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									 Measuring and Packaging
for Preservation, Sale, and
         Chapter 5
• Compare and contrast the methods
  used in food preservation
• Identify packing methods for fruits and
• Explain the difference between cold
  smoking and hot smoking
        Objectives (cont’d.)
• List the various utensils used in
  measuring dry and liquid ingredients
• Evaluate the differences in balance
  beam, mechanical, and digital scales
• Name the various packaging materials
  used in food service
     The Advantages of Food
• Preserving foods in season is cheaper
  than using out of season foods
• Chefs can offer unique products
• Food processed directly from the field
  retain higher vitamin and mineral levels
• Preserved food is convenient and high
  in flavor due to preserving agents
   The Advantages of Canning
• Canned fruits and vegetables retain
  peak nutrient value and quality
• Food is sealed to prevent contamination
• Long shelf life
• Cheaper than refrigeration or freezing
• Cheaper than other forms and
  appropriate for some recipes
Advantages of Canning (cont’d.)
• Canning dates back to the late
  eighteenth century
• Lead initially used to seal tin cans
  – Caused illness and death
5.1b The canning        5.1c Heated food,      5.1d The rim of the jar
jars are first          such as strawberry     is carefully wiped clean
sterilized in boiling   jam, is ladled into    to create a good seal.
water.                  the sterilized jars.
5.1e The jars are      5.1f After they are       5.1gThe jars are
carefully              removed from the          labeled to identify
submerged under        water bath, using a       their contents and
the boiling water to   finger to test whether    date of production.
process for at least   a vacuum has formed
15 minutes             inside the cooled jars.
Advantages of Canning (cont’d.)
• Commercially processed canning
  – Food in containers heated under steam
    and pressure
  – Length of time and temperature depends
    on food ingredients in the can
    • Acidity, density and heat transfer rates affect
  – Shelf life approximately two years
   The Advantages of Vacuum
• Vacuum packing (sealing)
  – Removes atmospheric oxygen and
    moisture, making it hard for bacteria to
• Vacuum sealer
  – Floor or tabletop appliance that removes
    air and seals by melting two plastic strips
   The Advantages of Vacuum
       Packaging (cont’d.)
• Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)
  – Air in package is removed, similar to
    vacuum sealing
  – Additional gas is added to prevent oxygen
    • Carbon dioxide used
• Fresh produce can be packaged in
  Cryovac® Barrier Bags
   The Advantages of Freezing
• Easy, cost-effective method for
  preserving food
• Stops the chemical and biological
  process that allows microorganisms to
• Recipes can be prepared in advance
  and frozen for later use
   The Advantages of Freezing
        Foods (cont’d.)
• Rapid or blast chilling used to quickly
  lower food temperature after cooking
  – Ice water circulating in a sink may be used
  – An ice wand can be inserted into the pot
    for soups, stews, and other liquid foods
• Most foods except lettuce and tomatoes
  may be frozen
   The Advantages of Freezing
        Foods (cont’d.)
• Packaging for freezing should keep air
  out and moisture in
• Food should be packaged in serving
  quantities, as thawed food should not
  be refrozen
• Containers should stack and pack easily
• Leave head room for liquid expansion
   The Advantages of Freezing
        Foods (cont’d.)
• Types of packing
  – Sugar pack, syrup pack, dry pack, tray
    pack, and unsweetened pack
• Most vegetables are blanched first
• Fresh meats must be wrapped and
  packaged before freezing
  – Butcher paper is a good choice
The Advantages of Drying Foods
• Food drying
  – Food is placed on racks in the sun in
    warm, dry climates
  – In cooler climates, ovens or hot boxes are
• Advantages of food drying
  – Food will last much longer when stored
The Advantages of Drying Foods
• Advantages of food drying (cont’d.)
  – Dried foods take up less space than
    canned or frozen foods
  – Have a unique texture and taste
  – Little equipment is needed
• Dehydration
  – Removing water from food products
The Advantages of Drying Foods
• Sun-drying
  – Natural draft dryers used
  – Coffee beans dried on a concrete slab
  – Slow process; can take weeks
  – Food must be protected from pests
• Oven-drying
  – Faster than sun-drying and more reliable
The Advantages of Drying Foods
• Oven-drying (cont’d.)
  – Chefs can dry foods overnight when space
    is not at a premium
• Air-drying
  – Food dryers operate at a lower
    temperature than a commercial oven
• Herbs may be dried for later use
The Advantages of Drying Foods
• Drying vegetables
  – Harvest only what can be dried at one time
  – Blanch vegetables before drying
• Drying fruits
  – Skins may be left on the fruits (except waxy
    skins such as plums and cherries)
  – Oxidation causing discoloration can occur
The Advantages of Drying Foods
• Steps in smoking foods
  – Brining, salting, or somehow curing
  – Air drying
  – Smoking slowly over smoldering fuel
• Smoke settles on food and forms film
  called pellicle
• Hot and cold smoking methods exist
      The Need for Measuring
• Measuring is calculating the amount of
  an ingredient using standard device
  – Measuring cup, spoon, or utensil
• Inaccurate measurement may yield
  unsatisfactory products
• Chef has responsibility for provision of
  proper and adequate equipment
History of Measuring Weight and
• At end of eighteenth century, first
  standardized measuring system was
  – Now called metric system
• Commercial measurements regulated
  by the National Institute of Standards
  and Technology (NIST)
• Device used to measure weight of an
  – Types include balance beam, mechanical
    (spring), and electronic (digital)
• Proper and consistent use of scales is
  essential to portion control in storeroom
  and production kitchen
           Measuring Tools
• Used to quantify volume of liquid or dry
  – Examples include measuring cups,
    spoons, ladles, and scoops
  – Measuring cups are available as either dry
    or liquid measures
 Commercial Packaging Options
• Packaging is used for several purposes
  – Providing a barrier against dirt
  – Preventing loss of moisture from leakage
  – Protecting food from damage and pests
  – Helping employees transport food
  – Motivating customers to purchase
    • Providing cooking and nutritional information
      Properties of Packaging
• Each type of packaging material has
  certain properties
  – Make it more suitable for specific food
          Types of Packaging
• Flexible
  – Expands to hold the product
  – Example: plastic bags
• Semi-flexible
  – Mostly rigid but has some flexibility
• Rigid
  – Does not expand or move with product
     Types of Packaging (cont’d.)
•   Leaves and plant fibers
•   Paper
•   Glass
•   Earthenware
•   Metals
•   Plastics and wood
• Drying, freezing, canning, and vacuum
  packaging methods preserve foods
• Measuring tools used to provide the
  correct ingredient amounts
• There are many different packaging
  materials available

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