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Low Emission Leeds City Region - Dave Cherry


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                OCT 7TH 2010, LEEDS

Presented by:
Dave Cherry MIOA, IEMA, CEnv.
Environmental Assessment Manager
Transport Policy
City Development
Leeds City Council

•   Why Climate Change is Man’s Greatest Threat

•   Will we Comply with EC Directives for Air Quality?

•   Strategic Drivers for Low Emission Vehicles

•   Regional Group Initiatives for Low Emission Strategies

•   Draft West Yorkshire Local Transport Plan 2011-26

•   Leeds Initiatives for Promotion of Low Emission Vehicles
            Levels of Climate Change

□ Serious climate change,
  global surface temp rise
  +2C to +3C
□ Dangerous climate
  change = +3C to +5C
□ Catastrophic climate
  change = >5C
Impact of 4 Degree Celsius Rise in Global Surface Temperature

 □ Land saturation & flash overland run-off
    GALES 2007

   FLOODS 2007             BLIZZARD 2005
Going Beyond Dangerous Climate Change!
□ Attended lecture by Prof Kevin Anderson/Director of
  Tyndall Centre (Leeds Uni, May 4th, 2010)
     Emergency situation, GHG‟s increased by 3.5%/pa between
     Must consider cumulative effect of emissions/time
     Copenhagen/EU/UK all still assuming +2C could be avoided
     Need global 10%/pa reduction in GHG, after peak oil ~2020,
      to hold at +2C (Huge lifestyle changes to reduce GHG‟s)
     Present projections indicate +4C (Unstable + Feedbacks)
□ Urgent need to reduce GHG‟s & Climate Proof against
  unavoidable Climate Change
Air Quality Problems in Leeds City Region

□ UK Environmental Audit Committee 2009/10
     Air pollution related premature deaths in UK, at least 35,000
□ Particulate matter (PM2.5)
     Typically reduces life expectancy in UK by 7 to 8 months
     Recognised there is no safe exposure level
□ Annual Health Costs incurred by Poor Air Quality
  (DEFRA: Approx £15 billion in the UK)
□ Non Compliance of EC Directive for Air Quality
     Most conurbations in LCR will fail Directive for NO2
     Government applying for EU Compliance Flexibility!
Air Quality Problems in Leeds City Region
□ Most conurbations in LCR have declared AQMA’s
     Failure to meet health based standards for NO2 & PM10
□ Trend in Urban Air Quality/NO2
     Little improvement since year 2000
□ Modern Diesels (Euro 4+)
     Significant improvements for PM (Particulate traps)
     Increased proportion of NO2, within total NOx
□ Transport Emissions
     Greatest source of urban NO2 & Pm10/2.5
     Transport emits 24% of LCR total carbon emissions
     Need complimentary actions to reduce transport
      emissions of both carbon & air pollutants
 York CC have declared 6 AQMA‟s
York CC have declared
Annual Average NO2 for Leeds AURN Site
Strategic Drivers for Low Emission Vehicles

□ Strategic/Council Business/Asset Mangt Plans
     UK target for 80% reduction in CO2 by 2050, baseline 1991/2
     Must reduce carbon footprint/promote sustainable transport
□ Leeds Climate Change Action Plan 2009
     NI 185: Target to reduce Council Operations CO2 by 3.4%,
      between 2008/9 & 2010/11 (Achieved)
     Commitment to cut CO2 by 40%, between 2008/9 & 2020/21
□ Draft West Yorks Local Transport Plan 2011-26
     Develop Low Carbon Transport System
     Target for 2026, to reduce carbon emissions by 27%
     Achieve National Air Quality Objectives for NO2 & Pm10
Strategic Drivers for Low Emission Vehicles
□ Leeds Environmental Policy 2008/11
     Promotes Sustainable Transport Systems
     Need to reduce Ecological & Carbon footprints
□ National Air Quality Strategy 2000
     Compliance of UK/EC Air Quality Regs/Directive for NO2/PM10
     Compliance of the EC Directive for NO2
□ Development of New Waste Strategy
     Developing Leeds Waste Management Plan, considering
      Energy from Waste & Anaerobic Digestion
□ Environmental Noise Directive
     DEFRA West Yorkshire Road Noise Maps, identify First Priority
      Locations for noise mitigation
        Regional Group Initiatives for LCR
□ Promote the use of Low Emission Vehicles in LCR.
  (This event hosted by Leeds, funded by LESP)
□ Promote the Plugged in Places (Electric vehicles) bid for
  LCR & Yorkshire, (Matthew Lunsden/Sally Herbert)
      CO2Sense Yorkshire/ Y&H Electric Vehicle Supply Chain Event)
□ York is developing an overarching Low Emission
  strategy across all Council Services
□ The development of a Template Supplementary
  Planning Document for Air Quality
□ ITS/Leeds University, working with LCR Local
  Authorities, to improve techniques for monitoring &
  modelling of vehicle emissions
Vision for Draft West Yorkshire Local Transport Plan


