Generation of Computers

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					     Computer Age:
Past, Present, and Future
         Generations of Computer

The First generation
The Second Generation
The Third Generation
The Fourth Generation
The Fifth Generation
                 The Computer Age

   Rapid changes
   Four generations over 50 years
   Trends across generations
     – Decrease size
     – Increase speed
                      The First Generation
    1951-1958                     Magnetic core
    Vacuum Tube                    memory
     –   Heat                      Storage
     –   Burnout                    –   Punched cards
    Machine language               –   Tape (1957)

Characteristics of 1st Generation Computers
    Computers big and clumsy
    Electricity consumption is high
    Electric failure occurred regularly - computers not
   very reliable
    Large air conditioners was necessary because the
   computers generated heat
    Batch processing
                      The First Generation

   1951, UNIVAC
       Eckert and Mauchly completed the first
        commercial computer in the USA – the
        UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer)
       First computer built for business
       Short Code - A set of instructions called
        Short Code is developed for the UNIVAC.
                         The First Generation
   1951, SAGE - Semi Automatic Ground Environment was
   IBM built the SAGE computers and became leaders in
    real-time applications and used the technology of
   SAGE computers were used in an early U.S. air defense
    system. They were fully deployed in 1963, that consisted
    of 27 centers throughout North America, each with a
    duplexed AN/FSQ-7 computer system containing over
    50,000 vacuum tubes, weighing 250 tons and occupying
    an acre of floor space.
   SAGE was the first large computer network to provide
    man-machine interaction in real time.
                            The First Generation
   1952, EDVAC-
    Electronic Discreet
    Variable Computer
     –   John    Von     Neumann,
         designed with a central
         control unit which would
         calculate and output all
         mathematical and logical
         problems and a memory
         which could be written to
         and    read.   (RAM    in
         modern terms) which
         would store programs
         and data.
The First Generation
     1953, IBM 701
       –   The 701 was formally announced
           on May 21, 1952. It was the unit of
           the overall 701 Data Processing
           System      in    which     actual
           calculations were performed. That
           activity involved 274 assemblies
           executing     all  the    system's
           computing and control functions
           by means of electronic pulses
           emitted at speeds ranging up to
           one million a second.
     1953, The Whirlwind
       –   Whirlwind was a large scale,
           general purpose digital computer
           begun at the Servomechanisms
           Laboratory of the Massachusetts
           Institute of Technology in 1946.
                       The Second Generation
   1959-1964                  Storage
                                –   Removable disk pack
   Transistor                      (1954)
    –   Smaller                 –   Magnetic tape
    –   No warm-up time
                               Programming languages
    –   Less energy             –   Assembly language
    –   Less heat               –   FORTRAN (1954)
    –   Faster                  –   COBOL(1959)
    –   More reliable

         Used primarily by business,
           university, government
               The Second Generation
   Computers became smaller
   Generate less heat
   Electricity consumption lower
   More reliable and faster
   Core memory developed
   Magnetic tapes and disks used
   First operating systems developed
   A new processing method was needed.
   Time-sharing (processing technique)
The Second Generation
• 1963, Mini-computer: PDP-8
   – Digital introduces the first successful
     minicomputer – the PDP-8. It was
     about as large as a fridge and used
     transistors and magnetic core
• 1964 Real-time reservation
  system IBM developed a real-
  time computerised ticket
  reservation system for American
   – It was smaller than SAGE and was
     called SABRE (Semi-Automatic
     Business-Related Environment).
                           The Second Generation

   1964, IBM’s System 360
     – It consisted of 6
       processors and 40
       peripheral units.
       More than 100
       computers per
       month were ordered.
   1964, BASIC
    –   A programming language
        was necessary that could
        be used in a time-sharing
        environment and that
        could serve as a training
                        The Third Generation

   1965-1970
   Integrated Circuit
     – Electronic circuit on
                               1. Computers smaller,
                                  faster and more
       small silicon chip
     – Reliability
                               2. Power consumption
     – Compactness
     – Low cost
                               3. High-level
     – Inexpensive – mass-
                                  languages appeared
                            The Third Generation

