Brand Value of Sahara India Pariwar by ftz11655

VIEWS: 131 PAGES: 86

Brand Value of Sahara India Pariwar document sample

More Info
									     Mapping the Festival Sector

Karina Berzins
Faith Dodkins
Karina Berzins

Karina Berzins is a Visiting Fellow with the London East Research Institute at the University of East
London, where she has previously taught Cultural and Media Studies. She is a highly experienced
research consultant working in the field of Leisure, Tourism, Regeneration, Culture and Arts planning.
Recent work includes input into the Arts and Cultural planning for the Thames Gateway (London), and
Thames Gateway South Essex, and creative industries mapping for the London Boroughs of Harrow and
Hillingdon, Creative Industries development work for West London Business. Previous work includes
research for the Arts and Cultural strategy for the Milton Keynes regeneration area, and the
Cambridgeshire sub-region; input into the Comedia-led Intercultural City project; input into the evaluation
of the DCMS led Cultural Pathfinder projects, research for the repositioning of Southend as a Creative
Hub; research for the Nighttime Economy Strategy for Newham council; and input into the GLA 2012
Olympic and Paralympic Games Assessment.

Faith Dodkins

Faith Dodkins is Research and Project Manager for David Powell Associates Ltd. As well as managing
DPA‟s two projects for Celebrating Enterprise (Mapping the Festival Sector and the Economic Impact
Research into Carnaval del Pueblo and the Baishakhi Mela), her recent work has included the research
and consultation for the North Kent Creative Sectors Study and the Central Arts Partnership‟s cultural
offer for the 2012 Olympics. She has also contributed to and coordinated DPA‟s development of the long
term strategy for arts and culture in the Cambridgeshire growth area and its creative and cultural
industries work in Somerset. Faith has an MA in Cultural Policy and Arts Administration and is a member
of the New Shed Theatre Company Management Committee.


Foreword ................................................................................................... 4
Celebrating Enterprise: Project Background ......................................... 4
Executive Summary ................................................................................. 5
Introduction .............................................................................................. 6
Methodology and Themes ....................................................................... 7
Organisational Structure ......................................................................... 9
Volunteering ........................................................................................... 11
Acts and Artist Development ................................................................ 15
Traders and Economic Development ................................................... 17
Funding ................................................................................................... 19
Regeneration .......................................................................................... 22
Festival skills, training and networking ................................................ 24
Tourism ................................................................................................... 26
Audience Development .......................................................................... 29
Education and outreach......................................................................... 31
Place-making .......................................................................................... 33
Conclusions and Recommendations .................................................... 35

Useful Resources ................................................................................... 37

Appendix A - Festival Overviews .......................................................... 39
Appendix B - Bibliography .................................................................. 82
Interviewees and research participants list ......................................... 85


Celebrating Enterprise: Project Background

The Celebrating Enterprise project aims to explore how community-based festivals and events
can help individuals and small/medium enterprises find employment and develop as
businesses. Festival and community events, particularly in urban areas, often provide a forum
for marginalised groups and individuals to celebrate and express their cultural backgrounds and
heritage. Building on this cultural empowerment role, the Celebrating Enterprise project
explores the potential for festivals and community events to play a greater role in economic
empowerment. The project explores ways to support people who might otherwise find it difficult
to find routes into self-employment, using festivals as vehicles for establishing and developing
business ideas.

Celebrating Enterprise closely integrates a strong research and evaluation element into its
practical work. This research aims to understand the experience of festival participants and
organisers, in order to develop appropriate and innovative ways to support their activities and
aspirations. This report was commissioned under this research strand of the project, and aims
to reveal detail regarding the local and community festival sectors operational characteristics,
the festivals role in wider contexts and agendas, and the developmental needs of the sector.

Celebrating Enterprise is delivered by 15 Partners including voluntary and community sector
organisations, local authorities, business advice agencies, and higher and further education
institutions. This diverse multi-agency partnership (led by City University, London) is part-funded
by the European Union‟s Equal programme.

Celebrating Enterprise is also part of a transnational Equal partnership – Rainbow Enterprise.
Partner organisations in Belgium, Greece, Italy, Poland and Portugal are carrying out parallel
delivery and research projects exploring innovative ways of breaking down barriers to business
creation and enterprise development, particularly for marginalised groups. Transnational
partners meet regularly throughout the project to exchange best practice and learning as well as
share information on different policy contexts in the countries involved.