Low Carbon                               Quality of life

                   Evidence Base

  Carbon             Economic            Quality of life
 challenges          challenges           challenges


 Assets         Choices     Connectivity


                 15 Year Priority Plan

              3 Year Implementation Plan
             Draft WYLTP3 2011-2026
Relevant Carbon Challenges
     Reduce single car occupancy (Improve PT/Smart Travel etc)
     Reduce energy consumption
     Encourage new low emission technologies/infrastructure
     DfT Research suggest LTP measures may provide 30%
      carbon savings, 70% likely from Low Carbon vehicles
□ Relevant Quality of Life Challenges
     Improve air quality
     Reduce transport related environmental noise
     Reduce impact on the natural environment
               Draft WYLTP3 2011-2026
□ WYLTP3: Develop Strategies to deliver/maintain:-
     Transport Assets
     Travel Choices
     Efficient travel connectivity
     Enhancements to the transport system
□ Cross-cutting Implementation Plans to ensure:-
     Carbon Reduction
     Emissions Reduction (Air pollutants & noise)
□ Strategic Urban Modelling/Integrated SA:-
     Will identify adverse impacts/mitigate emissions
                      Leeds City Council
             Business Transport Carbon Emissions
                    14,477 Tonnes in 2007
                                                Welfare Taxis
                                   Grey Fleet                 Parks &
              Fleet - Other          16%                     Countryside
                  14%                                           10%
       Fleet Buses &
         Minibuses                                           Whizz Go
            10%                                                0%
                                                    Fleet Cars
                                                Fleet Vans
              Fleet HGVs (>3.5t)                   13%

65No. RCV’s, 3.5mpg, 1.56 million litres,
                Leeds Biomethane Trial

□ 6 Month Technology Demo Trial, supported by Cenex
□ Assessed performance of Dedicated Gas & Dual-Fuel
  Engine Technology, applied to 26 tonne RCV
     Agreed KPI‟s for 6 month trial, comparison with Diesel variant
     Chassis Reliability: (Routine servicing, Breakdown times,
      Driver defects)
     Driver Acceptability: (Comparison of adverse problems)
     10% Reduction in CO2 (Based on fuel consumption)
     No increase in Noise: (Noise monitoring, idling, waste
   Dedicated Gas/ Mercedes Econic
□ EEV Performance
      Significantly reduced NOx and near zero PM10
      Approx 60% reduction in CO2 (Biomethane from Surrey)
      Noise reductions of 6-11dB(A) (Half as loud)

□ Common Application in EU, was first RHD in UK
□ 100% reliant upon gas supply
□ Disruption due to 11 week strike & poor winter!
□ Performed well, initially slightly less powerful,
  later improvements, want to keep for 3-5 years
□ Annual CO2 saving ~32 tonnes WtW (60%)
  or, 7.6 tonnes Tailpipe (16%)
               Dual Fuel/Dennis Eagle
□ New technology (Oil ignition/gas injection) initially
  developed & by Hardstaff Group for long haul duties.
□ Retains Original Diesel Engine
      Uses Engine Management Technology to substitute a
       percentage of diesel with gas

□ Will operate as diesel only if no gas
□ Pro-rata reduction of CO2 and air pollutant
  emissions, dependant on diesel substitution
□ Not performing well! Jury still out, RCV drive cycle
  may not be best application!
The Mercedes Econic RCV

                          The Dennis Eagle RCV
Mercedes Econic RCV
(As seen on BBC Look North)
     The Trial Refuelling Infrastructure
□ Infrastructure supplied by Gas Container Services
□ Biomethane supplied by Gasrec (Surrey Landfill)
□ Cost of Wet Leasing can be expensive!
  (But need to prove Biomethane RCV‟s are reliable)
□ Rather complicated „Semi Fast fill‟ system
□ System works, with practice can refuel in 5/10 mins
□ Trial extended 3 months due to strike/weather
□ Gas flow meter installed to help accuracy on gas use
 Gas Container Services
Infrastructure, only 100%
certified Biomethane source
in UK
             Vehicle Procurement Issues
□ Vehicle premiums can be quite high
      RCV + £25K (~35% premium)
      Small van + £3k to +£5k (20-25% premium)

