Business Charts and Graphs

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					                            6411
COURSE                                           Unit B        Software Applications for Business
                     Computer Applications I
                                                          Understand spreadsheets, charts, and
COMPETENCY               4.00          B2         25%
                                                          graphs used in business.
                                                          Understand spreadsheets used in
OBJECTIVE                4.01          B2         20%
                                                          business.

                     •   What formatting options are used in spreadsheets and why?
ESSENTIAL            •   What operations, formulas, and functions are commonly used in
QUESTIONS                spreadsheets? Why?
                     •   What results are produced by the operations, formulas, and functions?


                                       Business Spreadsheets


      • Microsoft Office 2003 was used to create the graphic examples used in this
         objective. Terms for specific functions and operations (such as sum, spreadsheet,
         and workbook) may differ if using software other than Microsoft, but will not affect
         the “understand” activities. The focus of the objective is to teach the concepts
         independent of the terminology used by specific software.
      • All of the spreadsheet files are located in the 4.01 Spreadsheet activities folder and
         may be sent to students electronically if needed as a time saver or for students with
         disabilities. Spreadsheets that have been prepared specifically for students are
         labeled as such in the 4.01 activities folder.
      • It is extremely important that the activities in this guide be reviewed and practiced by
         the teacher well in advance of class presentations.
      • An activity tracking sheet is located in the 4.01 Objective folder for student use in
         keeping track of filenames, activities, and grades.
 I.         Spreadsheets and Components of Spreadsheets
            A.     A workbook is a file which contains one or more spreadsheets
            B.     A spreadsheet (or worksheet) is an arrangement of cells in columns and
                   rows used to organize, analyze, calculate, and report information, usually
                   in numerical form
                   •   For the remainder of this objective, the term spreadsheet will be used
            C.     Cells are individual locations on a spreadsheet
                   1.      Cell A4 refers to one specific location
                   2.      Range A4:A16 refers to a group of adjacent cells
                   3.      Column A refers to all of the contents in a vertical range of cells in
                           the first column of the spreadsheet
                   4.      Row 3 refers to all of the contents in a horizontal range of cells on
                           Row 3
                   5.      'All Years'!A6:E16 refers to a range of cells in a specific
                           spreadsheet


      6411 – Computer Applications I            Summer 2008                                 page 1
         D.     Cell data is classified according to its intended purpose
                1.     The label classification is used for cells that contain text or for
                       numbers that will not be used in calculations.
                       a.     A social security number is an example of data that,
                              although it consists of numbers, is treated as a label
                              because its purpose is to identify, not calculate.
                       b.     (Optional) Use an apostrophe before cell data that begins
                              with numbers to indicate that the data should be treated as a
                              label, for example: „456897890
                2.     A value classification indicates that the data has the potential to be
                       used in calculations.
                       a.     Dates
                       b.     Times
                       c.     Percents
                3.     A formula instructs the software to perform a calculation
                       a.     Formulas begin with an equals sign (=). When the equals
                              sign (or in some cases a plus sign (+)) is keyed in a cell, the
                              software “knows” that the data will be used in a calculation.
                       b.     Formulas use the following operators:
                              i.      Addition – indicated by the + symbol and used in
                                      formulas to add cell values
                              ii.     Division – indicated by the / symbol and used in
                                      formulas to divide cell values
                              iii.    Multiplication – indicated by the * symbol and used
                                      in formulas to multiply cell values
                              iv.     Subtraction – indicated by the – symbol and used in
                                      formulas to subtract cell values
                       c.     Calculations are performed according to the Order of
                              Operations
                              i.      In the equation = 5+2*3, the result is 11 because the
                                      multiplication operation is performed first and then
                                      added to the number 5
                              ii.     To change the order of operations, simply place
                                      parentheses around the part of the formula to be
                                      calculated first. Thus, in the equation = (5 + 2) * 3,
                                      the result is 21
                       d.     Formulas can be viewed and printed. In some software, the
                              use of the CTRL +~ will change the spreadsheet mode to
                              formula view
II.      Formatting is applied to spreadsheet components for the purpose of organizing
         and clarifying information. Data that is presented in a uniform and consistent
         format is much easier to understand than data presented with random formats.
         Formatting can be applied to pages, columns, rows, cell ranges, and cells.




