, facilities, infrastructure, etc.)
     necessary to produce and distribute
     good quality narrow bandwidth (384Kbps
     or less) streaming video to students in
     their home or at their offices
       We did not broadcast to studios or computer
          labs where students would gather to
          participate in a site-to-site model
Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   3
         Purpose of the Study (2)
 • To see if we could design a low cost
     Internet streaming video system
     without a large capital equipment
     investment, heavy infrastructure
     requirements, or a large technical
     support staff




Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   4
         Purpose of the Study (3)
 • To see if we could design a “system on
     a cart” to make it portable
 •   To see if classes could be broadcast
     from any campus classroom or
     conference room and not be tied to a
     studio, lab, or other special purpose
     facility



Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   5
         Purpose of the Study (4)
    • To make some preliminary
        determination on the effectiveness of
        synchronous streaming of classroom-
        based instruction when compared to
        the traditional classroom setting


                                         =                                            ?

Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   6
        Streaming Video Process




Capture with
                                                                      Distribute with
RealProducer
                               Encode with                           RealServer, view
                               RealProducer                          with RealPlayer/
                                                                         RealOne

 Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   7
 Hardware/Production System

                          Video
                          capture
                                                                  Videotape
                                                                                          Video
                                                                  backup
                                                                                         monitor




Audio capture                  Mixer
                                                    Splitter

                 Audio monitor
                                                                           Encoding PC
Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   8
                Distribution System
                                                                                 Chat session




      UH ITS Streaming                           RealPlayer/RealOne
           Server                                      Clients


Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   9
                       Equipment Cart




 Click here to see our
    equipment list
Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   10
Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   11
Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   12
                      Methodology (1)
 • Using the streaming video system we
     designed and built, we taught four
     semesters of “Computer Skills for
     Administrators” from 2001 to 2004
 •   Over that period, there were 41 students
     in the classroom and 29 online students
     receiving synchronous streaming video
 •   Course is an elective with no pre-
     requisites offered in the Professional
     Studies Division
Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   13
                      Methodology (2)
 • Each semester, both groups had the
     same class presentations, readings, and
     assignments, wrote the same reports,
     took the same tests, and worked on
     similar projects
 •   Both groups could watch the archived
     class video files that were posted the
     next day


Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   14
                      Methodology (3)
 • In a retrospective study, we compared
     student course grade scores for each
     group (in-class vs. online)
       Used a t-test for unequal variances
       Ho:u1 = u2
          (Null hypothesis: means of the two groups are equal)

        Ha:u1 <> u2
          (Alternative hypothesis: means of the two groups are not equal)




Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   15
      Grade Score Components
• Testing throughout the semester: 45%
• Final exam: 20%
• Class participation/
    Quality circle participation: 10%
•   Group presentation/
    Group presentation contribution: 15%
•   Critical review of Visions: How Science
    Will Revolutionize the 21st Century by
    Michio Kaku: 10%
Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   16
                               Results (1)
 • We found that off-the-shelf hardware
     and software were adequate to produce
     good quality narrow bandwidth
     (384Kbps or less) streaming video
 •   Significant investments in broadcast
     studios may not be necessary where
     high production values are not an
     essential part of the instructional
     process
Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   17
  Encoding Rates and File Size
• Triple stream video files encoded at
 56Kbps, 150Kbps, and 256Kbps use 3.9
 megabytes of storage per minute
   Stream to the viewer at the highest reliable
     connection, typically 34, 150, or 225Kbps
    This multistream provides a good balance of
     sound and picture quality and targets dial-up,
     LANs, and broadband
    In 2004 we upped the top rate to 384 Kbps
     encoded and 350Kbps received
Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   18
                               Results (2)
 • Marginal operating costs were relatively
     small and limited mainly to the salary of
     the technician operating the camera and
     performing post-production work
 •   It was possible to stream from virtually
     any classroom or conference room on
     campus with the mobile cart



Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   19
                               Results (3)
 • Analysis of the student course grade
     scores for each group (in-class vs.
     remote) shows a strong similarity of the
     means
 •   Using the t-test for unequal variances,
     the p-value was 0.84; this provides a
     strong statistical conclusion that the
     means are not different


Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   20
                               Results (4)
 • Low cost narrow bandwidth
     synchronous streaming of classroom-
     based instruction appears to be as
     effective as the traditional classroom
     environment in this instance




Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   21
Methodological/Data Problems
• Groups are not random
        Groups are self-selected by enrollment in a
         classroom or online section
        Neighbor Island students have no choice;
         they must enroll in an online section
 • There is no information about the
     students aside from their group and
     their final course grade score
 •   Not “blind”; instructor knows who is in
     each group
Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   22
     Classroom Management (1)
 • Instructor‟s teaching style and course
     content must be amenable to this
     delivery method if it is to be successful
 •   Instructors don‟t need to change their
     classroom methods very much to
     succeed with Internet streaming video
     broadcasting; long periods of training
     appear to be unnecessary


Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   23
    Classroom Management (2)
 • Preparation, rehearsal, and timely
     distribution of supporting material are
     critical to successful streaming video
     presentations




Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   24
     Classroom Management (3)
 • Faculty workload increases in this
     environment, but not nearly as much as
     in an asynchronous text or multimedia-
     based online teaching environment
 •   Time spent on preparation and
     production is less with streaming video,
     though post-production work may be
     more, depending on the faculty
     member‟s decisions on how much to do
     after class
Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   25
  Secondary Observations (1)
 • Students watched archived
     classes they missed due to
     illness, travel, work, etc.
 •   Students reviewed or
     intensively studied classes
     or portions they did not
     understand when the
     material was originally
     presented

Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   26
  Secondary Observations (2)
 • Instructor could review class files to
     correct errors in presentations or to add
     supplementary material to a web-based
     errata file
 •   Instructor could review class files to
     examine their methods for teaching
     effectiveness and make improvements
     where necessary


Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   27
  Secondary Observations (3)
 • Class files could be reviewed for
     teaching effectiveness when making
     decisions relating to contract renewal,
     tenure, post-tenure review, and
     professional development




Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   28
  Secondary Observations (4)
 • Synchronized Multimedia Integration
     Language (.smil) files may be used to
     create, or contribute to, learning
     modules of any length to improve
     instruction
 •   .SMIL file-based learning modules may
     be used to make material available to
     other classes or groups


Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   29
  Secondary Observations (5)
 • System was reliable
 • There were very few incidents of
     hardware failure, software failure,
     broken links to server, or server failure
 •   Slow connections, network congestion,
     and lack of Quality of Service (issues of
     network packet priority) were problems
     for some dial-up students


Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   30
  Secondary Observations (6)
 • Students want more classes offered via
     streaming video if they have access to
     fast connections like Oceanic Time
     Warner Cable RoadRunner service




Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   31
   Secondary Observations (7)
 • Network bandwidth is the critical variable
     in streaming video viewer satisfaction
       Faster connections support notably better
         viewer experiences
        No amount of preparation can overcome
         problems associated with a slow connection
         or network congestion
 • Viewers will blame you or the technology
     if their picture is bad

Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   32
                 Future Research (1)
 • More rigorous study and analysis of
     classroom-based synchronous
     streaming video needs to be performed
     to confirm these preliminary findings




Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   33
                 Future Research (2)
  • Students thought viewing archived
      streaming video class files on demand
      (asynchronously) could be as effective
      from an instructional viewpoint as
      participating in the live class
      (synchronously), provided they could
      then interact with the instructor via e-
      mail, chat, or videoconferencing
        Asynchronous delivery with a scheduled
           online class meeting component could
           increase access
Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   34
                 Future Research (3)
  • Archived files could be viewed when
      network traffic was low, or, archived
      files could be distributed on CDs which
      would eliminate delivery problems
      associated with slow network
      connections or network congestion—
      this could be a boon to less developed
      areas with weak infrastructures


Flower and Sawa, “Synchronous Streaming Video from the Classroom to the Remote Student’s Desktop ”   35
  Thanks for watching!
 Eric Flower and Stacey Sawa




University of Hawai„i-West O„ahu

								
To top