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									Surety Association of New Jersey
    Delay Analysis &
 Construction Scheduling
             March 25, 2010
                 Presented by:

        William M. Wolf, Jr., P.E.
        Capital Project Management, Inc.
             wwolf@cpmiteam.com
Credentials - William M. Wolf, Jr., PE
  Over 35 Years of Engineering and
   Construction Experience
      Design
      On-Site Project Representative
      Estimating Services
      Surety Consultant
      Dispute Resolution Services
           Preparation and Defense of Construction Contract
            Claims
           Testimony
           CPM Scheduling Services
                                 2
               Introduction
 Involved in a variety of default situations
  during my career
 Issue always asked by parties involved in
  default situation:
 “Who is responsible for the delay and how
  do we prove it?”
 Delay Analysis Based on the Construction
  Schedule
                        3
What is a Construction Schedule
      and How is it Used?
 Schedule and coordinate the work
 Monitor and control progress
 Evaluate and document changes
 Prove or defend delay claims



                   4
Common Types of Schedules

 The “Gantt” Chart – Bar Chart


 Network Analysis System - CPM




                  5
                          Bar Chart Schedule
 Months
 1 2       3     4   5    6   7    8   9   10 11       12   13   14 15 16      17   18
Excavate
     2 Foundations

                     3 Structural Steel
                                       4
                                  Curtainwall
Procure Steel
                                                  4
           3                               Roof
Coordination Drawings                       1         Interior Finishes
           3                                                         4
                Fab. & Deliver                                            Punchlist
                      2                                                    1

                                  MEP Rough-In
                                            3         MEP Finishes

                                                                 3
        Network Schedule
 Representation of a project plan by a
 network that depicts the duration,
 sequence and interrelation of the work
 activities
  Critical Path Method – “CPM”



                     7
                                  Network Schedule
Months
 1 2   3            4     5   6    7    8   9   10 11      12   13   14 15 16         17   18
Excavate
         2 Foundations

                          3 Structural Steel
                                             4
                                       Curtainwall
Procure Steel                                          4
               3                                Roof
Coordination Drawings                            1         Interior Finishes
               3                                                          4
                   Fab. & Deliver                                              P.L.
                          2                                                      1


3   Duration in Months                 MEP Rough-In
     Logic Relationship                          3         MEP Finishes
     Critical Activity
                                                                      3
               Definitions
 Critical Path - longest path (or
  sequence) of activities through the
  network
 Float - the amount of time an activity
  can slip without impacting project
  completion (contingency time)



                      9
                               Network Schedule
Months
  1           2          3         4       5   6     7        8       9

  Excavate
                  2
                             Foundations
                                           3
                                                   Structural Steel
                                                                          4

   Procure Steel
                               3
                                     Float
                                   2 months


         Critical Activity
         Schedule Updates
 Status progress of work
   Determine remaining duration of activities
   Record actual dates (as-built)

   Make necessary logic revisions

   Incorporate change orders

   Reschedule remaining work



       Schedule is dynamic

                       11
                        Progress as of Month 3
Months
 1 2   3          4    5    6   7    8   9   10 11      12   13   14 15 16         17   18
Excavate
100% 2
       Foundations
      0
            30%       2 3 Structural Steel
                                          4
                                    Curtainwall
Procure Steel                                       4
   0%       3                                Roof
Coordination Drawings                         1         Interior Finishes
                                                                       4
60%       1 3 Fab. & Deliver                                                P.L.
                        2                                                     1


                                    MEP Rough-In
                                              3         MEP Finishes
                                                                   3
                   Schedule Update as of Month 3
  Months
   1 2   3          4       5   6        7   8     9   10 11      12   13   14 15 16        17     18
 Excavate
1/6    3/1
             Foundations
        3/5                 2           Structural Steel
                                                                                    Completion
                                                                                    slips 1 mo.
                                                   Curtainwall
                   Procure Steel
               3                                           Roof
  Coordination Drawings                                      1         Interior Finishes
1/9                     1                                                           4
                            Fab. & Deliver                                                  P.L.
                                                                                        1
                                    2

                                                 MEP Rough-In

                                                            3      MEP Finishes
                                                                                    3
  Using CPM Schedule for Delay Analysis

 Establish reasonable Baseline schedule
 Evaluate schedule updates and planning
  changes
 Evaluate delays chronologically using
  current project schedule
 Reflect as-built information
 Thoroughly base analysis on the project
  records
                     14
             Definitions
 Baseline Schedule – the contractor’s
 plan and intention of performing the scope
 of work in conformance with the contract
 requirements (“As-Planned” Schedule)