  6411 – Computer Applications I            Summer 2008                               page 2
       A.     A header/footer is a feature used to add identifying information to a
              spreadsheet. Information may include the title of the company, the date,
              the page number, time of creation or update, and contact information
       B.     Font Size and Style options are used to clarify information by adding
              emphasis to titles, column headings, and grand totals, etc.
       C.     Justification of cell data including titles (labels) and values (formulas,
              functions, dates, times, and numbers) is used to format cell data for the
              purpose of clarifying and organizing information.
                   •    Left, right, or center justification can be applied globally to columns
                        or rows
                   •The format painter can also be used to apply global formats
              1.    Left – by default, cells formatted as labels are left justified
              2.    Indent is a format applied to cell data to emphasize subcategories,
                    such as the itemized list of expenses in a budget
              3.    Right – by default, cells formatted as values are right justified
                    a.     Values should be formatted uniformly, such as using two
                           decimal places for all like data or currency for total amounts
                    b.     Values can be formatted for a set number of decimal places
                           with or without a comma separator
                    c.     Values can be formatted in a variety of date formats
                    d.     Other formats include time, percentage, fraction, and
                           scientific
              4.    Center – formatting usually applied to titles and column headings
       D.     Adjusting Height, Width, and Size of Cells, Columns, and Rows
              1.    Wrap is applied to cells that require more space when the row or
                    column size is adjusted
              2.    Merge is used to combine adjacent cell ranges or cells
                       •   When merged, the default alignment is center
              3.       Column width is adjusted to fit the longest entry
                       •  The ### symbols, when they appear in a cell, indicate that the
                          width is too small to display the contents
       E.     Borders and Shading are used to emphasize and organize information
              and can be applied to columns, rows, cell ranges, or individual cells
       F.     Editing
              1.      Columns and rows can be inserted, copied, pasted, or deleted
              2.      Cell data can be cleared, copied or pasted
              3.      Columns, rows, and cells can be merged when space
                      requirements are an issue
       G.     Renaming a spreadsheet makes it more user-friendly by adding a
              descriptive identifier to the spreadsheet tab
       H.     Changing the order of spreadsheets is helpful in organizing and
              clarifying information



6411 – Computer Applications I               Summer 2008                                 page 3
III.      Spreadsheet Operations and Functions increase the efficiency of data entry,
          the performing of calculations, and the presentation of information
          A.     Spreadsheet operations
                 1.     Sort is used to arrange data in alphabetical or chronological order
                        a.     A primary sort indicates the primary sort range of data,
                               such as sort by last name
                        b.     A secondary sort indicates the next range, such as first
                               name
                 2.     Freeze panes allows the user to work in multiple areas of a large
                        spreadsheet and focus the view on specific cell ranges
                 3.     Fill Series is used to fill a column or row with consecutive data,
                        such as the days of the week, months, and checkbook numbers
                 4.     Print is used to provide a hard copy
                        a.     Print preview – used to validate how data is represented on
                               paper before printing and to make adjustments to margins,
                               gridlines, and page orientation, etc.
                        b.     Print a selection – used when printing only a portion of a
                               spreadsheet
                 5.     Linking and embedding is used to integrate spreadsheet data
                        with other software applications
                        a.     A word processing document (target) may contain a link to
                               a spreadsheet (source) that will update anytime the
                               spreadsheet data is edited
                        b.     An embedded spreadsheet is converted into a graphic
                               image when placed in a target document and does not
                               change to reflect edits made at the source
          B.     Spreadsheet functions are predefined formulas that perform calculations
                 by using specific values, called arguments, in a specific order. They can
                 be used to perform simple or complex calculations.
                 1. Components of a Function
                        a.     Cell reference – indicates a cell‟s location and provides
                               instructions for how cell data is copied or used in
                               calculations
                               i.      Relative (cell value changes as the formula is copied)
                               ii.     Absolute (cell value remains static when copied to
                                       other locations)
                               iii.    Mixed reference indicates the combination of an
                                       absolute cell and a relative cell, such as $A4
                        b.     Parentheses – control the Order of Operations
                        c.     Conditions or criteria tell the function how to calculate the
                               results and what data to use
                 2. Basic functions include the following:
                        a.     Sum, for example, =Sum(C4:C18) adds the range of cells
                               from C4 through C18


