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Outlook_PPT_ - Mobile Communications

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					     Mobile Communications
     Chapter 11 : Outlook


       The future of mobile and wireless networks
      – Is it 4G? All IP? Licensed? Public? Private?




Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller   www.jochenschiller.de   MC - 2009   11.1
Mobile and wireless services –
Always Best Connected

                                                            UMTS, GSM       LAN
LAN, WLAN               GSM 53 kbit/s                       115 kbit/s      100 Mbit/s,
16 Mbit/s               Bluetooth 500 kbit/s                                WLAN
                                                                            54 Mbit/s




                                                                                          UMTS
                                                                                          2 Mbit/s


        GSM/EDGE 384 kbit/s,
        WLAN 1 Mbit/s
                                                                         UMTS, GSM
                                            GSM 115 kbit/s,
                                                                         384 kbit/s
                                            WLAN 11 Mbit/s

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller   www.jochenschiller.de   MC - 2009                        11.2
Wireless systems: overview of the
development
                                                                                          cordless      wireless LAN
                              cellular phones                         satellites
                                                                                          phones
                                                                                           1980:
                           1981:                                                            CT0
                          NMT 450                                 1982:
                                                 1983:          Inmarsat-A
                                                 AMPS                                      1984:
                                                                                            CT1
                           1986:
                          NMT 900                                                          1987:
                                                                  1988:                    CT1+
                                                                Inmarsat-C
                                                                                           1989:
                                                                                           CT 2
                                     1991:         1991:                                   1991:
                            1992:    CDMA         D-AMPS                   1992:           DECT           199x:
                            GSM                                         Inmarsat-B                      proprietary
                                             1993:
                                                                        Inmarsat-M
                                             PDC
                               1994:                                                                      1997:
                              DCS 1800                                                                 IEEE 802.11
                                                                              1998:
                                                                             Iridium                       1999:
                                                                                                     802.11b, Bluetooth

                                         2000:                                                            2000:
                        analogue         GPRS                                                          IEEE 802.11a
                                                             2001:
                                                           IMT-2000
                         digital
                                                                                    200?:
                                                                             Fourth Generation
                                                                              (Internet based)
  4G – fourth generation: when and how?


Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller   www.jochenschiller.de             MC - 2009                                           11.3
Overlay Networks - the global goal

              integration of heterogeneous fixed and
              mobile networks with varying
              transmission characteristics


                                                                                        regional


                 vertical
                 handover
                                                                        metropolitan area




                                               campus-based                horizontal
                                                                           handover

                                            in-car,
                                        in-house,
                                    personal area

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller   www.jochenschiller.de   MC - 2009                              11.4
Wireless access technologies


                                         DAB

                          250
                                                 FDD
  relative speed [km/h]



                                 GSM, TETRA




                          100                                                       physical/
                                                     UMTS                           economic border
                                              EDGE




                           50
                                                          TDD
                            5                 DECT          802.11b                 802.11a/g/n

                                                     Bluetooth
                            0                          Point-to-multipoint distribution systems

                                10 kbit/s                2 Mbit/s      20 Mbit/s         bandwidth    150 Mbit/s

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller                           www.jochenschiller.de    MC - 2009                     11.5
Key features of future mobile and
wireless networks
• Improved radio technology and antennas
      • smart antennas, beam forming, multiple-input multiple-output
        (MIMO)
            • space division multiplex to increase capacity, benefit from multipath
      • software defined radios (SDR)
            • use of different air interfaces, download new modulation/coding/...
            • requires a lot of processing power (UMTS RF 10000 GIPS)
      • dynamic spectrum allocation
            • spectrum on demand results in higher overall capacity
• Core network convergence
      • IP-based, quality of service, mobile IP
• Ad-hoc technologies
      • spontaneous communication, power saving, redundancy
• Simple and open service platform
      • intelligence at the edge, not in the network (as with IN)
      • more service providers, not network operators only

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller   www.jochenschiller.de   MC - 2009               11.6
Long Term Evolution (LTE)
• Initiated in 2004, focus on enhancing the Universal Terrestrial
    Radio Access (UTRA) and optimizing 3GPP’s radio access
    architecture.
•   Targets: Downlink 100 Mbit/s, uplink 50 Mbit/s
•   2007: E UTRA progressed from the feasibility study stage to the
    first issue of approved Technical Specifications
•   2008: stable for commercial implementation.
•   Downlink: OFDM, QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM
•   Uplink: SC-FDMA, BPSK, QPSK, 8PSK and 16QAM
•   Channel bandwidths between 1.25 and 20 MHz
•   4 x Increased Spectral Efficiency, 10 x Users Per Cell (MIMO),
    reduced RTT
•   FDD and TDD supported, co-existence with earlier 3GPP
    standards incl. handover
•   Core network: System Architecture Evolution (SAE), optimizing
    it for packet mode and in particular for the IP-Multimedia
    Subsystem (IMS)
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller   www.jochenschiller.de   MC - 2009   11.7
LTE advanced
• GSM – UMTS - LTE
      • LTE advanced as candidate for IMT-advanced
•   Worldwide functionality & roaming
•   Compatibility of services
•   Interworking with other radio access systems
•   Enhanced peak data rates to support advanced services
    and applications (100 Mbit/s for high and 1 Gbit/s for low
    mobility)
•   3GPP will be contributing to the ITU-R towards the
    development of IMT-Advanced via its proposal for LTE-
    Advanced.




Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller   www.jochenschiller.de   MC - 2009   11.8
Example IP-based 4G/Next G/…
network


                                                   SS7 signalling
                                                                          server farm,
                                                                          gateways, proxies            broadcast
                            PSTN, CS core
                                               gateways


                                    MSC
                                                     IP-based
                                                                        firewall, GGSN,
                                                       core
                                                                        gateway
                                            SGSN
                                 BSC                   router
                    GSM
                                                                             Internet


                                                                                        access
                                                                                        points
                                                                                                 private
                                                                                 private         WLAN
                                                                                 WPAN
                                             RNC


                          UMTS
                                                         public
                                                         WLAN




Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller      www.jochenschiller.de        MC - 2009                                      11.9
Potential problems
• Quality of service
      •   Today‘s Internet is best-effort
      •   Integrated services did not work out
      •   Differentiated services have to prove scalability and manageability
      •   What about the simplicity of the Internet? DoS attacks on QoS?
• Internet protocols are well known…
      • …also to attackers, hackers, intruders
            • security by obscurity does not really work, however, closed systems provide some
              protection
• Reliability, maintenance
      • Open question if Internet technology is really cheaper as soon as high
        reliability (99.9999%) is required plus all features are integrated
• Missing charging models
      • Charging by technical parameters (volume, time) is not reasonable
      • Pay-per-application may make much more sense

• Killer application? There is no single killer application!
      • Choice of services and (almost) seamless access to networks determine the
        success


Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller   www.jochenschiller.de   MC - 2009                   11.10
Have fun with mobile
communications!


       This is the end of the slide set – but there
         is so much more to say about mobile
                    communications!

           Thanks for following so far and enjoy
         digging into the fascinating wireless and
                       mobile world!

           Jochen Schiller, Berlin/Germany, 2009

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller   www.jochenschiller.de   MC - 2009   11.11

				
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