   1965, Gordon Moore
    –   The semi-conductor pioneer, Gordon Moore (founder
        of Intel), predicted that the number of transistors that
        occurred on a microchip would double every year. It
        became known as Moore’s Law and is still valid
   Burroughs used integrated circuits in parts of
    two computers - the B2500 and the B3500.
   Control Data and NCR made two computers
    using only integrated circuits - the CDC 7600
    and the Century series respectively.
                            The Third Generation

   1968, Intel was founded (INTegrated Electronics).
    –   They developed more sophisticated memory chips.
   1968, Magnetic core memory was replaced by a
    –   The first 256 bit RAM microchips, and later the first 1Kb
        RAM (1024 byte) chips, caused the disappearance of
        Magnetic Core Memory that was used since the mid
   1969, IBM System/370 replaced their System/360
    with the System/370 that only used integrated
                       The Fourth Generation
   1971-Present                Integrated circuits, smaller
   Microprocessor               and faster
     – General-purpose          Micro computer series
       processor on a chip       such as IBM and APPLE
   Explosive growth             developed
     – Digital watches          Portable computers
     – Pocket calculators        developed
     – Personal computers
                                Great development in data
     – Cars
     – Copy machines
     – Television sets          Different types of
                                 secondary memory with
                                 high storage capacity and
                                 fast access developed
                            The Fourth Generation
   1971,                            1971, Pascal (programming
    Microprocessor                    language) Early programming
   Intel developed the               –   Niklaus Wirth - a Swedish
    first microprocessor - a              computer scientist - developed
    CPU on a microchip.                   the Pascal language in 1971.
                                          This language was specifically
    –   It was called the 4004
                                          designed to teach the concepts
        and consisted of 2-250            of structured programming.
        transistors capable of            Pascal remains the most
        processing 4 bits at a            popular language for learning
        rate of 60,000 transac-           the basic principles of good
        tions/second.                     programming.
                                     1972, 8008
                                      –   Intel released the 8008 - an 8
                                          bit processor powerful enough
                                          to be used as the CPU of a
                             The Fourth Generation
   1972, CP/M (Operating              MARK-8 Johnathan Titus
    system)                             (a chemist with an interest
    –   The first operating             in electronics) ordered an
        system for
        microcomputers was              8008 processor from Intel.
        developed by Gary               –   He built a computer with
        Kildall and John                    six(6)   circuit  boards
        Torode.                             which had 256 bytes RAM.
    –   Torode developed
        hardware to connect a          Motorola’s        6800
        diskette (floppy disk) to       processor developed a
        the CPU.                        processor
   1974                                –   the 6800.      which could
    –   8080 Microprocessor,                perform all the functions of
        was released - it made              the 8080.
        the development of the
        microcomputer possible.
                             The Fourth Generation
   1975 - January                       Apple- Steve Wozniak and
     Altair 8800- Popular
                                          Steve Jobs founded the Apple
      Mechanics published an              Company .
      article which announced the          – They      built    a micro-
      development of a true                  computer motherboard that
      personal computer                      used a 8-bit processor.
     Developed by MITS (Micro             – The motherboard was a
      Instrumentation and                    single circuit board and
      Telemetry Systems). It used            held 4 Kb RAM.
      the 8-bit Intel 8080               1976, MOS 6502 processor
      microprocessor and was               – MOS technologies
      made available in a
      complete kit, including all            announced the develop-
      components and assembly                ment      of     the   6502
      instructions.                          processor,        an    8-bit
     256 bytes of RAM was                   processor with very few
      available. 16 slots were left          registers       and   16-bit
      open to include more RAM               address bus.
      when necessary.                      – It was used in the design
                                             of the Apple II
                           The Fourth Generation
   1977. Apple II Wozniak             1978    Intel’s   8086
    and Jobs released the               processor that con-
    Apple II. It was cheap,             tained 16-bit registers
    had 16 Kb RAM and was               and used segmented
    ideal for playing video             memory addressing.
    games.                              –  All x86 processors had to
    –   It was sold with a                 be compatible with the
        keyboard, a power supply           set of instructions, first
        and included 8 slots for           used in this processor.
        peripherals.    It  could      1979,    Motorola’s    68000
        therefore be used with a        processor which was used
        wider       variety    of       in the Apple Lisa and
        peripherals           and       Macintosh computers.
                            The Fourth Generation
   First spreadsheet :                 1981,    IBM      PCIBM
    –   VisiCalcDan Bricklin and         announced it's first
        Bob Frankston of the
        Software Arts Company            Personal Computer -
        developed     the    first       the IBM PC - an Intel
        spreadsheet program for
        use on microcomputers,           8088 processor
        namely VisiCalc. It was
        distributed by Personal         1982,     Intel’s    286
        Software for use on all          processor.          Intel
        Apple     computers.Word
        processor                        announced the 80286
   WordStar                             microprocessor.
    –   The    word    processing        –   This was used in the IBM
        program WordStar was                 PC     AT    (Advanced
        developed by Seymour
        Rubenstein's         firm            Technology).
        MicroPro and became the
        best seller in the CP/M
        operating environment.
                                     4th Generation
   1983, Apple’s Lisa
    –Apple announced the Lisa, a computer that used a mouse to
     move a cursor on the screen in order to select commands.
     The Lisa was the first commercial computer to use a
     Graphical User Interface (GUI)
 1983, IBM announced the PC XT (eXtended
  Technology). Memory was expanded to 640 Kb and it featured:
   – 4,77 MHz processor speed
   – Double floppy disks
   – MS DOS version 3.3
   – Later versions also had 10 or 20 Mb hard disk drives
 1990, Windows 3.0 (operating system)
   – Microsoft released Windows 3.0.
                               The Fifth Generation

