Business Cases for Support Workflow

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					Workflow Modeling:
The Approach in a Nutshell
Chapter 4

Slide 1              Workflow Modeling
Process – Results, not work
 a collection of interrelated activities,
 initiated in response to a triggering
 event, achieving a specific, discrete
 result for the customer and other
 stakeholders of the process
       result - must be specifically identifiable
       and countable
              E.g., how many items shipped?
       customer – internal or external person
       or organization expecting a result from
       a process
       Complete definition in Chapter 3
 Slide 2
                                               Workflow Modeling
Essential Components of a

                              Steps and decisions
Triggering event:
                                    (“work”)                           Result:
· Action or decision                                                   · Product
· Time                                                                 · Service
· Condition             Name: Action verb + noun                       · Information
                        Workflow models will show
                        the flow of work, from trigger to result:
                        Who, does, what, when

   Slide 3
                Reference: Figure 3.4, Chapter 3, page 45           Workflow Modeling
Criteria of a Well-Formed
 Comprises activities; initiated by
 triggering event
 Name is in the singular; indicates
 intended result
 Result must be discrete and
 countable; must be what customer
 of process wants
       Good: Deliver Shipment process
              how many items shipped?
       Bad: Logistics process
              how many logistics?

 Slide 4
                  Reference: Chapter 3, page 46   Workflow Modeling
Process vs. Function
 Process: delivers a result to the
 Function: an occupation or
 department that concentrates skills
       A kind of work or a field
       customer service, research,
       engineering, manufacturing, logistics,
       marketing, sales, human resources,
       finance, shipping, billing, collections,
       and accounting

 Slide 5
                                       Workflow Modeling
Business Process:
Key Learning Points
 A process has an event at the
 beginning, and a countable result at
 the end, produced for a customer
 (who likely triggered the initiating
 Most business processes cross
 departments and functions.
       E.g., Move Telephone Service spans across Customer
       Service, Facilities Management, etc. (Figure 3.6,
       Chapter 3, page 48)

 Slide 6
                                               Workflow Modeling
 a structure for discovering,
 organizing, and presenting ideas or
 Framework Examples
           2 x 2 matrix – to categorize product
           Three Ts—topic, target, and time frame –
           to state clear and actionable objectives
              Topic: telephone hold time for calls to the customer
               service line;
              Target: 60 seconds or less 98% of the time;
              Time frame: within 45 days.
           Framework for process enablers
              see next slide for details

 Slide 7
                                                          Workflow Modeling
Framework for process

                          Mission, strategy, goals, and objectives


                                    Business Process

 enable       enable            enable                  enable        enable               enable

Workflow    Information      Motivation &               Human        Policies &        Facilities (to
 Design       Systems        Measurement               Resources       Rules              other)

  Slide 8
              Reference: Figure 4.1, Chapter 4, page 69                      Workflow Modeling
Why it works (1)
 It includes methods for addressing
 all of the factors (enablers) that
 support a process, and the
 environmental factors that
 constrain it
 frameworks and guidelines to
 ensure that real business processes
 are identified

 Slide 9
                             Workflow Modeling
Why it works (2)
 process modeling technique that
 is simple to read and highlights the
 role played by individual
 participants—this increases
 participation, buy-in, and accuracy.
 integrates process-oriented and
 IT-oriented efforts by including
 techniques that support the
 transition from process
 improvement to requirements
 definition activities.
 Slide 10
                             Workflow Modeling
Three-tier Information
Systems Architecture

            Mission, strategy, goals,
                 and objectives


               Business Process

            Information Systems
                                                    Business Services
             (functionality, data)

                                                    Data Management

 Slide 11
              Reference: Figure 4.3, Chapter 4, page 74            Workflow Modeling
Five-tier Framework for
Business Analysis
  Business Objectives                    Describes the markets and
  Technique: Project Charter             customers of the enterprise…

  Business Process                       Organize people, resources and
  Technique: Workflow Modeling           activities to deliver value to customers