                   15
                As–Planned Schedule - Office Building
 Months
 1    2   3     4    5    6    7    8       9      10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18



 Foundations
                4    Structural Steel
                                            Roof
                                        4
                                             1
NTP                           Curtainwall
                                                   4   Interior Finishes     Punch
 Coord. Dwgs.                                                              4
                                                                              List

           3    Fab/Deliver   MEP Rough In             MEP Finishes             1
                         3                   3                      3
                Definitions
 As-Built Schedule
   A schedule depicting the actual historical

    record of events, activities and progress
    that happened during execution of the
    given project
   Involves time-consuming research of

    project records


                        17
                                                                              As-Built Schedule
               2001                                                                                                                 2002                                                                                        2003
J   J      A     S              O        N           D       J           F                  M       A            M             J               J             A           S              O          N          D           J       F        M
                         Excavate Bsmt/Misc                                 Backfill Bsmt
                   Strip   Bsmt Site Work                                                                         Contract
Site                                                                                                             Completion                            Total project delay 332 days
Work           Fence

                                                                              Set Cells
                                                                                A&B                               Grout & Repair Rub Cell
                                                             Set Cells
Precast                                                                                 Over   Mec                C
                                                                                                                           Walls
                                                                                                                          C Wing
                                                                                                                           2nd Flr
                   Delv
                               Pipes Drill & Pour      Place and Grout Planking Bsmt hRm                        Wing
                                                                                                                2ndLT WT Clg
                                                                                                                    Flr
                               Piers & Pier Pads                                          Pour Floor                           Ramps/Walks
                   Rebar                                                          A/Seg Topping A,B
                                     Bsmt Form & Pour Walls   Slabs A,B,&C                               Conc 2C                At Entrance
Cast In                                       Ramp & West
                                                                                   Unit
                                                                         BM Sides Cantil         EL BMS   Clg BMS                                                                     Fire
                                              Ret Wall Wall             Bsmt Area Wkwy            C Area     2C                                                                       Lane                               Punch List &
Place                    Beams
                                                                                                      Elev         Mech               Grade Beams/Walls/Mech                 Coping                                       Corrective
                                                                                                              Pier Pads                                                      Stone      Repair & Replace Brick Work         Work
                                                                                                      Bms                                   Pads/Slabs
                                                                                                               s
                                               Grade Beams Bsmt A,B&C Area
                       Grade Beams
                                                                                         CMU Walls & Columns                                          CMU             Face Brick
                                                              Begin Grout
                                                                                 B Area & Basement/C&A Walls/C2 Area                               Exercise YD       Exercise YD
                                                                 Bsmt
Masonry                CMU Walls and Columns
                                                                                                        Brick Work A & B              B&C      Coping Stone
                                                                                   Brick Work                                                  A-wing
                                                                                    Crane on
Structural                                                                            Site
                                                                                                  Set Steel
                                                                                                  Framing
                                                                                                                    A&B
                                                                                                                    Area        A&C Area

Steel                                                                                                                      A&B Area             C Area
                                                                                    Roof Tile Installation
Roofing                                                                                                      Frame Roof
                                                                                                         Hips & Dormers A&B
                                                                                                                                    Frame
                                                                                                                                    Roof C             Frame CLG A
                                                                     Roof/Ceiling Framing
Interior Finishes /                                                                                                                Drywall
                                                                                                                                                   Ceilings/Hallways


Flooring                                                                                                                            Paint
                                                                                                                                                         Paint

                                                                                                                                                     Set Adjust Doors/Instl
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Adjust & Install
Security                                                                                                      Cell Doors & Windows                  CNTLS Window Sensors
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cameras

System                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Substantial
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Completion
                                                                                                                             C&A            Grills/Ductwork Set          Insulate,
                                                                                                    HVAC Hangers             Area                           Equip                       Start up Equip      Punch List
                                                                                                                                                 to ACU                  Adjust &
                                                                                                                                                                        & Balance
                                                                                                          Chiller Piping              Install Piping
Mechanical         Utilities
                   Removal          Gasline/Water/          Set Drains      R/I Basement & Cell Area For A, B & C                        Drains
                Relocate/Install Storms & Sanitary       Misc PLM Repairs                                                                                                              Trim Out
                                                                                                                                            Mechanical Fixtures
                Relocate/Install Communes
                       & Temp Power          R/I Bsmt                R/I Basement & Cell Area For A, B & C
Electrical
                                                                                                                                             Pull Wire                          Trim Out                 Punch
                                                                                                                                                                                                         List

