Malaria Control by mikeholy

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									Malaria Control
     Jody Collinge
  Global CHE Network
     Where does malaria occur?
Areas at risk:
   How does malaria spread?




Source: Roll Back Malaria. What is malaria?
      What determines the spread of
                malaria?
Malaria spread depends on:
   •Rainfall pattern
      (How does this affect
      mosquito breeding?)             Female Anopheles mosquito
                                      What do you notice about it?
   •Types of mosquitoes in the area
   •How close are people to the breeding sites?
Some areas constantly have a high rate of malaria.
Other areas have “malaria seasons” or occasional
epidemics of malaria.
         How often does malaria occur
                in your area?
   Is it common and frequent throughout the
    year?
     Young children and pregnant women are at
      highest risk in these areas
     With frequent exposure, adults develop some
      immunity to malaria
   Or is it seasonal, occurring in bursts during
    rainy season or times of flooding?
       Who is at risk in these areas?
      What problems does malaria cause?
     Every 30 seconds, a child dies from malaria.
     Nearly one million people die from malaria every
      year.
     Most of those dying are African children.
     About one half of the world’s population is at risk
      of malaria.
     Malaria also hurts the economy.
     That sounds pretty bleak.
     What hope do we have?
Source of statistics: WHO. 2009. Malaria Fact Sheet.
    Malaria is preventable and curable.
   The focus of this talk will be on preventing
    malaria.
   But it is also important to stress early and
    effective treatment of malaria.
Main Symptoms:
   •Fever
   •Headache
   •Chills
   •Vomiting
These usually
start about 10 to
15 days after the
mosquito bite.
                 Severe Malaria
   There are 4 types of      Severe malaria can cause:
    malaria.                   Coma

                               Breathing problems
   One of them,
    falciparum malaria, can    Anemia

    cause severe malaria.      Jaundice

                               Kidney failure
   How common is
                               Shock
    falciparum malaria in
                               Death
    your area?
Mosquitoes and Malaria
            The spread of malaria depends
             on the life cycle of the
             mosquito.
            Adult mosquitoes lay their eggs
             on water.
            The eggs hatch to become
             larvae and then pupae, before
             turning into adults.
            Adult females mosquitoes only
             live 2 to 4 weeks.
            So you can reduce malaria by
             attacking any of these four
             stages of the mosquito.
What is happening here? Why?
Where do mosquitoes breed?




  Tire tracks                  Irrigation water

                                     Any place
                                     there is water!
                                     So what is one
                                     way to reduce
                Rice paddies         malaria?
 Describe what is happening.
How does this reduce malaria?




                           Source: Health
                           Education
                           Program for
                           Developing
                           Countries. 2009.
        How can you kill mosquito larvae?

   Some fish, such as mosquitofish, carps,
    and Tilapia, eat mosquito larvae.
   Dragonflies, and perhaps also birds,
    bats, and lizards also kill larvae.
   Larvae can also be killed by surface
    films or by some chemicals such as
    methoprene that are toxic to
    mosquitoes.
   Check with your local health
    department to see what steps they are
    taking.
The main strategy for malaria control:
  Attack the adult mosquitoes, or
  prevent them from biting people.
   What is happening here?         Can you think of
                                    any risks to these
                                    approaches?




               Some risks:
               1. Toxicity of DDT
               2. Resistance of       How does indoor residual
                  mosquitoes          spraying work?
What are ways to prevent mosquito bites?

   Use mosquito repellants.
   Wear long pants and long sleeves.
   Wear light-colored clothes.
   Use window screens
   Use bed nets.
What are different types of bed nets?

1.   Traditional bed nets
2.   Insecticide-treated
     nets (ITNs)
3.   Long-lasting
     insecticidal nets
     (LLINs)