  Presentation Services                  Human and computer / information
  Technique: Use Cases                   system interaction

  Business Services                      ”Service” offered by a system – a specific
  Technique: Service Specification       function with rules and data integrity

  Data Management Services               Databases to maintain data needed
  Technique: Data Modeling               by the enterprise

 Slide 12
              Reference: Figure 4.4, Chapter 4, page 75          Workflow Modeling
 Overall methodology employed by
 successful process improvement
 and application development
 Has 3 phases:
      Frame the process
      Understand the current (as-is) process
      Design the new (to-be) process

 Slide 13
                                    Workflow Modeling
Phase 1
 Frame the process —includes
 identifying a business process,
 clarifying its boundaries,
 performing an initial
 assessment, and establishing
 goals for the redesigned

 Slide 14
                          Workflow Modeling
Phase 2
 Understand the current (as-
 is) process —includes
 modeling its workflow, and
 performing a more specific

 Slide 15
                       Workflow Modeling
Phase 3
 Design the new (“to-be”)
 process —includes devising
 potential improvements,
 assessing them, selecting the
 main characteristics of the
 process, and finally designing
 the new workflow.

 Slide 16
                           Workflow Modeling
After the Three-Phase
 Identify and develop
 business services, use cases
 and use case scenarios —
 makes the transition into
 system requirements analysis
 by describing how process
 actors would interact with a
 system to complete tasks.
 Slide 17
                        Workflow Modeling
 Three-phase Project

  Phase 1: Frame the                  Phase 2: Understand                       Phase 3: Design to-
       process                           as-is process                             be process

- Build overall process map         - Build as-is swimlane diagrams          - Determine process
                                            - As little detail as possible           characteristics
- Select and describe target                – stop when process                - Decide approach (as-is,
       process                              behavior is understood                   improve)
                                                                               - Define key features
- Document enterprise mission,      - Asses as-is workflow
      strategy, goals                 - Record initial thoughts              - Develop to-be workflow
                                      - Identify leverage points               - Check viability at each level
- Summarize in a poster               - asses each enabler                     - Conceptual data model

       Slide 18
                        Reference: Figure 4.7, Chapter 4, page 84                    Workflow Modeling
Phase 1: Frame the process
 Identify related processes: include the
 target process to be improved, draw Overall
 Process Map
 Clarify the scope of the target process:
 triggering event, sub-processes, result for each
 stakeholder, cases/variations
 Clarify as-is process elements: functional
 areas, actors and responsibilities
 Assess as-is process by stakeholder
 (initial): context and consequence of inaction
 Specify to-be process goals: subjective and
 Specify performance metrics: customer-
 focused outcomes
 Develop glossary of terms and definitions and
 summarize—construct and distribute a poster
 Slide 19
                                       Workflow Modeling
Phase 2: Understand the as-is
 Map the current process workflow to
 show who does what, when
        stop when process behavior can be assessed
        and understood
 Investigate all other enablers
 Record initial thoughts on strengths
 and weaknesses of the current
 process, especially leverage points
 where significant improvement is
 Conduct final as-is assessment
 Slide 20
                                         Workflow Modeling
Phase 3: Design the to-be
A) Characterize the To-Be Process
   Decide on direction: abandon, stay as-is,
   improve, redesign, or outsource
   Develop ideas for characteristics or features of
   the new process
   Assess promising ideas in context
   Based on the assessment, select the key
   features of the to-be process
   Develop/revise conceptual data model
B) Design the To-Be Process Workflow
   Draw the to-be workflow
         Progress through the different levels of detail
   Assess, revise, repeat
  Slide 21
                                                     Workflow Modeling
After the Three-Phase
 Transition to looking at how information
 systems can support the to-be process
 Identify business services
   Business events or essential results
   Needs of specific actors
 Identify use cases
   Review the to-be process workflow
   Determine which step an actor need to
   access a service
 Develop individual use case scenarios
   Set of use cases that exercises the to-be
   Focus on the dialogue
 Slide 22
                                      Workflow Modeling

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