399 439 Chapter 11 Science Technology and Society in the Science Classroom Science Technology and Society by msv19261

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									                                             399-439




          Chapter 11

Science, Technology, and Society in
      the Science Classroom



          Science, Technology, and Society
                                                                     400


        How to Read This Chapter
• STS represents a departure from “traditional” science education, as it
  tends to see curriculum in an interdisciplinary context, and in the
  context of personal and social perspectives. As you work with this
  chapter reflect on your views of science as they related to your science
  discipline (biology, chemistry, geology, physics) and ask yourself how
  these disciplines interact with technology and society. There are many
  interesting strategies of teaching presented in this chapter, and you
  might want to focus on them. Also you will find a couple of “case
  studies” of curriculum projects that are based on STS (Education for a
  Sustainable Future, and Science Education for Public Understanding
  Program). You might also want to visit the websites of these two
  projects, as well as some of the other projects identified in the chapter.



                          Science, Technology, and Society
                                                      400


          Invitations to Inquiry
• What are the characteristics of environmental education
  and science-technology-society programs?
• What strategies do science teachers use to present STS
  lessons in the classroom?
• What are some of the significant STS themes, and how do
  teachers present them in the classroom?
• What are some STS curriculum examples used in today's
  secondary science classrooms?
• How are STS modules evaluated? Are there criteria that
  science teachers agree on?


                   Science, Technology, and Society
                                                                                                             399-439


                         Chapter 11 Map                 STS in the
                                                         Scienc e
                                                        Class room




            Nature of               Strategies                                                               STS
              STS                                                    STS                                  Curriculum
                                       for                        Themes &
                                    Teaching                                                              Examples
                                                                   How to
                                       STS                          Teach
                                                                    Them




 Inquiry                 Inquiry                    Population               Air Quality    Educ ation                  SEPUP
11.1: STS               11.2: STS                    Grow th                                   for
                          Is sues                                                          Sus tainable
                                                                                             Future


                                                 Technological               Hazardous
                                                 Development                 Subs tances
                                                                                                                        Inquiry
                                                                                            ChemCom                    11.4: STS
                                                                                                                        Module

                                                     Water                    Natural
                                                    Res ourc es              Res ourc es




                                                                              Inquiry
                                                  Environment
                                                                             11.3: STS
                                                                              Design


                                    Science, Technology, and Society
                                                                                                         400-402


                                 Nature of STS
                                                         Table 11.1. STS Understandings in the
•   The central premise of STS: to help                 National Science Education Standards*
    students develop the knowledge,                 Grades 5 – 8                            Grades 9 – 12
    skills, and effective qualities in              Students should                         Students should
    order to take responsible                       develop an                              develop an
                                                    understanding of:                       understanding of:
    citizenship action on science and                Personal health                        Personal and
    technologically oriented issues                  Populations,                            community health
    (p.400).                                           resources, and                        Population growth
                                                       environments                          Natural resources
•   Make a concept map showing the                   Natural hazards                        Environmental
    issues that students could learn                 Risks and benefits                      quality
    about from the list of                           Science and                            Natural and human-
                                                       technology in                          induced hazards
    understandings shown here from                     society                               Science and
    the National Science Education                                                            technology in local,
    Standards. Select one of the                                                              national, and global
    understandings.                                                                           challenges

•   Now take a look at Table 11.2 and
    compare your map to the concepts                *Based on National Research Counc il. National Science Education
                                                    Standards. Washing ton, D. C.: National Academy P ress, 1995

    and big ideas for two of the
    understandings.           Science, Technology, and Society
                                                       400-402


           Development of STS
• What is the timeline, and
  what are the goals for the
  following reports on
  infusing STS in school
  science:
• National Science Teachers
  Association
• National Science
  Education Standards
• American Association for
  the Advancement of
  Science
                    Science, Technology, and Society
                                                    402-407

Characteristics of STS and EE
          Programs
                           • How do the following
                             elements help educators
                             develop a rationale for
                             including STS in school
                             science?
                                 – Problem and Issue Oriented
                                 – Interdisciplinary Thinking
                                 – Connecting Science to
                                   Society
                                 – Global Thinking and the
                                   GAIA Hypothesis
                                 – Relevance

         Science, Technology, and Society
                                                  407

Inquiry 11.1: Getting involved in
              STS
                             • In this inquiry, you’ll get
                               involved in one of the
                               projects suggested, or
                               create your own STS
                               action project.
                             • Choose one, carry it out,
                               and report your results via
                               a poster report.
                             • How can you turn your
                               project into a science
                               lesson plan?