J   J      A     S              O        N           D       J           F                  M       A            M             J               J             A           S              O          N          D           J       F        M
               2001                                                                                                                 2002                                                                                        2003
       Result of Delay Analysis

 Critical Delay – Delay affecting an activity
  on the critical path of a project — impacts
  project completion
 Non-Critical Delay – Delay which absorbs
  float — does not impact project completion



                      19
                                  Network Schedule
Months
 1 2 3              4    5    6   7      8   9    10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Excavate
         2 Foundations
                             Critical                                                  2 mos.
                         3   Structural
                              Delay       Steel
Non-Critical    Float
  Delay
Procure Steel                       2         4
                                         Curtainwall
       2       3                                         4
                                                  Roof
                                                               Interior
Coordination Drawings                               1         Finishes
               3                                                            4
                   Fab. & Deliver                                               P.L.
                         2                                                        1


                                        MEP Rough-In
                                                               MEP
    Logic Relationship                             3         Finishes
    Critical Activity
                                                                        3
                                   Network Schedule
Months
 1 2 3             4    5      6   7     8     9   10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Excavate                               Float
        2 Foundations
                                                                                          2 mos.
    Non-
                           3 Structural Steel
   CriticalCritical
                   Float
                                               4
Procure Steel
   Delay    Delay                        Curtainwall
               3                                          4
                                                   Roof
Coordination Drawings                               1         Interior Finishes
              3                                                                4
                   Fab. & Deliver                                                  P.L.
                           2                                                         1


                                       MEP Rough-In
                                                                  MEP
   Logic Relationship                               3           Finishes
   Critical Activity
                                                                           3
  Categories of Critical Delay
 Excusable Delay – Delay that excuses
 late performance
   Compensable –Contractor reimbursed
    for time-related costs
   Non-compensable –Contractor is

    precluded from reimbursement for time-
    related costs
 Non-Excusable Delay – Delay within
 the control of the Contractor
                      22
         Concurrent Delay
 Two or more delays occurring in the
  same time frame on separate critical
  paths with both affecting the overall
  completion of the project
 Concurrent delays prevent either party
  from recovering damages



                     23
                                Concurrent Delay
 Foundations
                4    Structural Steel
                                            Roof
                                        4
                                             1
NTP                           Curtainwall
                                                   4   Interior Finishes     Punch
 Coord. Dwgs.                                                              4
                                                                              List

           3    Fab/Deliver   MEP Rough In             MEP Finishes             1

 Months                  3                   3                      3
 1    2   3     4    5    6    7    8       9      10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

 Foundations          Steel                                                          2 Months
                      Delay    Structural Steel
                4
                                                   4
                                                       Roof        Excusable
                          2
                                                                   Non-compensable
                                                          1
NTP                                         Curtainwall
                                                              4   Interior Finishes     Punch
 Coord. Dwgs.                                                                         4
                                                                                         List
                               Fab/Delv.         MEP Rough In
           3 MEP Changes                                           MEP Finishes             1
                1         2                  3                3                  3
    Delay Analysis Techniques
 Contemporaneous Method
   Establishes the status of work at the time a

    delay occurred to measure delay (i.e. Time
    Impact Analysis)
 Foresight Method
    Uses as-planned schedule as baseline to

     measure delay (i.e. Impacted As-Planned)
 Hindsight Method
   Uses as-built schedule or actual history to

    measure delay (i.e. Collapsed As-Built)
                           25
Contemporaneous Method:
  Time Impact Analysis
      Time Impact Analysis
 Chronological and Cumulative Approach
 Utilizes a series of chronological “time
  slices” to explain the major schedule
  variations that occurred during the course
  of the project.
 Technique relies upon:
   As-planned schedule
   Contemporaneous schedule updates

   Development of an as-built schedule


                      27
                     Time Impact Month 6 – Steel Delay
 Foundations
                 4    Structural Steel
                                             Roof
                                         4
                                              1
NTP                            Curtainwall
                                                    4   Interior Finishes     Punch
 Coord. Dwgs.                                                               4
                                                                               List

           3    Fab/Deliver    MEP Rough In             MEP Finishes             1

 Months                   3                   3                      3
 1    2   3     4     5    6    7    8       9      10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