   6411 – Computer Applications I            Summer 2008                              page 4
                     b.     Average, for example, =Average(C4:C18) determines the
                            average of the range of cells from C4 through C18
                     c.     Maximum, for example, =Max(C4:C18) finds the highest
                            number in the range of cells from C4 through C18
                     d.     Minimum, for example, =Min(C4:C18) finds the lowest
                            number in the range of cells from C4 through C18
              3.     Advanced Functions are used in higher-level operations, such as
                     in conditional and comparison equations to compute interest rates,
                     due dates and payment terms, and financial projections.
                     a.     IF statements are conditional operators used in
                            spreadsheet formulas
                            i.      Results are returned IF the data specified in an
                                    equation meets conditions set by the formula
                            ii.     IF statements can be written to carry out an action,
                                    such as: IF a value in a cell is greater than or equal
                                    to another value, insert the word “Pass” in a cell
                     b.     Date functions are used to calculate a period of time such
                            as the number of days that have elapsed since a value was
                            entered into a specific cell or to calculate a 30 day due date
                            for a record of spreadsheet of invoices.
                            i.      The NOW date function returns the current date
                            ii.     Days360 calculates the difference in days between
                                    two dates
                     c.     The LookUp function is used to compare a cell value to an
                            array of cells and return a value that matches the location of
                            the value in the array. Lookup is used for two column
                            vectors or multi-column arrays.
                            i.      Vector example: In the formula =Lookup(F9, G7:G12,
                                    H7:H12), the software is instructed to “look up” the
                                    value of Cell F9 in the cell range G7:G12 and return
                                    the value that is horizontally adjacent to it and located
                                    in the cell range H7:H12
                                    So, if F9=5, G7=3, G8=7, and G9=9, the first “hit” will
                                    be to the value of 3
                                    Array example: In the formula =Lookup(F9, G7:I12),
                                    the software will return the value that is in the last
                                    column (Column I) that matches the lookup value
                            ii.     VLookUp is used when there are more than two
                                    columns in the array (lookup table). Vlookup
                                    searches for matches according to column number
                                    For more information on the LookUp function, consult
                                    your software help files or reference books
                     d.     List is a feature used to create a more user-friendly
                            spreadsheet atmosphere




6411 – Computer Applications I            Summer 2008                                 page 5
                            i.   A validated list limits data entry to specific choices
                                 programmed into the function
                            ii.  A non-validated list allows additional entries other
                                 than those provided in the drop-down menu
                     e.     Count is used to return the number of cells in a range
                            i.   The Count function alone will return the number of
                                 cells in a range that contain numbers
                            ii.  The CountA function will return the number cells in a
                                 range that contain any value
                            iii. The CountIf function will count cells that meet a
                                 condition set forth in the formula




6411 – Computer Applications I           Summer 2008                              page 6
                            6411
COURSE                                          Unit B        Software Applications for Business
                     Computer Applications I
                                                           Understand spreadsheets, charts, and
COMPETENCY               4.00          B2       25%
                                                           graphs used in business.
                                                           Understand charts and graphs used in
OBJECTIVE                4.02          B2        5%
                                                           business.

                     •   What is the difference between a graph and a chart?
ESSENTIAL            •   What is the purpose of a chart?
QUESTIONS            •   Which charts are used commonly in business and why?
                     •   How is the type of chart determined?


                                   Business Charts and Graphs

 I.          Charts and Graphs used in Business
             A.    Purpose of charts and graphs
                   1.    Charts and graphs are used in business to communicate and clarify
                         spreadsheet information
                   2.    A graph is a graphical representation of data. It includes the plot
                         area, gridlines, and values. A graph is used in a chart. A chart
                         includes labels, legend information, titles, and color and adds
                         meaning to the graph.
                   3.    Whereas spreadsheet data is often filled with numbers, labels, and
                         values that require time consuming analysis, a chart emphasizes
                         and categorizes the spreadsheet information into a format that can
                         be quickly and easily analyzed.
                   4.    A chart is to a spreadsheet as a picture is to a thousand words
             B.    Examples of charts used in business
                   1.    Represent sales trends within different departments of a store
                   2.    Represent the contribution of individual employee sales to the total
                         sales for a company
                   3.    Represent the percent of each expense to total expenses
                   4.    Analyze stock prices and explain the fluctuations to stakeholders
II.          Components of Graphs and Charts
             A.    Graph
                   1.    The y-axis is the left vertical side of the graph. It contains the
                         numerical data.
                   2.    The x-axis is the bottom horizontal side of the graph. It contains
                         the category information.
                   3.    Data markers are used in a graph to indicate data values.



