IP 040 - Review of The List of Historic Sites and Monuments

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IP 040 - Review of The List of Historic Sites and Monuments Powered By Docstoc
					                          XXVII ATCM
                     Information Paper
                                  IP 040
                     Agenda Item: CEP
                       Original: English


              Review of The of Historic Site and Monument
Historic site and monument Number            HSM 44 (a plaque erected at “Dakshin
                                             Gangotri” Station)

Reviewed by                                  Director
                                             National Center for Antarctic and Ocean
                                             Research, Head Land Sada,
                                             Vasco da Gama, Goa – 403 804

Does the site still exist, either in whole? or Yes, the site still exists, though the original
in part                                        plaque erected has been buried under snow

Does the site continue to meet the Yes, the foundation of Indian Polar Research
guideline for Historic Sites and Monuments Programme in Antarctica was laid during the
set out in Resolution 8 (1995)             third Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica in
                                           1983-84 by establishing a permanent base
                                           “Dakshin Gangotri” on the shelf of the Princes
                                           Astrid Coast, Central Dronning Maud Land,
                                           East Antarctica. Indian scientists started
                                           carrying out polar research round the year after
                                           establishment of this permanent station.
                                           Presently the “Dakshin Gangotri” station is
                                           buried under 3-4 m of ice cover. Since the
                                           establishment of this permanent station marks
                                           the advent of Indian foray in Antarctic
                                           Research, this site has a special significance
                                           and place of honor in Indian History

Does the description of the site require Amended description is given in annexure 1.
amending or updating?                    Map (1) and photographs 1,2,3 and 4 enclosed

Are boundaries required to define the site   Yes, area between Latitudes 70o03’30” S to
                                             70o06’00” S and Longitude 11o58’30” E to
                                             12o06’00” E (map-2 enclosed)

Does the site require special protection or No, the site is recommended as Historical Site
management and if so, should it be only.
designate as an Antarctic Specially
Protected Area or as an Antarctic Specially
Managed Area?

In light of this review, should the site be Not recommended for delisting from HSM 44

Should other parties be included in, or Not required. Members of Indian Expedition to
assume responsibility for, the management Antarctica visit the adjoining area (supply base)
of this Historic Site or Monuments?       regularly. They look after the site for its upkeep
                                          and maintenance.
                                                                     Annexure 1

Description of the area
Geographic Location
The first Indian permanent station in Antarctica, “Dakshin Gangotri” which is
totally buried under snow, is located on ice-shelf on Princess Astrid Coast (70O
05’ 37”S Latitude to 12O00’00” Longitude). This station was commissioned in
1883-84 and provided excellent contemporary state of the art facilities and well-
equipped laboratories to carry out scientific research. The site is located about
10 km from the shelf edge towards the Schirmacher Oasis.
The Dakshin Gangotri Station was decommissioned in 1989-90 due to excessive
snow cover. The adjoining area at present is being used as Supply Base. The
permanent base was shifted to “Maitri” in Schirmacher Oasis. The scientific
activities in the adjoining area are still being continued by Indian Scientists.
Morphological Features
The shelf shows a gently rolling topography with an average elevation of 20 m
above msl. The shelf thickness is least near the sea and increases towards
inland. This portion of the shelf is characterized by numerous melt-water
channels usually running in a NE-SW direction and frequently occurring surface
ponds and lakes, south of the present site, especially near the Schirmacher
Oasis. The shelf shows highs or domes where it rises over basement highs and
usually slopes towards the sea-ice interface. The coastline is characterized by
several longitudinal tension cracks, which often extends 1-2 km inside the shelf
thus forming several bays with a thin cover (3-5m) of fast ice. The surface of the
shelf region exhibits various glaciological features like sastrugis, grooves, drift
deposition etc. indicating the strong influence of wind erosion.
Subsurface Features
The information pertaining to subsurface as interpreted from seismic
investigations revealed 1 m thick (velocity 1350 m/sec) top porous ice layer
followed by 19 m (velocity varying form 3100 to 3600 m/sec) unconsolidated ice
layer. The compact ice layer underneath displaying velocity form 3600 to 4350
m/sec accounted for 395 m depth. The base is marked by 285 m thick glacial
sediment, which overlies the basement.
The average thickness of the ice shelf in the area is around 400 m. However, the
site of the Dakshin Gangotri station is virtually floating over a 1850 m deep
submarine valley with depth to top of the basement varying from 700 m to 800m .
Scientific Experiments
Geological Survey of India
   Sustained scientific studies on surface morphology of the shelf and ablation
    intensity and pattern are being carried by the Geological Survey of India near
    the DG station area. These studies indicate that this portion of the shelf is
    comparatively stable (from major calving) and has an annual accumulation
    rate of about 50 cm. Due to this deposition of snowdrift and natural sinking,
    the DG station gradually got submerged below the surface.
India Meteorological Department
   Six hourly met data including wind speed, wind direction, wet and dry
    temperature used to be collected uninterruptedly form 1983-84 to 1989-90 by
    India Meteorological Department.
   Radiosonde data were collected during the year 1884 to 1986.
   Hourly Global Solar Radiation data collected during the year 1984 to 1986
    Indian Institute of Geomagnetism.
Indian Institute of Geomagnetism
       Scientific experiments on geomagnetic field and magnetic pulsation were
       conducted here for years till the station was lost to ever increasing snow
       cover.     Indian Institute of Geomagnetism is conducting following
       experiments at Dakshin Gangotri:
   A Proton Procession Magnetometer was operated most of the time to record
    the variation in total magnetic field (F)
   A fluxgate Magnetometer was operated to record variations in three
    orthogonal components X, Y and Z
   A 30 MHz Riometer was operated for recorded the cosmic radio noise
   Dakshin Gangotri was one of the station for triangulation experiment operated
    by any country in Antarctica. The experiment was operated with three
    fluxgate Magnetometers operating at the vertices of a triangular with sides
    100-200 km. The experiments were aimed at calculating the velocity of small
    scale mobile auroral current systems. Such chain of experiments are
    operated regularly in Alaska and northern hemisphere.
   The Fluxgate Magnetometer at DG has been replaced by Digital Fluxgate
    Magnetometer in the year 2003-2004. The new instrument has a better
    sensitivity (0.1 nT) and range. The experiment is aimed at, studying the
    storm- substorm relationship.
Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment
Energy budget model is prepared based on albedo and glacio-meteorological
parameters of different snow-ice media at Dakshin Gangotri in Antarctica. Snow
albedo and energy exchange studies is carried out on Antarctic Ice Shelf of
Dakshin Gangotri and following experiments conducted:
   Variation in different snow-met parameters
   Albedo variations with melt water concentration
   Albedo variation with solar elevation angle
   Albedo variation with cloud amount
   Albedo decay wih age of snowpack
   Energy balance studies over ice shelf

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