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					Feeding Your Cows Cheaper:
Perennial vs. Annual Forages




            Yoana (Joanna) Newman
              Extension Forages
Florida - Operating costs: (8/19/2008)          Jan Feb Mar           Apr May Jun            Jul Aug
 Feed--                                           ------------------$/cwt---------------------------
   Purchased feed                               9.08 8.72 8.64 8.75 10.17 10.70 11.08
   Homegrown harvested feed                     2.08 2.01 2.06 2.30 2.43 2.55 2.77
   Grazed feed                                  0.16 0.16 0.16 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.22
    Total, feed costs                          11.32 10.89 10.86 11.23 12.79 13.45 14.07
 Veterinary and medicine                         0.84   0.80   0.78    0.79   0.81    0.89   0.95
 Bedding and litter                              0.03   0.03   0.03    0.03   0.03    0.03   0.03
 Marketing                                       0.21   0.21   0.21    0.21   0.21    0.21   0.21
 Custom services                                 0.71   0.67   0.66    0.67   0.67    0.73   0.78
 Fuel, lube, and electricity                     0.92   0.88   0.99    1.06   1.15    1.32   1.43
 Repairs                                         0.75   0.71   0.70    0.71   0.72    0.78   0.83
 Other operating costs                           0.00   0.00   0.00    0.00   0.00    0.00   0.00
 Interest on operating capital                   0.32   0.30   0.30    0.30   0.30    0.33   0.35
  Total operating costs                        15.10 14.49 14.52 15.00 16.68 17.74 18.65
                                               75% 75% 75% 75% 77% 76% 75%
Allocated overhead :
 Hired labor                                     3.06   2.89   2.84    2.84   2.85    3.09   3.30
 Opportunity cost of unpaid labor                0.44   0.42   0.41    0.41   0.41    0.45   0.48

 Capital recovery of machinery and equipment     2.32   2.19   2.23    2.29   2.36    2.56   2.73
 Opportunity cost of land (rental rate)          0.04   0.04   0.03    0.04   0.04    0.04   0.04
 Taxes and insurance                             0.29   0.28   0.27    0.27   0.28    0.30   0.32
 General farm overhead                           0.54   0.52   0.54    0.56   0.58    0.64   0.70
  Total, allocated overhead                     6.70 6.34 6.32 6.41 6.52 7.08 7.57
Total costs listed                             21.80 20.82 20.85 21.41 23.20 24.82 26.22
Milk-Feed Price Ratio
Milk-Feed Price Ratio
         Milk-Feed Price Ratio*
             July       June             July
             2008       2008             2007
Milk (cwt)      19.40    19.30   ↑0.5%   21.60   ↓10%

Corn
(bushel)         5.61     5.48   ↑2.4%    3.32   ↑69%
Soybean
(bushel)        14.20    13.20   ↑7.6%    7.56   ↑88%
Alfalfa
Hay (ton)    177.00     172.00   ↑7 0% 137.00    ↑29%

* Source USDA
 To be profitable
something has to
     change
          Dairyman challenge




   Sustaining animal
 production w/ minimal
impact on environment
           Alternative Feeding

Should:
a. Reduce import of feed
   (Using alternative ingredients (greenchop)

b. Contribute to reduction of excess soil
   nutrients (N and P)

c. Keep from increasing the land or facilities
   used to expand manure distribution
   (greenchop, grazing)
Perennial vs. Annual Forage
          Systems
  Perennial vs. Annual Forage Systems

              Forage        Digestibility    Crude Protein
             (lb/acre)           (%)             (%)
System    Winter   Summer    Winter   Summer Winter   Summer

 TMR*       --       --        --       --      --      --
System1   2080     2380       75        68     25       22
System2   2120      4000      75        65     25       19


 •TMR= Corn silage, Alfalfa Hay, Concentrate
 •System 1 = Winter Rye/Ryegrass; Summer: Pearl Millet
 •System 2 = Winter Rye/Ryegrass; Summer: Tifton-85
            Production and Costs
                      Cost       Cost    Cost      Profit
          Income
                      Feed       Pasture Total (C) I-C
System      --------------------$/cow/day------------------------
 TMR*       9.5         4.2          --          4.20        5.30
System1     7.9         1.9         0.35         2.30        5.50
System2     8.0         1.8         0.30         2.13         5.8