      6411 – Computer Applications I           Summer 2008                               page 7
                 4.     A data series is a collection of related values, such as one row or
                        column from a spreadsheet.
                 5.     A gridline is a horizontal or vertical line that extends across the plot
                        area of the graph for the purpose of adding clarification to the data.
                 6.     The plot area is the background portion of a graph. It is the area
                        bound by the values (y) and categories (x) axes.
              7.        A tick mark is used in a graph to clarify data categories or values.
          B.  Chart
              1.     A legend is an object that explains the symbols, colors, or patterns
                     used to differentiate the data.
              2.     A data label is a single value or text explanation used to explain
                     the data in a series.
              3.     A chart title is the main heading, which describes the purpose and
                     content.
              4.     The x-axis title describes the horizontal data.
              5.     The y-axis title describes the vertical data.
          C.  Embedded and linked
              1.     An embedded chart is one that appears on the same sheet as the
                     spreadsheet it represents; otherwise, it is referred to as a separate
                     chart.
              2.     A linked chart is one that will change to reflect changes made to
                     the spreadsheet it represents.
III.      Common Charts Used in Business
          A.  A column chart is used to make comparisons and generalizations about
              groups of data, such as to compare the number of students from each
              class (Sophomores, Juniors, and Seniors) to their attendance at
              assemblies.
          B.  A stacked bar chart is used to represent the sum of more than one value
              and compare the contribution of individuals to the whole, such as the total
              sales for three components to the whole sales for a store.
          C.  A line chart is used to show trends or changes in data over time, such as
              growth in sales over several quarters.
          D.  An XY scatter chart is used to show the correlation of two or more data
              sets, such as the correlation between stress rates and wait time in a
              doctor‟s office.
          E.  A pie chart is used to represent the contribution of each component of
              one series of data to the whole, such as the percentage of expenditures to
              the total budget.
          F.  An exploded pie chart is a pie chart in which the individual components
              are enhanced.




   6411 – Computer Applications I            Summer 2008                                 page 8
                                    6411
     COURSE                                           Unit B Software Applications for Business
                        Computer Applications I

                                                              Understand databases used in
     COMPETENCY              5.00             B2       25%
                                                              business.

                                                              Understand database tables used
     OBJECTIVE               5.01             B2       20%
                                                              in business.

                            How is database information used, organized, and managed in
     ESSENTIAL               business?
     QUESTIONS
                            For what purposes?


                                         Business Database Tables

     Teacher Note: Microsoft Access 2003 was used to create the databases in this
     objective. All graphics in the guide are based on this version. Make adjustments to
     notes and directions as necessary in accordance with the software version used in your
     classroom.
                                    Database Uses in Business
I.          Database Use and Purpose – A database is a tool used to organize, store,
            retrieve, and communicate groups of related information.
            A.     Examples of databases and database uses in business and society:
                   1.       a phone book
                   2.       online library card catalog
                   3.       payroll data including employee names, social security numbers,
                            pay rates, exemptions, etc.
                   4.       eBay and other online businesses use databases to maintain
                            inventory and keep track of customers, products, vendors, pay pal
                            accounts
            B.     Tables are the building blocks of all databases. They are used to group
                   and organize the information within a database.
                   1.       A table is an arrangement of columns and rows. It is the
                            fundamental building block of all databases.
                            a.      Example 1: a database for an airline may contain several
                                    tables
                                    i.      Table 1 – Airplane Inventory
                                            (a)   Airplane identification numbers
                                            (b)   Dates of service and repair calls
                                            (c)   Seating capacity


     6411 – Computer Applications I                Summer 2008                           page 9
                              ii.    Table 2 – Flight Staff
                                     (a)   Pilot names
                                     (b)   Contact information
                                     (c)   License number
                       b.     Example 2: an online store‟s database might contain several
                              tables
                              i.     Table 1 contains products
                              ii.    Table 2 contains prices
                              iii.   Table 3 contains manufacturer information
                              iv.    Table 4 contains purchase orders
                2.     An entry is a single piece of data in a database table. Examples of
                       cell entries in a music store database may include the price of a
                       CD, artist‟s name, or the number the category of music in which the
                       CD is classified.
                3.     A field, is a grouping or category of similar information contained in
                       a table
                       a.     Fields are unique identifiers for categories of information
                       b.     In the Airplane inventory example, Plane ID, Service date,
                              and Seats Available are examples of possible field names
                4.     A record is a complete description of all of the fields related to one
                       item in a table.
                       a.     A record is another level of organization in database tables
                       b.     In the Airplane inventory example, one record would consist
                              of the Plane ID, Service date, and Seats Available for one
                              plane
II.      Data Types, Field Properties, Data Entry, and Printing
         A.     Before a database can be built, the user must first define its purpose and
                determine how the data will be organized into fields.
                1.     Fields should be formatted in accordance with the data they contain
                       so that the database can be searched, used in calculations, and
                       sorted as needed for communicating.
                2.     A field name should be short and descriptive
         B.     Text-based data types and field properties – used for data that will be
                sorted in alphabetical order or listed randomly, but will not be used in
                mathematical calculations. For example, in a music store database, the
                user may wish to sort the database in alphabetical order by artist, CD title,
                song title, or genre.
                1.     Yes/No – a data type in toggle format that allows a user to select a
                       yes or no value in a database cell