For more information on the project, please visit

Executive Summary
This report assesses the characteristics of community festival activity in London and the UK
more broadly, alongside the development needs of the sector as indicated through the analysis
of selected festivals. It seeks to address how the needs of this sector might be met and
developed through the examination of current community festival operational characteristics in
the case study festivals. The festivals that are examined as part of this research are as follows:

      Derby Caribbean Carnival
      Luton International Carnival
      Music Village Festival
      Spitalfields Festival
      Stokefest
      The Edinburgh Festival Fringe
      The London Mela
      The Mayor‟s Thames Festival
      The Notting Hill Carnival

Through these case studies, and through the review of the literature, a number of themes were
highlighted as significant for the sector. These include economic development based on
economic (and social) impact studies of a number of festivals and events, regeneration, tourism
and place making, local entrepreneurship, audience development, acts and artistic
development, outreach and education work and volunteering and skills development. All of
these are important to the continued development of the festival sector, and are discussed in
turn. Case studies of good practice and points of interest are provided in each section. Each
festival is then examined in light of these themes, and an overview of each festival event is
provided. Finally, a conclusion based on a number of recommendations is presented.


The festival sector includes a number of different types of festivals – from artform based (film
festivals, literature festivals etc) to community based festivals that may celebrate a particular
ethnicity, or geographic locale, (such as carnivals and melas or local community festivals). For
this research, we were concerned largely with the latter type of festivals, those which celebrate
some sense of the local – either local geographies (Stokefest/Mayor‟s Thames Festival) or local
demographic/ethnicities such as the London Mela, or Notting Hill Carnival. Of course, these
distinctions in practice are not clear cut; Notting Hill Carnival for instance celebrates the tradition
of carnival found in Trinidad and Tobago, and black cultures more broadly, but it is also a
celebration of place and a potent political/critical symbol of British race relations over the last 50
years. It is not the purpose of this research to provide a definitional organisation for these
festivals but to inquire how these festivals relate operationally, and how they function in terms of
a wider set of principles and agendas such as regeneration, tourism, entrepreneurship, and
skills acquisition.

There is much variety in the way festivals are managed, organised and produced, ranging from
voluntary-run organisations, to private sector production, to being part of the regular business of
local authority events teams. Again there is much overlap between these positions. The
differences in management, organisation and production have real implications for the festival
sector, and this research hopes to highlight some of these in terms of the organisers‟
developmental needs, and how these needs might be addressed. These developmental needs
are often hampered by the cycle of festival activity itself; as the majority of activity is taken on
during the lead-up to the event, the challenge is to ensure that there is a continuation of skills
and expertise from one annual festival cycle to the next. For a festival to grow and be
successful, this obviously requires the development of longer term activity and infrastructure
beyond the festival season itself.

Much existing festival research points to the fact that festivals contribute to a number of local,
regional and national policy agendas - for instance in cultural engagement, cultural diversity and
social inclusion, regeneration, economic development, and tourism. While studies of individual
festivals have shown favourable economic impact (The Mayor‟s Thames Festival 2006; GLA
2004; LDA 2002), many of the „soft‟ benefits claimed for festivals remain less tested than the
hard economic impacts. These claims will be examined in more detail through the themes
section. Then the discussion will turn to an examination of the individual festivals before
conclusions based on recommendations that came from the research are drawn.

Methodology and Themes

Festivals were selected for this research to ensure contrasts in organisational and management
arrangements, including volunteer based, private sector management and local authority
organisation, as well as variations in scale, geography (though most were London-based), and
demographics of participation. Different types of festivals were chosen as case studies for the
study, not to highlight the differences between festival events, but to find commonalities
between apparently unlike events so that the sector can be more easily understood as a whole.
This is an important point – the variety of events included in the broadest conceptualising of a
„festival sector‟ has hitherto meant that approaches to festivals by analysts, researchers, even
government and public funders have not seen these events as constituting a coherent sector
that needs to be developed in its entirety. The mapping exercise highlighted many
characteristics that cut across festival types and are shared by what can be called the festival
sector as a whole.

