Common diseases in Saudi Arabia Malta fever by mikeholy

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									Common diseases in
     Saudi Arabia
       Mujahed Al-khathlan
           Turki Al-Osaimi
           Esaa Al-Sonbel
-Common diseases:
1- Communicable disease:
   A disease that is transmitted through direct contact
  with an infected individual or indirectly through a
  vector. Also called contagious disease.

2- Non- Communicable disease.
Diabetes Mellitus, Systemic Hypertension, Obesity.
Coronary Artery Disease
-Communicable disease:
•   Cholera .
•   Diphtheria .       •   Mumps .
•   Whooping cough .   •   Rubella .
•   Tetanus .          •   Chickenpox .
•   Poliomyelitis .    •   Brucellosis .
•   Measles .          •   Meningococcal meningitis .
•   Gonorrhea          •   Meningitis .
                       •   Hepatitis A, B, C.
                       •   Syphilis
Cholera :
   An acute infectious disease of the small intestine.
   Caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae .
   Characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting,
    muscle cramps, severe dehydration.
   Most cases in the eastern area

     Disease           Cases in 2003    Cases in 2004

     Cholera           29               14
 An acute infectious disease caused by the
  bacillus Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
 characterized by the production of a systemic
  toxin and the formation of a false membrane on
  the lining of the mucous membrane of the throat
  and other respiratory passages, causing difficulty
  in breathing, high fever, and weakness.

  Disease          Cases in 2003    Cases in 2004

  Diphtheria       2                No cases
Whooping cough:

   A highly contagious disease of the respiratory
    system, usually affecting children, that is caused by
    the bacterium Bordetella pertussis.
   It is characterized in its advanced stage by spasms of
    coughing interspersed with deep, noisy inspirations.
    Also called pertussis.

    Disease          Cases in 2003      Cases in 2004
    Whooping         120                64
Tetanus neonatorum:

Disease   Cases in 2003   Cases in 2004

Tetanus   31              37

   Poliomyelitis is an acute viral infection caused by an
    RNA virus, that can affect the whole body, including
    muscles and nerves.
   in Severe cases may lead to permanent paralysis
    and possibly death.
    Disease          Cases in 2003 Cases in 2004

    Poliomyelitis    0                2
   Most common in Aseer and jazan.
    Disease        Cases in 2003    Cases in 2004

    Measles         1204            1775

Mumps :
   Most common in jeddah.

    Disease         Cases in 2003   Cases in 2004
    Mumps           749             349
Rubella :

   Most of the cases in the eastern area .

    Disease          Cases in 2003      Cases in 2004

    Rubella          22                 17
Chickenpox :

   An acute contagious disease, primarily of children.
   It is caused by the varicella-zoster virus
   characterized by skin eruptions, slight fever, and

      Disease         Cases in 2003 Cases in 2004

      Rubella         70884           67451
Brucellosis :
•   An infectious bacterial disease of humans that is
    caused by brucellae, transmitted by contact with
    infected animals.
•    characterized by fever, malaise, and headache.
    Also called Malta fever.
•   Most of the cases in Aseer.
     Disease         Cases in 2003 Cases in 2004

     Brucellosis     4534             5169
Meningococcal meningitis:
   Inflammation of the meninges caused by the
    bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus).

Disease            Cases in 2003    Cases in 2004

Meningococcal      44               10

Meningitis pneumococcal:
Disease            Cases in 2003    Cases in 2004
Meningitis         54               53
 Other meningitis :
Disease            Cases in 2003   Cases in 2004
Other meningitis   405             433
Typhoid & Paratyphoid :

   An acute, highly infectious disease caused by a bacillus
    (Salmonella typhi)
   Transmitted chiefly by contaminated food or water.
   Characterized by high fever, headache, coughing,
    intestinal hemorrhaging, and rose-colored spots on the

    Disease           Cases in 2003      Cases in 2004
    Typhoid &         403                365
    Shigellosis :
   Shigellosis is an infection of the intestinal tract by a
    group of bacteria called Shigella.
   The major symptoms are diarrhea, abdominal cramps,
    fever, and severe fluid loss (dehydration).
   Four different groups of Shigella can affect humans.

      Disease          Cases in 2003 Cases in 2004

      Shigellosis      490              310
Salmonellosis :
Disease         Cases in 2003   Cases in 2004
Salmonellosis   2219            1829
Syphilis :
   A chronic infectious disease caused by a spirochete
    (Treponema pallidum).
   Transmitted by direct contact, usually in sexual
    intercourse, or passed from mother to child in utero.
   It progress through three stages characterized
    respectively by local formation of chancres, ulcerous
    skin eruptions, and systemic infection leading to
    general paresis.