  6411 – Computer Applications I            Summer 2008                               page 10
                     a.     For example, the music store manager may include a field in
                            the database that requires a yes or no response for in stock
                            items
                     b.     The default setting is No
              2.     Caption – a field property used for column naming that allows a
                     more user-friendly and properly formatted field name than that
                     stored in the database design
              3.     Lookup Wizard – a data type used to define preset values for
                     database entries.
                     a.     For example, the music store database might include a
                            lookup wizard which provides a drop down list for the genres
                            of music.
                     b.     This feature increases productivity and accuracy by reducing
                            the amount of data entry required.
              4.     Memo – a data type used for lengthy entries that allows
                     combinations of text and numbers
              5.     Input Mask – a template-like field property that regulates how data
                     is entered in a cell. For example, if the phone number input mask
                     is used, the user will be prompted to input data in a specific format,
                     such as (919) 555-5555.
       C.     Number-based data types and field properties – used for data that may
              be calculated, sorted, or filtered. For example, a music store database
              may be queried for any quantity on hand that is less than ten so that the
              store manager can reorder the CDs that the store is running out of.
              1.     Decimal places – field property used to format numbers for one or
                     more decimal points.
                     a.     For example, in a music store database, the store manager
                            may wish to filter the database for all CDs that cost 17.99.
                     b.     Without the decimal format, the prices of the CDs would be
                            rounded off.
              2.     Currency – data type used to format numbers as decimal values
                     with a dollar sign.
                     a.     For example, in a music store database, the store manager
                            may wish for the database to print a receipt to each
                            customer which includes the total price of the CD plus tax
                            formatted in currency
                     b.     The default format for currency is two decimal places
              3.     Date – data type used to arrange and sort data chronologically
                     a.     For example, the music store manager may wish to view the
                            sales for March only in the database
                     b.     Often used with the input mask field property



6411 – Computer Applications I            Summer 2008                               page 11
                 4.     Time – data type used to arrange and sort data chronologically
                        a.     For example, the music store manager may want to compare
                               the sales figures for after 5:00 pm against the figures before
                               12:00 pm.
                        b.     Often used with input mask field property
                 5.     Auto Number – used to automatically assign a number to each
                        record and to assist in preventing duplication of data.
                        a.     For example, the music store manager used the auto
                               number feature when setting up the database and is notified
                               when a duplicate record is added
                        b.     Often used with/as a primary key
                 6.     Primary Key – used to format each record in a database as a
                        unique entity
                        a.     For example, the music store manager formatted the auto
                               number field as the primary key
                        b.     Primary keys allow database tables to communicate
          D.     Editing and Printing – Procedures to add and delete records and fields,
                 edit field names, rearrange fields in a database and print.
III.      Database Management – The effectiveness of a database can be measured by
          the user‟s ability to retrieve useful information.
              An effective database is one that contains timely information and thus
               requires continuous maintenance.
              Consider the telephone directory and the amount of information that must
               be gathered, edited, and processed to provide customers with accurate
               information.
              Many tools are available to assist in the retrieval, processing, and
               manipulation of database information.
          A.     Filters allow for the retrieval of information that meets specific criteria.
          B.     Sorts allow for information to be arranged in a specific order such as
                 alphabetical, chronological, ascending, or descending.
          C.     Database Relationships – a link between two or more tables in a
                 database
                     The relationship is developed when common fields in the tables are
                      linked, such as the Customer ID field in a Customer Address table
                      and the Customer ID field in a Purchases table.
                     The relationship enhances the power of the database by allowing
                      retrieval of data from both sources and eliminating the need for data
                      duplication among tables.
                 1.     Three types of relationships:




   6411 – Computer Applications I             Summer 2008                                page 12
                       a.     One-to-One – when only one record is linked to a record in
                              another table.
                       b.     One-to-Many – when a record in one table is linked to more
                              than one record in another table.
                       c.     Many-to-Many – when multiple records from both (or more)
                              tables are linked. A Many-to-many relationship is actually
                              two one-to-many tables that are connected by a junction
                              table.
                2.     Primary key – a field in a database table that is of the same data
                       type and size as a related field in a linked table
                3.     Foreign key – when tables are linked by the primary key, the
                       related field in the second table is known as the foreign key
                4.     Join line – a graphical representation of the link between two or
                       more tables
                5.     Referential integrity protects related data that is stored in multiple
                       tables.
                       Referential integrity would prevent a customer in a customers table
                       from being deleted if the customer‟s ID also appears in the order
                       table
                6.     Junction table – a table used to join primary key fields from
                       multiple tables
IV.      Raw Data Import - A useful and practical method for obtaining information from
         other sources and creating database tables. Eliminates the need for repetitive
         data entry and assists in the protection of the data‟s integrity.
         A.     Must be formatted as text
         B.     Must be separated at field and record breaks with a separator, such as a
                comma (delimitated)




  6411 – Computer Applications I            Summer 2008                                page 13
                                   6411
     COURSE:                                          Unit B     Software Applications for Business
                        Computer Applications I

     COMPETENCY:        5.00              B2           25%       Understand database functions.