The festivals that were selected for this research are:

          Derby Caribbean Carnival
          Luton International Carnival
          Music Village Festival
          Spitalfields Festival
          Stokefest
          The Edinburgh Festival Fringe
          The London Mela
          The Mayor‟s Thames Festival
          The Notting Hill Carnival

The research programme included the following specifics:

           literature review of academic sources and policy documents
           interviews with festival experts
           interviews with festival management teams, local authorities
           interviews with artists and traders
           interviews with festival volunteers
           participant observation at the festivals themselves
           analysis of festival-specific documentation, such as financial accounts and visitor
           analysis of marketing materials, websites and video material of the festivals
           analysis of local authority documents that cover the contribution of festivals to the
            locale, e.g. arts and culture strategies, community strategies etc

The case study approach that is utilised in this research aims to provide an in-depth analysis of
a selected number of community festivals in London and the UK. Part of the impetus for this
approach was to add a degree of comparison to the in-depth work being conducted for the
Celebrating Enterprise partner festivals – Brick Lane Festival and Carnaval del Pueblo.

The festivals studied vary in terms of their particular histories, size, and organisational structure.
However, there are a large number of similarities to be found, particularly in terms of their
development needs, how they are positioned within their local environments, and what they
contribute to their communities. Indeed, the review of the literature focussed on the claims that
festivals contribute in a meaningful way to the local environment. These claims are:

        economic development based on economic (and social) impact studies of a number of
         festivals and events
        regeneration and liveability more broadly
        tourism and place making
        providing a space for local entrepreneurship
        audience development
        acts and artistic development
        outreach and education work
        volunteering and skills development

This report will interrogate these claims against the case studies of the festivals themselves,
and will reveal how particular festivals contribute in these ways, as well as how these claims
relate to the overall organisation and production of each festival. While the list of themes is not
exhaustive, it does represent the main issues faced by festivals today. Each theme will be
considered in terms of the festivals under discussion, and a case study will be provided for each

Organisational Structure

There is much variety in the organisational and management structure of festivals, ranging from
local authority-run events, to those organised by private sector organisations, to those run by
voluntary organisations with charitable status. The differences in these management structures
have a profound impact on the way in which the festival is delivered. The difference in
organisational structure often relates to the reason the festival was developed and delivered in
the first place. Research from Yorkshire lists a number of reasons why artform-based festivals
have been founded. These include:

        -    “an individual or group of individuals with a particular artistic interest that is not being met
        -    individuals or groups celebrating local traditions
        -    individuals or groups with a particular objective e.g. to attract tourists, promote
             neighbourhoods and community cohesion
        -    local authority officers aiming to fulfil a council‟s cultural, social and economic objectives
        -    professional arts programmers
        -    commercial promoters”1

Our research revealed a number of structures that straddle these positions. For instance the
London Mela is co-run by the local authority (Ealing), and Remarkable Productions, a private
sector events organisation. Indeed, even those festivals run by groups of volunteers with
charitable status may often opt to hire in professionals for particular parts of the festival
production, such as artist management, trader procurement, or specialist services such as the
recycling facilities found at Stokefest.


The importance of the organisational structure to the festival event itself can be seen most
clearly when considering the cyclical nature of the festival. While most festivals occur only once
a year over one or two days, the need for continuity between each year‟s event provides a
challenge for smaller festivals that rely on volunteers. There are funding implications also – for
festivals without a board it is much more difficult to attract high level funding from organisations
such as the Arts Council England (ACE), or local authorities.

Through the research we found that events with a particular focus (e.g. those with an artform
base, those with a more community base) do not necessarily have a correlation with a particular
organising structure. The organisational base of each festival was more dependent on the local
situation at the time of the festival‟s establishment. However, as the festivals evolved,
organisational structures often changed.

Local authorities have recently taken note of the multitude of benefits a well-run festival
programme can bring to the local area. Many of these benefits will be discussed in full in this
report, such as economic development and regeneration. However the organisational body of
the festival must consider the following:

    -       issues with licensing

    ACE The Arts Festival Sector in Yorkshire (2006b:17-18)

 -    the need to maintain a good relationship with the local authority
 -    funding issues
 -    space and logistics
 -    policing and security

It is clear then that even with a festival that is run by a private events company, strong
partnership working with the local authority is necessary. The organising body or bodies must
take into account the year-long festival cycle and often overcome challenges to find a
sustainable funding base that allows for year-round payment for staff.

     Case Study - Southwark Events

     The Southwark Council events team runs a wide variety of festivals within the
     borough. Indeed the festival calendar in Southwark is so strong that on average there
     is a festival in the borough approximately every 1.7 days. While many of these
     festivals are run entirely from within the local authority (for example the I love
     Peckham Festival, and Bonkersfest) the event team also liaises with many other
     major festivals in the borough, like the Mayor‟s Thames Festival, Coin St. Festival
     and Carnaval del Pueblo. In this role they provide advice and support, funding and
     licensing to the respective festivals.