• Winter & summer stocking rate = 1.5 & 3 cows/acre
•TMR= Corn silage, Alfalfa Hay, Concentrate
•System 1 = Winter Rye/Ryegrass; Summer: Pearl Millet
•System 2 = Winter Rye/Ryegrass; Summer: Tifton-85
            Production and Costs

                Milk       Fat       Prot     SCC
System
              (lb/ac)      (%)       (%)      (x1000)

  TMR*          66        3.69        2.90      654
System1         56        3.60        2.96      223
System2         55        3.70        2.95      364

• Winter & summer stocking rate = 1.5 & 3 cows/acre
•TMR= Corn silage, Alfalfa Hay, Concentrate
•System 1 = Winter Rye/Ryegrass; Summer: Pearl Millet
•System 2 = Winter Rye/Ryegrass; Summer: Tifton-85
Single and Double Cropping
      Forage Systems
                                             Seasonal Forage Production of Common
                                                    Southern Grass Forages
                                4000
                                                Warm season           Stockpiled BG         Oats
Dry Matter Production (kg/ha)


                                3500
                                                Wheat/Rye             Ryegrass
                                3000

                                2500

                                2000

                                1500

                                1000

                                 500

                                   0
                                       Jan    Feb   Mar   April May June July   Aug Sept   Oct   Nov   Dec


Mixtures of species → maximizes total
production
     Forage management strategies

• Single & double cropping
Harvest Management        ψ P-uptake   Source
                           (kg ha-1)
Winter grain                18-22      Brown, 2006

Winter grain + corn           65       Brown, 2006

Corn silage                 38-40      McCollum & Bean,
                                       2003
Forage sorghum              51-63      McCollum & Bean,
                                       2003
Bermudagrass + wheat         78        Sanderson &
                                       Jones, 1997
T-85 bermudagrass + rye      80        Woodard, K
                                       (unpublished)
   Annual herbage harvested
N rate     Bahiagrass Limpograss Stargrass

kg ha-1      --------------------Mg ha-1-------------------------
  67*         11.9 a               6.1 a                12.5 a
  90          12.3 a               6.4 a                13.1 a
  134         12.8 a               7.3 a                13.9 a
Contrast       NS                   NS                   NS


* Lowest N rate (67) is IFAS recommendation
    Herbage P concentration
N rate     Bahiagrass Limpograss Stargrass

kg ha-1       --------------------g kg-1-------------------------
  67*         2.0 a                1.2 a                 2.9 b
  90          1.9 a                1.2 a                 3.8 a
  134         2.0 a                1.2 a                 2.8 b
Contrast       NS                   NS                    Q*


* Lowest N rate (67) is IFAS recommendation
Tifton 85 bermudagrass Greenchop
           Year 1 Results
                 Crude Protein
a
            ab                              ab
                 ab             a
    b                                   a
                      bc                         b       b
                            c




                  a
a                                           b

                           ab
        b                           a
                                                     a
NDF digestibility @ 48 hrs
     b       b                                 a
                                  a
                 ab
 a
                                      ab
                      c                                    b
                                                   b

                              d




 a               a
         a

                                  a        a

                                                       b
                          b
                                     TDN


    a       a   a                          a           a
a                                                  a
                        a
                                                           ab
                                 b
                                                                    b




                    b                                  b
                            ab
        a
a                                              a                a
In vitro true digestibility @ 48 hrs
         a       a                   a
                     a                           a
    ab
                                             b
                             b
                                                     b
a                                                            b


                                 c




                         b
    a        a
                                                 a
                                         a
                                                         b
                                 c
Herbage DM Yield
Herbage DM Yield
Conclusions…
Systems based on perennial grasses
is an attractive option toward
cheaper production of feeds:
  * Yield
  * Nutritive value
  * Excess soil nutrient removal
    capacity.

				
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