                                                                 Understand database queries, forms,
     OBJECTIVE:             5.02          B2            5%
                                                                 and reports used in business.

                        •     What is a database query, how is it used, and how does it differ from a
                              filter?
     ESSENTIAL          •     What is a form, how is it used and formatted, and how does it differ from
     QUESTIONS                a table?
                        •     What is a database report? How is it used? What report elements are
                              used to control and enhance the appearance of the report and why?

                             Business Database Queries, Forms, and Reports

I.          Query. A query is a database object created by placing filters and selecting
            multiple criteria (comparison operators) to extract information from one or more
            tables. The resulting data becomes an object that can be saved, recalled, and
            used to perform other operations.
            A.     Advantages of a Query
                   1.        A query can be saved and used to perform other operations
                   2.        One table can be associated with multiple queries
                   3.        A query can perform specialized operations, such as performing
                             calculations on field values, and place the results in a new column
                             or datasheet
            B.     Difference Between a Query and a Filter
                   1.        A filter is a one-time deal. It allows application of a set of selection
                             criteria and/or sorting instructions to the records in a table. It is a
                             quick temporary tool that is created for one-time use in the context
                             of a particular table.
                   2.        A query is reusable. It allows selection criteria and/or sorting
                             instructions to be saved and reused.
            C.     Comparison Operators used in Queries
                   1.        Less than or equal to (<=)
                   2.        Greater than or equal to (>=)
                   3.        Not equal to (<>)
                   4.        Less than (<)
                   5.        Greater than (>)
                   6.        Equal to (=)


     6411 – Computer Applications I                Summer 2008                                 page 14
          D.     Conditional Operators
                 1.     And – reduces the number of records because both conditions
                        must be met.
                 2.     Or – increases the number of records because one or the other
                        condition must be met.
 II.      Form. A form is a database object that is used to create a user-friendly format
          for data entry and retrieval. Forms may include drop-down menus, instructions,
          navigational controls, and graphics.
          A.     Advantages of Forms
                 1.     Expedite the search and data entry processes
                 2.     Easy to read and understand
                 3.     Allow information to be censored
          B.     Common Elements of Forms
                 1.     Graphic elements, such as lines, images, and shapes are stored
                        in the form‟s design.
                 2.     Data displayed on forms is derived from the fields in the underlying
                        table or query or may be added by the user.
                 3.     Calculations are performed by properties that are set by a user
                        within the form‟s design.
                        a.     Formulas similar to those written for spreadsheets can be
                               embedded into the field of a form
                        b.     Calculations to total the price for a purchase order by
                               multiplying the quantity ordered by the price of a product, for
                               example, can be performed in a form.
                 4.     Controls allow the data to be manipulated.
                        a.     Fields can be formatted so that they are hidden from view or
                               so that users are prevented from editing.
                        b.     Forms can be formatted to allow or prevent scrolling or
                               prevent a user from using a scroll bar.
                 5.     Descriptive text can be added to a form for the purpose of
                        identifying fields and forms or adding captions or prompts.
                 6.     Subforms are forms within and related to a main form through a
                        common field.
                        a.     For example, a grocery store form contains the customer
                               name and contact information on the main form and is linked
                               by the customer‟s ID number to a subform.
                        b.     The subform contains the purchase orders placed by the
                               customer.
III.      Report. A report object is used to organize, summarize, and print some or all of
          the data from one or more database tables or queries. It is used to present data


   6411 – Computer Applications I            Summer 2008                               page 15
       in an attractive format with user selected fonts, colors, shading, borders,
       graphics, and other enhancements. It can be used to communicate yearly sales
       reports, catalog inventory, prepare labels, or produce envelopes and receipts.
       A.     Advantages of Reports
              1.     Reports can group data from multiple tables, used the data in
                     calculations, and add headings and other format enhancements to
                     clarify database information.
              2.     Reports can be saved and updated.
              3.     Reports can be printed in landscape or portrait orientation.
       B.     Common Elements of Reports
              1.     Lines and borders used for decoration
              2.     Controls – text boxes for displaying numbers, names, or labels.
              3.     Labels – used to display descriptive text that identifies a text box.
              4.     Text boxes – used to display data and may contain expressions for
                     data calculation.
              5.     Calculated field/column – created when a formula is used.
              6.     Report header – appears once at the beginning of a report and
                     usually contains items such as the company name, address, and
                     logo.
              7.     Page header – appears at the top of every page and usually
                     contains field names.
              8.     Detail section – contains the report details or content information
              9.     Report footer – appears once at the end of a report.
              10.    Page footer – appears on every page and usually contains page
                     numbers.