Volunteers play a major role in the UK‟s festival and carnival sector; most if not all community
based festivals, carnivals and events could not exist without them. Many of the events
discussed in this report rely heavily upon volunteers that are based within their own
communities and want to support their local event/culture, and on others that can see the
benefit of their involvement in terms of their own career and skills development. These two
categories are not mutually exclusive and festivals are likely to have a combination of volunteers
who have different reasons for volunteering. It is therefore a two way process whereby
organisations rely on volunteers to help run the event and where volunteers can use the event
for their own development, whether this be skills, training, employment or simply to feel a
greater sense of achievement and involvement in their community.

Volunteer Structures
Many community based events rely heavily on informal support. This can come in a range of
guises including the help of parents in making costumes, to acting as chaperones or even
making tea for the performers on the day. Although many of these volunteers would probably
not consider themselves an integral part of the organisation, for the festival organisers their
commitment and skill is critical. Many of the communities that are involved in festivals do not
consider themselves part of the wider festival sector, although it should be remembered that
those people who volunteer are forging relationships and building upon these and developing
their skills year upon year. Nuala Riddell-Morales, Co–Director of Carnaval del Pueblo believes
that there is a significant opportunity for informal volunteers at festivals to build upon their
experiences and cites the Bolivian parade performers at Carnaval as a good example of how
participation can lead onto other opportunities such as performing at other events.

Office-based volunteers are an ever-present fixture for many festival and carnival organisations,
and can be broken down further into two roles. Most organisations have volunteers that work on
an ad-hoc basis within the office environment which mainly consists of general administrative
duties such as stuffing envelopes, photocopying and putting up posters. These volunteers are
often retired or not in employment and have an interest in a particular event. They are happy to
get involved in any aspect of the event usually in exchange for free tickets or reduced entry into
paid events.

Many organisations also employ longer term volunteers on a permanent basis, commonly
referred to as an internship. These positions are usually offered (after interview) to students or
recent graduates who are looking to develop their skills in a particular area which will aid them
in their quest for employment. Many organisations employ interns as a way to train future staff in
a particular role with a view to offering the position at the end of the period of internship. This
works to the advantage of both the volunteer intern and the organisation. A number of the
organisations involved in this exercise have used interns as a way of hiring good quality people
with sufficient skills and basic knowledge, who they can train to work in a particular role in the
future. For many of the organisations it is imperative that an intern has a basic knowledge of the
sector to begin with and a basic skills level that can be built upon and developed over the
course of the employment. Whether an individual is able to take advantage of this opportunity is
of course reliant on a person‟s ability to work unpaid.

On the day of the event, many organisations also employ volunteers to act as stewards. The
volunteer stewards usually work alongside paid security and stewarding staff to contribute to the
smooth running and safety of the event. A number of organisations offer training to volunteer
stewards which enables them to gain event-based skills and also participate in an event that
they probably have a relationship with as a community or audience member. Many of these
event courses are accredited, which allows volunteers to move towards qualifications in event
management. Volunteer stewards are usually rewarded by being an integral part of the event,
receiving free tickets to paid performances and/or gaining an insight into how performers and
acts work on the day. For many organisations and event managers it is important to treat
volunteer stewards well and provide food, drink and especially event-based training to make it a
worthwhile and valuable experience for their unpaid staff. However, because of the Security
Industries Act (SIA) all public-facing workers must now have a license; this is having an effect
on small festivals and events as they cannot afford to pay professional security/stewards.

As well as „on-the-day‟ volunteers working on behalf of the event organisation there are also
volunteers who are part of the performance aspect of the event. Many acts perform at festivals,
carnival and events for free - using the experience as part of their professional development, as
practical experience, and as a way to showcase their talents. Even though there are many
events that pay large sums to their acts, there are a large number that rely on „in kind‟ support.
Events such as the Derby Caribbean Carnival often include a variety of performers, ranging
from high profile paid artists such as Morgan Heritage to local dance troops like DWICA..
However, as with interns, this relationship can work both ways and be in the interests of both
the organisation and the performer, as often groups that impress at one carnival are invited to
other high profile events around the country.