Which type of nets do you use?
How do nets that are treated with insecticides
work?
    Insecticide-Treated Nets (ITNs)
   What is happening here?
   What needs to happen within six months?
   Can you think of any practical challenges?
           Source: HEPFDC, 2009.
Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets
          (LLINs)
                 These are pretreated with
                  insecticides.
                 They last about 3 to 5 years,
                  and do not need to be
                  retreated.
                 They are an effective and
                  inexpensive way to prevent
                  malaria.
                 They are recommended by the
                  World Health Organization
                 Are you using them?
 Other Ways to Prevent Malaria
Who is at the highest risk of malaria?
     Travelers to an area high in malaria
          Travelers often take prophylactic (preventive)
           medicines to prevent malaria.
     Pregnant women (especially those with HIV)
          Pregnant women are given intermittent preventive
           treatment. They are given at least 2 doses of a
           malaria drug during their pregnancy.
     Young children
          How can you protect young children?
              Malaria Vaccine
   Scientists are working on a new malaria
    vaccine.
   The vaccine would help protect children from
    deadly malaria.
   The vaccine boosts the immune response
    against malaria.
   However, the vaccine is still being tested.
     Early and effective treatment
   Children are at a high risk of malaria.
   They have little immunity or defense against
    malaria.
   So be sure to:
     Diagnose malaria early. In malaria areas, any
      child with a fever may have malaria.
     Treat children with malaria promptly.
     Use a combination of medicines, so there is less
      resistance to the treatment.
Suspect malaria when a child in an
 area of malaria risk has a fever.




 Source: World Health Organization/ UNICEF. Integrated Management
 of Childhood Disease chart booklet.
             What can you do?
   What are some ways that your CHE teams
    can work to prevent malaria?
   What are practical steps that you can take?
   What can you do?
   Make a list:
     1. Find out about malaria in your
                community
   Do PLA activities focused on malaria.
   Visit families to ask them about their
    experiences with malaria.
   Ask about bed nets.
   Check for standing water.
   Visit the local health center.
   Use KAP surveys.
          2.Teach about malaria
   Teach about malaria      Go to our Global CHE
    and malaria              Network site for stories and
    prevention.              lessons about malaria, for
   Use health stories for   both adults and children.
    malaria teaching.
                             Where can you teach
   You will enjoy the          about malaria?
    malaria comic book.
                             1. During home visits
   Do skits; make
                             2. In community
    posters; tell stories;
    be creative!                meetings
                             3. At the health center
                                and local school
        3. Do community cleanup
   Check with your health center. They may
    work together with you on this.
   Get rid of any sources of standing water (old
    tires, cans, jars, pools of water).
   Cover any water containers.
4. Encourage the use of long-lasting
         insecticidal nets
Ask:
 Where can you buy them?
 How much do they cost?
 How can you distribute them?
     On home visits?
     During vaccination campaigns?
     On another heath campaign?

   How can you teach about them and
    encourage families to use them?
     5. Investigate indoor residual
                spraying
Who is doing it in your community?
 What chemical are they using?

 Are there any problems or side effects?

 What does it cost?
6. Know how to recognize malaria and
     where to go for malaria care
   CHEs should know when to suspect malaria and
    when to refer people for health care.
   Check with your health center: How is malaria
    diagnosed and treated in your area?
   Don’t wait! Be sure to get treatment right away.
   Learn how to use the IMCI chart. (IMCI is
    Integrated Management of Childhood Illness.)
   CHEs can help families get health care and also do
    follow-up visits.
              7. Do home visits
   Has anyone been sick with malaria?
   What are they doing to prevent malaria?
   Are they using bed nets?
   Is the area around the home clean and free of
    standing water?
   Do a KAP survey.
   Teach about malaria.
   Help the family get medical care when needed.
     Resources on the Global CHE
           Network website


Go to:
    http://chenetwork.org/member_resources/malaria.php
You will find:
1. Malaria lessons for adults and children
2. Malaria stories for adults and children
3. A malaria comic book
4. A movie on the Malaria Initiative
                  In conclusion
   Malaria is a serious disease that kills up to 1 million
    people a year.
   But malaria can be prevented.
   And malaria can be treated.
   We need to work together to prevent malaria and
    to encourage prompt and effective treatment.
   What steps are you taking to prevent malaria?
   Have you taken our malaria survey yet?
   Join the Global CHE Network in our malaria
    campaign.
                                 References
   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. Anopheles Mosquitoes. Available
    from: http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/biology/mosquito/index.htm
   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. Malaria. Available from:
    http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/
   Health Education Program for Developing Countries. 2009. Available from:
    http://www.hepfdc.info/
   Wikipedia. 2010. Malaria. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaria
   Wikipedia. 2010. Mosquito. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosquaito
   Wikipedia. 2010. Mosquito control. Available from:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosquito_control
   World Health Organization. Integrated Management of Childhood Illness chart booklet.
   World Health Organization. 2009. Malaria Fact File. Available from:
    http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en/index.html
   World Health Organization. 2010. Ten Facts on Malaria. Available from:
    http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/malaria/en/index.html
   World Health Organization. Roll back malaria. Available from:
    http://rbm.who.int/cmc_upload/0/000/015/372/RBMInfosheet_1.htm

								
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