6411 – Computer Applications I            Summer 2008                               page 16
                            6411
COURSE                                          Unit B      Software Applications for Business
                     Computer Applications I
                                                         Apply procedures to use presentation
COMPETENCY               6.00          B2        8%
                                                         software in business.
                                                         Understand uses of presentation software
OBJECTIVE                6.01          B2        3%
                                                         and methods of distribution.

                     •   When should presentation software be used to communicate information?
ESSENTIAL
                     •   What content is appropriate for delivery through presentation software?
QUESTIONS
                     •   What method of information disbursement is most effective?


                                       Business Presentations

 I.          Uses of Presentation Software
             A.    Characteristics of Inappropriate Content for Presentation Software
                   1.    Content is trivial or does not have a clear purpose
                   2.    Content is so dissected from its original form when translated into a
                         presentation that its meaning is lost
                   3.    Content is presented in its original form as an emotional speech, an
                         historical declaration, or a memoir and should be preserved
                   4.    Examples:
                         a.      The Gettysburg Address
                         b.      Martin Luther King‟s I have a dream speech
                         c.      The Declaration of Independence
                         d.      The Diary of Ann Frank
             B.    Characteristics of Appropriate Content for Presentation Software
                   1.    To Educate
                         a.      To educate about earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest
                         b.      To educate how to use software applications
                         c.      To emphasize key points during a presentation or speech
                         d.      To explain emergency procedures
                   2.    To Persuade
                         a.      To advertize and describe the features of a product
                         b.      To sell cars with interactive features that allow users to
                                 select color combinations, trim, and other options
                   3.    To Narrate, Broadcast Messages, or Entertain
                         a.      To display the names of the students who placed in FBLA
                                 competitions
                         b.      To display the words of a song or speech for audience
                                 participation


      6411 – Computer Applications I           Summer 2008                             page 17
                      c.      To broadcast a list of location changes at a conference
                      d.      To portray the devastation wreaked by Hurricane Katrina
II.      Methods of Presentation Delivery and Distribution – Used separately or in
         combination, depending upon the message and the audience
         A.    Group Delivery with Speaker - As a supplement and complement to a
               speaker-delivered presentation
               1.     Slides support information presented by the speaker
               2.     Slides display graphic items that enhance communication
               3.     Slides present key points for added emphasis of content
               4.     The key word in this method is supplement. When delivered with
                      an oral presentation, slide show content should not contain so
                      much information that it can substitute for the speaker!
         B.    Group Delivery without Speaker
               1.     Presentation is played one time to an audience
               2.     Does not require explanation or interpretation by a speaker
               3.     May be displayed to entertain an audience prior to a speech or
                      event
               4.     May be used to inform an audience about procedures
         C.    Continuous Loop
               1.     Presentation is played repeatedly until manually stopped
               2.     Presentation may or may not have a logical beginning and end
               3.     Often used at trade shows where people rotate through at different
                      times throughout the day
               4.     May be used to broadcast general information, such as school
                      announcements or changes to room locations
         D.    Rolling Script
               1.     Presentation is played at a moderate pace to allow for user
                      participation
               2.     Presentation is usually stand-alone content, such as a prop for
                      posting the lyrics of a song or the lines of a poem
         E.    Self-Serve
               1.     May be delivered via a website, such as the Microsoft training
                      presentations that are user-selected and interactive
               2.     Self-paced and often interactive
               3.     May be accompanied by a narration embedded within the
                      presentation
         F.    As hardcopy – to complement presentations and enable retention of
               information
               1.     To enable comprehension
                      a.      This method is especially effective when the content is
                              foreign to the audience or user, has to be remembered, is
                              procedural, or is presented to a large group



  6411 – Computer Applications I          Summer 2008                            page 18
                     b.    A handout with 3 slides per page allows room for the
                           audience to record notes beside each slide
                     c.    The amount of slides per sheet should vary according to the
                           amount of text on each slide and the space needed for
                           taking notes
                     d.    There‟s little point in distributing handouts that are too small
                           to read.
                     e.    Handouts can be distributed in color, grayscale, or black and
                           white. If printing on a black and white printer, be sure to
                           select black and white or grayscale format to ensure clear
                           prints.
                     f.    A footer should be formatted on handouts that are distributed
              2.     To assist the speaker
                     a.    A notes page contains one slide per page and any notes that
                           accompany the slide.
                     b.    An outline view presents the information in compact form
                           without graphics
                     c.    Speaker has the notes or outline in front of her/him while
                           presentation is displayed in the background