           Science, Technology, and Society
                                                                                      408


                STS Teaching Cycle
•   STS teaching is not simply learning
    about, its learning for. In STS
    activities, the idea is to not only
    have students learn about the
    relevant science and issues, but to                                      Event leads
                                                                              to...Self-
    take action for the issue.                                              Understanding
                                                                                  (I)

•   What are some events that could be
    used as a starting point for an STS       Integration
                                                            Responsible
                                                            Social Action
                                                                            Re sponsibility   STS Issues
                                                                                               Study and
    teaching cycle? Jot down a few.               (V)                           Cycle
                                                                (IV)                          Reflection (II)


•   Select one of these, and use the
    “responsibility cycle” to describe                                        Decision-
                                                                              Making (III)
    how the event could be turned into
    a series of STS teaching
    experiences.                                       Figure 11.5: STS Responsibility Cycle


                            Science, Technology, and Society
                                                                409-412


                         STS Methods
•   Which of the following STS
    methods would you use to help
    students deal with this issue: The
    local community want to fill in a
    small pond that is adjacent to their
    school because it causing an “eye-
    sore” to the environment.
•   STS Value Dilemma Sheet
•   STS Action Dramas
•   Action Voting
•   Online Dilemma Discussion
•   Think Piece
•   Action Project

                             Science, Technology, and Society
                                                                                            410


                                             Case Study
                                                                    • Case studies enable students to
                                                                      learn about issues important to
                  Case Studies                                        them, and also to develop high
Is a Mars Sample Return Mission Too Risky?                            level thinking skills in a debate
Should Dinosaurs be "Cloned" from Ancient                             environment.
DNA?
Selecting the Perfect Baby: Prenatal Genetic                        • You can combine this strategy
Diagnosis                                                             with the Structured Controversy
Morgan: A Case of Diabetes                                            presented in Chapter 9.
The Tokaimura Accident: Nuclear Energy and
Reactor Safety                                                      • Visit the National Center for
                                                                      Case Study Teaching in Science
Source: National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, State
                                                                      and sketch out how you would
University of New York at Buffalo                                     implement one of the case in a
                                                                      middle or high school science
                                                                      course.

                                              Science, Technology, and Society
                                                            411-412


                    Action Projects
• Use the information in the text,
  p. 412 and the cycle shown here
  to design an action project for
  one of the following topics:
    – Waste disposal
    – Pollution problems and control
    – Recycling efforts and
      conservation
    – Zoning of land
    – Energy issues
    – Environmental protection
    – Local endangered wildlife
      concerns


                         Science, Technology, and Society
                 STS Dilemma Sheet
                                                              Nuclear Power Plant Dilemma Sheet
•   By use of a provocative statement                                     The Dilemma
                                                     On April 26, 1986, in what was the world’s largest
    (or illustration), an issue is raised            nuclear disaster ever, a reactor at the Chernobyl
                                                     nuclear power plant in the Soviet Union exploded ,
    that has implications for students to            releasing vast quanti ties of radioactive material into
                                                     the atmosphere. Clouds of fallout covered large areas
    consider.                                        of Europe, contaminating food supplies and
                                                     increasing the rate of cancer in human beings. The
•   Photocopy or project the dilemma                 ongoing clean up has cost $14 billion so far, and over
                                                     250 people have died. Consult this site for furth er
    shown here to the class. Read the                information:
    dilemma aloud as the class follows               http:/ /www. nucleartourist.com/events/chernobl.ht m.
                                                     Following the Chernobyl disaster, one NRC member
    along. Pair students off, and have               estimated the chance of an accident in the U.S. as big
                                                     or bigger occurring by 2005 to be as high as 45
    them respond in writing to the two               percent. In 1989, c itizens of Sacramento, California
                                                     voted to shut do wn the publicly owned Rancho Seco
    questions shown here (there are                  nuclear power plant because it was unsafe and
                                                     uneconomical.
    more questions--refer to p. 409-                                  Dilemma Questions
                                                     1. Some people think th at nuclear power plants are
    410).                                            unsafe not because of an accident might h appen, but
                                                     because the nuclear industry has not figured out a
•   Conduct a class discussion using                 safe method fo r discarding the radioactive waste
                                                     products produced by nuclear plants. Discuss your
    the two questions as a guide.                    feelings on this matter.
                                                     2. Would you buy a house or take a job that was
                                                     within a mile of a nuclear power plant?

                             Science, Technology, and Society
                                                                                  412-414


               STS Module Design
• Using the details of the STS
  Module design in the Art of
  Teaching Science and the cycle
  shown here, develop the outline
  for a module on one of these
  topics:
    –   Skin Cancer
    –   Ground-level ozone
    –   Acid rain
    –   Biological terrorism
    –   Tornado preparedness
    –   Drinking water
                                                    Design source: Harold Hungerford, University
                                                    of Southern Illinois
                          Science, Technology, and Society
                                                                             414

      Inquiry 11.2: STS Issues in
          Science Textbooks
• This inquiry will give you a
  good idea about the kinds of
  STS issues presented in modern
  science textbooks.
• You will use the results of a
  research study to analyze the
  nature and extent of STS issues
  in science texts.
• What STS issues are
  emphasized in the texts you
  studied? How does that
  compare with others who did
  the inquiry?