 Foundations          Steel                                                           2 Months
                      Delay     Structural Steel
                 4
                                                        Roof
                           2                        4
                                                           1
NTP                                          Curtainwall
                                                               4   Interior Finishes     Punch
 Coord. Dwgs.                                                                          4
                                                                                          List

           3    Fab/Deliver                  MEP Rough In          MEP Finishes              1
                           3                               3                     3
                     Time Impact Month 6 – Steel Delay
 Foundations
                 4    Structural Steel
                                             Roof
                                         4
                                              1
NTP                            Curtainwall
                                                    4   Interior Finishes     Punch
 Coord. Dwgs.                                                               4
                                                                               List

           3    Fab/Deliver    MEP Rough In             MEP Finishes             1

 Months                   3                   3                      3
 1    2   3     4     5    6    7    8       9      10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

 Foundations          Steel                                                           2 Months
                      Delay     Structural Steel
                 4
                                                        Roof
                           2                        4
                                                           1
NTP                                          Curtainwall
                                                               4   Interior Finishes     Punch
 Coord. Dwgs.                                                                          4
                                                                                          List

           3    Fab/Deliver                  MEP Rough In          MEP Finishes              1
                           3                               3                     3
                     Time Impact Month 6 – Steel Delay
 Foundations
                 4     Structural Steel
                                              Roof
                                          4
                                                1
NTP                               Curtainwall
                                                     4   Interior Finishes     Punch
 Coord. Dwgs.                                                                4
                                                                                List

           3    Fab/Deliver       MEP Rough In           MEP Finishes             1

 Months                    3                    3                     3
 1    2   3     4      5    6     7    8      9      10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

 Foundations        Ironworkers
                                                                                       2 Months
                        Strike
                 4                Structural Steel
                                                     4
                                                         Roof        Excusable
                            2
                                                                     Non-compensable
                                                            1
NTP                                           Curtainwall
                                                                4   Interior Finishes     Punch
 Coord. Dwgs.                                                                           4
                                                                                           List

           3    Fab/Deliver                   MEP Rough In          MEP Finishes              1
                            3                               3                     3
                     Time Impact Month 6 – Steel Delay
 Foundations
                 4    Structural Steel
                                             Roof
                                         4
                                              1
NTP                            Curtainwall
                                                    4   Interior Finishes     Punch
 Coord. Dwgs.                                                               4
                                                                               List

           3    Fab/Deliver    MEP Rough In             MEP Finishes             1

 Months                   3                   3                      3
 1    2   3     4     5    6    7    8       9      10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

 Foundations         Design                                                           2 Months
                     Changes    Structural Steel
                 4
                                                    4
                                                        Roof                Excusable
                           2
                                                                            Compensable
                                                           1
NTP                                          Curtainwall
                                                               4   Interior Finishes     Punch
 Coord. Dwgs.                                                                          4
                                                                                          List

           3    Fab/Deliver                  MEP Rough In          MEP Finishes              1
                           3                               3                     3
                     Time Impact Month 6 – Steel Delay
 Foundations
                 4    Structural Steel
                                             Roof
                                         4
                                              1
NTP                            Curtainwall
                                                    4   Interior Finishes     Punch
 Coord. Dwgs.                                                               4
                                                                               List

           3    Fab/Deliver    MEP Rough In             MEP Finishes             1

 Months                   3                   3                      3
 1    2   3     4     5    6    7    8       9      10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

 Foundations      Fabrication                                                         2 Months
                    Delays Structural Steel
                 4
                                                    4
                                                        Roof             Non-excusable
                           2
                                                           1
NTP                                          Curtainwall
                                                               4   Interior Finishes     Punch
 Coord. Dwgs.                                                                          4
                                                                                          List

           3    Fab/Deliver                  MEP Rough In          MEP Finishes              1
                           3                               3                     3
         Time Impact Analysis
 Strengths
   Preferred methodology
   Measures schedule impact at inception of

    delay
   Considers float and critical path

   Truly historical because it considers the

    basis for management decisions at the
    time
   Thorough and difficult to attack quickly
                       33
      Time Impact Analysis
 Disadvantages
   Complex to assemble
   Challenging to complete without

    proper project documentation
   Delay quantum builds on previous

    analysis (“time window”)


                    34
 Foresight Method:
Impacted As-Planned
      Impacted As-Planned
 Process of inserting actual project delays
  into the as-planned (baseline) schedule
  without considering the actual progress of
  the project
 Schedule maintains original logic and
  durations
 Does not require the development of a
  detailed as-built schedule

