Polio Eradication measles by mikeholy


									                                 Polio Eradication
Although the number of endemic countries is at an all-time low in 2002, the actual
number of cases was approximately four times higher than last year, mostly because of a
greatly increased number of cases in India and Nigeria.
Nine states within three countries (India, Nigeria and Pakistan) are responsible for over 90
percent of cases reported in 2002.
      In India, 1005 cases were confirmed in 2002, representing 85 percent of new polio
      cases worldwide.
      The northern state of Uttar Pradesh, with a population of 173 million, accounted for 66
      percent of cases in the world.
Surveillance data show the remaining polio burden is caused by a failure to vaccinate at-risk
children both in routine and supplementary immunization activities.
Unless the WHO, the polio eradication partners, and the national governments of the affected
countries urgently address managerial, operational, and political barriers, polio transmission
can be expected to continue throughout 2003 and beyond.
                                                 Polio Eradication
Global Polio Eradication Initiative - G8 contributions
All figures US$ millions
As at Jan 2003
 Country               Contributions to                  Projections         Kananaskis           Total
                             Date                        2003-2005            Pledges         Contributions,
                         1988-2003                         (US$m)              (US$m)      Pledges, Projections
                           (US$m)                                                           1988-2005 (US$m)
 UK                                        354                         31             25                    410

 Canada                                     35                          0             32                     67

 US[1]                                     580                         230                                  810

 Japan[2]                                  200                         60                                   260

 Germany                                    65                          0                                    65

 Italy                                       3                          0                                     3

 France                                      0                          0                                     0

 Russia                                      0                          0                                     0

 EC                                         27                          0                                    27
                    Measles Containment
Measles causes approximately 800,000 deaths each year
     Largest single cause of child vaccine-preventable deaths.
     Fifth-leading cause of death worldwide among children aged <5 years
     and causes more deaths in this age group than either HIV/AIDS or TB.
 Since 1997, all confirmed measles cases in the United States (totaling 540
cases) have been the result of documented or presumed importations from
measles-endemic countries.
Measles vaccine is safe, effective, and cheap ($0.30 per dose including
needle, syringe, and disposal).
U.S. sponsoring resolution on measles at World Health Assembly this year.
       Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization

 Public-Private Partnership begun with $750 million donation from the Bill
and Melinda Gates Foundation; total resources now above $1 billion
HHS/CDC sits on the GAVI Board, along with USAID
Provides countries with resources to strengthen routine immunization
services; pays for vaccines against hepatitis B, Hib disease and yellow fever,
and safe injection materials; and provides a small one-time investment to
help support introduction activities.
GAVI immunization programs are up and running in more than 60 out of
74 eligible countries around the developing world.
Approximately two-thirds of funding used to purchase vaccines and
supplies and the rest is for support for capacity development and
10.5 million children so far vaccinated against Hepatitis B
GAVI Milestones
•By 2005, 80% of developing countries will have routine
immunization coverage of at least 80% in all districts.

•By 2002, 80% of all countries with adequate delivery
systems will have introduced hepatitis B vaccine. By 2007,
all countries.

•By 2005, 50% of poorest countries with high disease
burdens and adequate delivery systems will have introduced
Hib vaccine.

•By 2005, the world will be certified polio-free.

•By 2005, the vaccine efficacy and burden of disease will be
known for all regions for rotavirus and pneumococcal
vaccine, and mechanisms identified to make the vaccines
available to the poorest countries.
            Global Health Security Action Group

   Established in November 2001 by Health Ministers of U.S., Canada, United
    Kingdom, France, Italy, Japan, Germany, and Mexico. European Commission and
    the World Health Organization also participate.
   Promotes cooperation on emergency preparedness and response against threats of
    bioterrorism, including sharing of plans and strategies.
   Cooperative work on vaccine purchasing and stockpiling
   Technical working group on influenza pandemic, chaired by the US and the UK, to
    address existing R&D gaps and needs
International HIV Vaccine Research and
      Clinical Trials
 Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria

Round One: 58 grants in 40 countries;
     $616 million/two years
Round Two: 98 grants in some of the same countries plus 45 new ones;
     $860 million/two years
Major investments in health care systems, including laboratory capacity,
training of personnel, clinical care, support for families and orphans, prevention

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