   Mid 1990’s         Applications for 5th Gen computers
   Intelligent           Intelligent robots that could ‘see’ their
    computers              environment (visual input - e.g. a video
                           camera) and could be programmed to
     – Artificial          carry out certain tasks and should be able
        intelligence       to decide for itself how the task should be
     – Expert              accomplished, based on the observations
        systems            it made of its environment.
     – Natural            Intelligent systems that could control the
        language           route of a missile and defence-systems
                           that could fend off attacks.
                          Word processors that could be controlled
                           by means of speech recognition.
                          Programs that could translate documents
                           from one language to another.
                                          5th Generation
   Some technological developments that could make
    the development of fifth-generation computers
    possible, include:

     Parallel-processing - many processors are grouped to
      function as one large group processor.
     Superconductors - a superconductor is a conductor through
      which electricity can travel without any resistance resulting in
      faster transfer of information between the components of a
     Expert Systems helps doctors to reach a diagnosis by
      following the logical steps of problem solving just as if the
      doctor would have done it himself.
     Speech recognition systems, capable of recognising dictation
      and entering the text into a word processor, are already
                    The Fifth Generation
               AI – Artificial Intelligence

   How computers can be used for tasks that
    required human characteristics
                     Problem Solving by Search
   An important aspect of intelligence is goal-based problem solving.
    The solution of many problems (e.g. noughts and crosses,
    timetabling, chess) can be described by finding a sequence of
    actions that lead to a desirable goal. Each action changes the state
    and the aim is to find the sequence of actions and states that lead
    from the initial (start) state to a final (goal) state.

   A well-defined problem can be described by:
     1. Initial state
     2. Operator or successor function - for any state x returns
        s(x), the set of states reachable from x with one action
     3. State space - all states reachable from initial by any
        sequence of actions
     4. Path - sequence through state space
     5. Path cost - function that assigns a cost to a path. Cost of a
        path is the sum of costs of individual actions along the path
     6. Goal test - test to determine if at goal state
        The Fifth Generation
            Expert Systems

   Software used with an
    extensive set of organized
    data that presents the
    computer as an expert on a
    particular topic
                    The Fifth Generation
                      Natural Language

   Humans communicate
    with computers in the
    language they use on a
    daily basis
                           The Fifth Generation
    Computer-controlled
     device that can
     physically manipulate its

                                 Robot development firm
                                 Speecys Corp. of Tokyo
                                 developed a small
                                 humanoid robot, powered
                                 entirely by easy-to-replace,
                                 environmentally friendly
                                 fuel-cell batteries.

THOR on display and demonstration circa 1981
                                    The Fifth Generation
                                     VR – Virtual Reality
   Engage a user in a
    –   User physically interacts
        with computer-created