6411 – Computer Applications I            Summer 2008                              page 19
                            6411
COURSE                                          Unit B       Software Applications for Business
                     Computer Applications I
                                                         Apply procedures to use presentation
COMPETENCY               6.00          B2         8%
                                                         software in business.
                                                         Apply procedures to develop multimedia
OBJECTIVE                6.02          B2         5%
                                                         presentations in business.
ESSENTIAL
                     •   What procedures are required to develop a multimedia presentation?
QUESTION


                          Business Multimedia Presentation Procedures

 I.          Determine the Purpose: The Purpose of the Presentation was described in
             Objective 6.01.
 II.         Identify the Target Audience: The Target Audience was described in
             Objective 3.02.
III.         Storyboard the Content
             A.     Determine the number of slides and plan the content on paper using a
                    collection of frames, referred to as a storyboard
             B.     Organize the content in the proper sequence and ensure a consistent
                    flow of information
             C.     Align the frames used on the storyboard to the number of slides required
                    for the presentation
IV.          Plan the Design
             A.     Select or design a template that is appropriate for the purpose and
                    target audience.
                           Pay attention to the colors chosen to ensure that they can easily be
                            viewed by the target audience
             B.     Select complimentary colors that are appropriate for the purpose and
                    target audience
V.           Edit the Master Slide
             A.     Format the footer with information pertinent to the presentation
                    1.      A footer may or may not include the date and time information
                    2.      Slide numbering is an important consideration, especially when
                            handouts are distributed to the audience and referenced during the
                            presentation
                    3.      The title of the presentation in the footer is helpful when
                            distinguishing between multiple presentations
             B.     Make global applications of font sizes and styles, bullets, alignment,
                    or any other formatting that is desired for the entire presentation
             C.     Add any logos, or contact information to the master slide
VI.          Enter the Content


      6411 – Computer Applications I            Summer 2008                             page 20
           A.   Remember the rule of sevens when entering text: No more than 7 lines of
                text per slide and not more than 7 words per line.
           B.   Use language and grammar that is appropriate for the target audience
           C.   Correct any spelling or grammar errors
           D.   Adjust the line spacing to insert a consistent and adequate amount of
                white space between each line of text. This will help the reader focus on
                each point.
           E.   Select an appropriate font size. Generally 24 pt is the minimum
           F.   Use contrast to an advantage by using a light colored font against a dark
                background or visa versa
VII.       Add and Format Graphics
           A.   Make sure they are aligned to the slide content
           B.   Remember that graphic images are used to enhance communication and
                should be relevant to the content of the slide
           C.   Consistency in the type of image is also an important consideration
           D.   Be careful not to add a file that is too large and slows down the
                presentation
           E.   Adjust the size of the image so that it fits attractively on the slide and is
                consistent with the theme
VIII.      Add and Format Video and Audio
           A.   If appropriate and relevant, add video or audio files to the presentation
                1.       Determine how the video or audio will play
                         a.      Continuously throughout the entire presentation (loop)
                         b.      On mouse click
                         c.      At a preset interval
           B.   Determine the source of the video or audio
                         a.      File
                         b.      CD
                         c.      Embedded or linked
                                 i.     Package the files with the presentation if they are not
                                        embedded
                                 ii.    A packaged file means that the audio or video file is
                                        linked to the presentation and that the presentation
                                        file only saves the link.
                                 iii.   The linked file must be accessible consistently. If the
                                        presentation is saved to a portable device, make sure
                                        that the link‟s address will be able to find the file.
           C.   Determine the sound’s volume. Remember to adjust the volume so that
                it will not distract the audience and play too loudly during the speaker‟s
                dialog.
           D.   Determine if the viewer should have access to the video/audio link by
                formatting the properties of the icon to view or hide.
 IX.       Add Animation


    6411 – Computer Applications I            Summer 2008                              page 21
       A.     Animation is used to control how the presentation is viewed and to add
              visual interest. It can be applied to text and graphics.
       B.     Examples of animations:
              1.      Sound is played at desired points within the presentation
              2.      Each bulleted item fades before the next item is emphasized
              3.      Animated text is emphasized by making it grow in size or change
                      colors
              4.      Text and graphic items appear and disappear on the screen, such
                      as fly in from left or right, etc.
              5.      Text and graphic items appear and disappear, such as after the
                      previous item, with the previous item, on mouse click, after 2
                      seconds, etc.
       C.     Do not use animations that distract from the point of the presentation.
              1.      For example, animation that adds a line of text letter by letter can
                      be very distracting and frustrating to the reader/viewer.
              2.      Always keep the main goal in mind: to communicate the intended
                      message.
       D.     Animation can be custom designed by the user or applied through preset
              schemes that are part of the software package.
                     A scheme is a polished sequence of effects that can be applied to
                      several slides or the whole show.




6411 – Computer Applications I            Summer 2008                               page 22

				
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