                                                          Source: Holt, Rinehard & Winston, Dallas,
                       Science, Technology, and Society   Texas; Life Science text, grades 6-8
                                                                                                          414-425

   STS Themes & How to Teach
            Them
• There are many potential
                                           Rank o rder in descending order of importance or make a concept map
  themes for STS topics. In this           showing the relationships among the STS themes shown to the left.

  section of the Art of Teaching           Rank O rder:
  Science, the following are                                                         STS
                                                                                    Themes

  presented:                                                              linking words   linking words


    –   Population Growth
                                                                                                                   linking words
    –   Air Quality and Atmosphere                               linking words
                                                                                                   linking words


    –   Energy
    –   Effects of Technological
                                                                 linking words
        Development                              linking words                                                linking words



    –   Hazardous Substances
    –   Water Resources
    –   Utilization of Natural
        Resources
    –   Environment
                          Science, Technology, and Society
                                                           414-425


         Note About the Themes
• Each theme is presented
  via:
   – Background information
   – A specific topic is identified
   – STS actions are described
     for the theme
   – Resources
• The material presented
  here can be used to
  develop individual STS
  lessons, or develop a
  complete 3 - 5 week unit
  of study.
                        Science, Technology, and Society
                                                             417-418

               Theme: Air Quality &
                   Atmosphere
• There are many opportunities to
  involve students in this STS
  Theme. The text material
  presents information on acid
  rain, and includes some STS
  actions.
• You can also visit online
  projects such as GLOBE and
  see not only how they
  investigate the atmosphere, but
  other topics as well.
• Following this slide are five
  slides that take you through an
  international projects on clean
  air--studying ground-level
  ozone                   Science, Technology, and Society
  International Clean Air Project
The location of schools participating
in the clean air project.




                     Science, Technology, and Society
      Researching Ozone Locally




Reading Ozone Level                      What’s the wind speed?
                   Science, the school level
    Using simple tools atTechnology, and Society to monitor the air
                        Ecobadge
The Ecobadge is a card that changes color in the presence of ground-level ozone. The card shown
on the left is used to read the ozone level in parts per billion. Order from Vistanomics




                      Science, Technology, and Society
                                          Posting Data




A class data table used by the students    Science, Technology, and Society
to post data over a three day period.
Class Discussions




   Science, Technology, and Society
                                      A teacher leading a discussion on the nature of the
                                      Ozone molecule.
Presenting Conclusions
 Teams of students present their findings to the rest of the class. Their results included
 Recommendations for making the air cleaner.




                    Science, Technology, and Society
                                                     424

      Inquiry 11.3: STS Module
               Design
• In this inquiry you will
  make use of the the
  information on
  creating STS modules,
  as well as the section
  on STS issues and
  how to teach them.



                  Science, Technology, and Society
                                                                425-431


        STS Curriculum Examples
•   In this section you will find a
    review of a few STS curricula and
    an associated web site, as well as
    criteria and an Inquiry Activity for
    evaluating STS curricula.
•   The following curriculum projects
    are presented:
     – Education for a Sustainable Future
       (ESF)
     – Science Education for Public
       Understanding Program (SEPUP)
     – ChemCom
     – Project Learning Tree (PLT)
     – BSCS Modules
     – Eco-Connections
     – Project Wild
     – Sustainability Education Project
                             Science, Technology, and Society
                                                    426-428

Education for a Sustainable
       Future ESF
                          •   This is a case study of one project.
                              It was developed by the Concord
                              Consortium and the Cobb and
                              Fulton County School Districts
                              (Georgia).
                          •   Read the case on this innovative
                              project. Identify the following:
                                – The goals of ESF
                                – How the project was developed
                                – Technology contributions of
                                  the project
                                – The scope and sequence of the
                                  project
                                – How the project was evaluated
                                – The ESF web site
        Science, Technology, and Society
                                                  430-431
Inquiry 11.4: Evaluating an STS
       Module or Project
                            • This inquiry is designed for the
                              purpose of evaluating an STS
                              module or project.
                            • You might use it to evaluate the
                              ESF project, or if you created
                              an STS module, use it to review
                              your work.
                            • Use the STS criteria outlined in
                              the chapter and listed in the
                              Inquiry to make your
                              assessment.
                            • What are the results of your
                              evaluation?

          Science, Technology, and Society
                                                       431


                  Think Pieces
• Why should STS be part
  of all science courses?
• In your opinion what are
  the ten most significant
  global STS issues facing
  the planet today? How are
  they related to each other?
• What is global thinking?
• What qualities should be
  included in STS modules?


                    Science, Technology, and Society
                                                     433-435
Science Education Literature: Education
  for Environmental Sustainability by
            David L. Haury
• Read Haury’s article
  and use it to develop a
  rationale for teaching
  environmental
  sustainability in a K-
  12 school district.




                  Science, Technology, and Society

								
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