Disease             Cases in 2003     Cases in 2004

Syphilis            166               231
Gonorrhea :
   A sexually transmitted disease caused by gonococcal
    bacteria that affects the mucous membrane chiefly of
    the genital and urinary tracts
   It is characterized by an acute purulent discharge and
    painful or difficult urination, women often have no

    Disease          Cases in 2003     Cases in 2004

    Gonorrhea        382               330
Non communicable
 Diseases in Saudi
The most prevalent non communicable
diseases include:

   Systemic Hypertension
   Diabetes Mellitus
   Obesity
   Coronary Artery Disease

   Definition
   Systemic Hypertension is said to exist when an
    individual’s blood pressure is found to be higher
    than what is
   considered normal for that age and sex. According
    to World Health Organisation (WHO) the upper
   limit of diastolic and systolic blood pressure for
    adults is 90 mmHg and 140mm Hg respectively.
Prevalence Trends
   The prevalence of hypertension is 26.1% in crude terms.
   Hypertension is increasing in prevalence in KSA affecting more
    than one fourth of the adult Saudi population. aggressive
    management is recommended of hypertension as well as
    screening of adults for hypertension early to prevent its
    damaging consequences if left untreated.
    Public health awareness of simple measures, such as low salt
    diet, exercise, and avoiding obesity, to maintain normal arterial
    blood pressure need to be implemented by health care providers
    is recommended .
   The level of blood pressure regarded as deleterious has been
    revised down during years of epidemiological studies.
   A widely quoted and important series of such studies is the
    Framingham Heart Study carried out in an American town:
    Framingham, Massachusetts.
   The results from Framingham and of similar work in Busselton,
    Western Australia have been widely applied. To the extent that
    people are similar this seems reasonable, but there are known to
    be genetic variations in the most effective drugs for particular

 Definition
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a group of diseases
  (syndrome) characterized by persistent
  hyperglycemia and a disordered metabolism
  primarily of carbohydrate but also of fats and
  proteins which is due to a relative or absolute
  deficiency of insulin.
Prevalence Trends
   The overall prevalence of DM in adults in KSA is
    A national prevention program at community level
    targeting high risk groups should be implemented
    sooner to prevent DM.
   a longitudinal study to demonstrate the importance
    of modifying risk factors for the development of DM
    and reducing its prevalence in KSA is
Burden of Disease
   In 2006, according to the World Health
    Organization, at least 171 million people worldwide
    suffer from diabetes. Its incidence is increasing
    rapidly, and it is estimated that by the year 2030,
    this number will double.
   Diabetes is in the top 10, and perhaps the top 5, of
    the most significant diseases in the developed
    world, and is gaining in significance there and
   The condition of being obese; increased body weight caused by
    excessive accumulation of fat.
   In the clinical setting, obesity is typically evaluated by measuring
    BMI (body mass index), waist circumference, and evaluating the
    presence of risk factors .
    In epidemiological studies BMI alone is used to define obesity:
   A BMI less than 18.5 is underweight
   A BMI of 18.5 - 24.9 is normal weight
   A BMI of 25.0 - 29.9 is overweight
   A BMI of 30.0 - 39.9 is obese
   A BMI of 40.0 or higher is severely (or morbidly) obese
Prevalence Trends
   Obesity and overweight are increasing in KSA with
    an overall obesity prevalence of 35.5%.
   Reduction in overweight and obesity are of
    considerable importance to public health. Therefore,
    we recommend a national obesity prevention
    program at community level to be implemented
    sooner to promote leaner and consequently
    healthier community .
   While it may often appear obvious why a
    certain individual gets fat, it is far more
    difficult to understand why the average
    weight of certain societies have recently been
    growing. While genetic causes are central to
    understanding obesity, they cannot fully
    explain why one culture grows fatter than
Coronary Artery Disease
   Coronary artery disease is a narrowing or
    blockage of the arteries and vessels that
    provide oxygen and nutrients to the heart. It
    is caused by atherosclerosis ,an
    accumulation of fatty materials on the inner
    linings of arteries.
   The resulting blockage restricts blood flow to
    the heart. When the blood flow is completely
    cut off, the result is a heart attack .
Prevalence Trends
   The overall prevalence of CAD in KSA is 5.5%.
   A national prevention program at community level as
    well as high risk groups should be implemented
    sooner to prevent the expected epidemic of CAD
    that we are seeing, beginning. Measures are
    needed to change lifestyle and to address the
    management of the metabolic syndrome, to reduce
    modifiable risk factors for CAD.
   A longitudinal study is needed to demonstrate the
    importance of reducing modifiable risk factors for
    CAD in KSA .
   Coronary heart disease is the most common form of heart disease in
    the world.
   Prevention centers on the modifiable risk factors, which include
    decreasing cholesterol levels, addressing obesity and hypertension,
    avoiding a sedentary lifestyle, making healthy dietary choices, and
    stopping smoking.
   There is some evidence that lowering uric acid and homocysteine
    levels may contribute.
   In diabetes mellitus, there is little evidence that blood sugar control
    actually improves cardiac risk.
    Some recommend a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin C.
   Saudi Medical Journal
   MOH website

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