□ Existing fuel price differentials suggest pay back for
  Gas RCV within 5 years, aided by high fuel use of RCV.
  (Assumes 87p/kg, no gas station costs)
□ Need to consider „Whole Life‟ costs & slight payload loss
□ Residual Values are untested in UK
□ Leeds taking an active in Procurement Guidance WG
  (Will aid group procurement/reduced premium costs)
               Operational Issues

□ The Operation of Gas vehicles involves more than
  simply purchasing the vehicles
□ Initially requires local main dealer support
□ Longer term, may require in-house workshop
  alterations and suitable training of Mechanics and
□ Health and Safety Requirements
□ Up to 10% reduced payloads, risks of double shifts,
  or extra vehicles
          Permanent Refuelling Station
               Chicken and Egg!

□ Operation of vehicles need reliable/secure fuel supply.
□ Investment in refuelling infrastructure can be difficult
  to justify whilst operating a small No. of vehicles
□ Change from small Nos. of vehicles to a “critical mass”
  is difficult without suitable refuelling infrastructure.
□ Working with Cenex, to understand optimum vehicles
  Nos/size of station/investment strategy.
     Use of IGP for Gas Refuelling Station
□ IGP bid for £75K accepted July, provides match funding
  to enable procurement of own gas refuelling.
□ LTP2 has recently approved 25% funding
□ Awaiting final decision for remaining 25%, using Leeds
  Energy Efficiency Fund
□ If successful, a permanent station sited in RCV depot
□ Will enable Leeds fleet to procure more gas vehicles
□ Facility available to 3rd parties, but H&S issues would
  limit Nos.
□ Potential RGI partners to operate/trial gas vehicles
     Other Biomethane Initiatives for LCR
□ Aspiration to set up a Strategic Gas Refuelling Station
□ Possible site, Aire Valley Leeds/Urban Eco-settlement,
  proposed Renewable Energy Park, close to M1.
□ Links with developing Leeds Waste Strategy
□ Build on Leeds Biomethane trials/RGI initiatives, invite
  to work with DfT Biofuels Team,
□ Looking for additional RGI Partners? (YAS, Sainsbury's,
  Leeds City College, Quarry House & Yorkshire Water)
□ Need long term local source of Biomethane
         Low Carbon Vehicle Procurement
              Programme (LCVPP)
□   The LCVPP aims to accelerate the introduction of lower carbon
    technologies onto the UK vehicle market.
□   Opportunity to demonstrate the real-world performance of low
    carbon technologies in high profile public sector fleets.
□   £20m available to meet premium costs of procuring LC vehicles
□ Under the LCVPP, Leeds currently trialling:-
       19no. Diesel Electric Hybrids (Ashwoods/Ford Transit
       5no. All electric plug ins (Smiths / Ford Transit)
□   Will monitor performance & compare with diesel variant
    LCVPP: Recharging of Smith’s Electric &
        Ashwood’s Hybrid Transit Van
          Other Leeds Fleet Initiatives
□ Fleet driver training, includes MiDAS & SAFED Eco-
  driving techniques/Cert of Prof Competence
□ Use of Masternaut to improve journey planning
□ 6 Welfare Minibus Merc Sprinters, using Eco Stop/Start
□ Trialling Fuel-Save/On Demand
   Hydrogen Generator
□ Trialled tyre pressure sensors, often seized, now daily
  daily tyre pressure checks
□ Lord Mayor‟s Toyota Prius
        New Generation Transport (NGT)
□ High quality trolleybus system representing „step change‟
□ High levels of segregation
□ 14.3 kms granted programme entry
□ Essential characteristics include:
       Punctual and reliable
       Modern, safe and secure
       High quality information
       Park & Ride facilities
       Fully Accessible
□ Low emission transport, regeneratic braking
□ Key objective to initiate modal shift
       Expected AM peak 40% modal shift from car, (Including Park Ride)
□ Awaiting Government funding decision
          Summary of Presentation
□ Urgent action is needed to reduce Transport
  related GHG’s emissions
□ Low Emission Vehicle Technologies will
  significant reduce transport GHG emissions
□ LEV’s will require supporting Infrastructure
□ Group Procurement & increased use of LEV’s
  will greatly improve economic viability
□ Widespread use of LEV’s will mitigate Climate
  Change, improve local air quality & noise

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