                     36
                As–Planned Schedule - Office Building
 Months
 1    2   3     4    5    6    7    8       9      10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18



 Foundations
                4    Structural Steel
                                            Roof
                                        4
                                             1
NTP                           Curtainwall
                                                   4   Interior Finishes     Punch
 Coord. Dwgs.                                                              4
                                                                              List

           3    Fab/Deliver   MEP Rough In             MEP Finishes             1
                         3                   3                      3
                                  Impacted As–Planned
 Months
  1   2   3     4   5     6       7    8      9    10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
                                                                              Contract
                                                                             Completion        Actual
                                                                                             Completion
 Foundations        Steel
                    Delay         Structural Steel                                                   1 Mo.
                4
                                                         Roof
                              2                      4                                    4 Months
                                                            1    Detail
NTP                                           Curtainwall                                     Late
                                                                Conflict
                                                                                           selections
                                                                4     1    Interior Finishes       Punch
                                                                                                     List
 Coord. Dwgs.    MEP                                                                         4   1
                Changes           Fab/Delv.       MEP Rough In             MEP Finishes                 1
           3
                1         2                   3                 3                     3




          Maintains planned dates
          from baseline schedule
      Impacted As-Planned
 Weaknesses
     Project may not have been built

      according to the baseline schedule
     Ignores as-built data

     Almost always overstates the

      delays
     Not accepted by the courts



                     39
Hindsight Method:
Collapsed As-Built
        Collapsed As-Built

 After-the-fact analysis of project
  schedule (Retrospective)
 Detailed analysis using as-built data
 Removes specific delays from as-
  built schedule
 Results in as-built schedule “but for”
  identified delays
                    41
                                    Collapsed As–Built
 Months
 1     2    3   4     5       6     7     8    9      10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18


 Foundations
                  4           Structural Steel
                                                        6
                                                             Roof
NTP                                                                     2                           Punch
                                                                                                     List
                                                      Curtainwall
                                                                                                        1
      Coordinated Dwgs.                                                     5   Interior Finishes
                          6       Fabricate/Deliver                                                 5

                                               3      MEP Rough In
                                                                    3           MEP Finishes
                                                                                           4
                             Collapsed As–Built
 Months
  1   2   3    4    5   6     7    8    9       10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18


 Foundations        Steel
                    Delay      Structural Steel
                4
                                                  7
                                                      Roof
NTP                                                           2                            Punch
                                                                   Detail
                                                                                            List
                                            Curtainwall           Conflict            Late
                   MEP
                                                                    5                 selections 1
Coordinated Dwgs. Changes                                               Interior Finishes
                        6   Fabricate/Deliver                                              5

                                        3   MEP Rough In
                                                          3             MEP Finishes
                                                                                       4
                                 Collapsed As–Built
 Months
  1   2    3    4       5   6     7    8    9       10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
                                                                               Contract
                                                                              Completion
  Foundations
                    4              Structural Steel
                                                                                      3 Months
                                                      5
                                                          Roof
NTP                                                               2                           Punch
                                                                                               List
                                                Curtainwall
                                                                                                  1
Coordinated Dwgs.                                                 4   Interior Finishes
            3                   Fabricate/Deliver                                         4

                                            3   MEP Rough In
                                                              3          MEP Finishes
                                                                                          4
        Collapsed As-Built
 Weaknesses
     Not reconciled with contemporaneous
      records such as monthly updates
     Doesn’t consider float at inception of

      delay or identify “critical delays”
     Unrealistic representation of what

      happened on project

                     45
    Areas of Potential Conflict
 Ownership of Float
 Right to finish early
 Reasonableness of baseline
  schedule
 Accuracy of updates/schedule
  manipulation
 Methodology for time extensions
                      46
                 In Summary. . .
 Schedule delay analysis should consider:
   Baseline schedule

   Contemporaneous schedule updates

   Critical path and available float

   As-built history of project

   Chronological & cumulative accounting of delays

   Progress achieved up to the point in time when the delay

    occurred
   Concurrent delays




Analysis must be thoroughly grounded in the project records

                              47
Surety Association of New Jersey
    Delay Analysis &
 Construction Scheduling
             March 25, 2010
                 Presented by:

        William M. Wolf, Jr., P.E.
        Capital Project Management, Inc.
             wwolf@cpmiteam.com

								
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