Finally, there are a number of events across the country that are run entirely by volunteers.
They rely wholly upon a range of voluntary labour to make the event work from the
implementation of the original concept, to the planning and execution of the event on the day.
The organisation is made up of volunteers who, from the Artistic Director right down to the
Administration Assistants and stewards, give their services for free, often because they have a
special relationship with a particular community and therefore want to keep a local event
running. A good example of this is Stokefest, which holds open local meetings year round
concerning the festival. This encourages a high level of local participation in the production of
the event.

In contrast to these models however, is the London Mela. No volunteer labour is used here; all
involved in the festival are paid, including stewards on the day. This is possible due to the high
level of corporate sponsorship that the festival accrues through advertising in the programme,
and other forms of advertising, such as banners on the day. The organisers believe that the
main reason the level of sponsorship is so high, is that the market that the festival attracts is
largely Asian, and Asian advertisers can be assured of good market coverage.

As stated above, the importance of volunteers is explicit when looking at a range of community
festivals and events; they make an impact in a variety of ways, contributing to numerous
aspects of the event from making costumes to fundraising and administration to performance.

In terms of financial importance, volunteers enable many events to take place without the
burden of paying every member of staff. Using unpaid volunteers enables event organisers to
concentrate their limited resources on other aspects of the event that might not be able to take
place if staff costs were greater. Many volunteers have long standing commitments to specific
events that mean they are as important to the organisation as the full time paid members of
staff. In some cases the management boards of festivals are also made up of voluntary
members (The Derby Caribbean Carnival for example), with paid freelance technical assistance

and artists; however for the majority of the festivals discussed in this report, the management
are paid a salary.

Volunteering opportunities at festival, carnivals and events enable a diverse range of people to
get involved in often important local, community driven celebrations. Voluntary positions, though
unpaid, can help to empower and up skill individuals from socially excluded groups, encourage
and create potential enterprise and create opportunities for disadvantaged groups to enter the
labour market. Whether a volunteer is becoming involved in an event for the first time, or is a
veteran of the carnival season, they are often able to use the experience as a stepping stone
towards future skills development, employment or business creation or simply as a way to
immerse themselves in community celebration, teamwork and confidence building.

However, it should be said that not all voluntary positions create the above opportunities. For
some volunteers, the festival experience has not contributed directly to their own personal
development and even if it has, employment opportunities have not emerged as a result. For
some, this is expected and they are happy to simply be part of a festival, for others the
expectation of volunteering has not been met. Volunteers at the Derby Caribbean Carnival for
example are often put in charge of important issues (such as marketing), but do not see
financial rewards. For festivals themselves, even though volunteers are integral to the
organisation, there are not always the structures or funds in place to enable training and
development opportunities or the offer of paid work.

Issues and Challenges
The question of training volunteers was often mentioned by organisations and volunteers
themselves. For many volunteers, the idea of joining an organisation in this position is for their
own personal and professional development and therefore many volunteers expect to be offered
a certain amount of training in return for their services. This can be difficult for some
organisations, as such training costs time and money, without guaranteed future benefit to the
organisation. For organisations like Cultural Cooperation, the training of volunteers or interns
can be tricky. They would expect an intern to already have the basic skills needed to work within
the organisation as members of staff do not have time to teach basic office skills for example.
However, once an intern has shown commitment to a specific role there may be scope for
further on-the-job training.

It is also worth noting that even though huge numbers of volunteers take part in carnivals and
festivals across the country each year, much of their impact is often left undeveloped and
unrealised. Is it therefore the organisations‟ responsibility to look at the best ways to encourage
volunteers (especially those who give informal support) to build upon their experiences. Nick
Green, Senior Arts & Events Manager at London Borough of Tower Hamlets believes that
opportunities exist for the council to integrate festival volunteers into other schemes in the
borough. He believes this could be especially significant in relation to London 2012.

Several festival organisations are looking at how they can employ volunteers in a more efficient
way, not only for their benefit but also for that of the volunteer. Reimbursing travel and
subsistence costs is becoming standard practice within festival organisations. „On Route‟, the
worldwide carnival arts conference held in 2004, highlighted the role of volunteers in carnival
and raised the issue of placing a financial value on their time. It was also noted that often
volunteers, including unpaid artists, bands and group leaders, dip into their own pockets to buy
materials2. It is therefore a challenge to event organisers to build in-kind support, volunteer time
and out of pocket expenses into their budgets. It is also a challenge for organisations to offer
formal training to their volunteers to enable them to develop their skills and receive proper
accreditation to take with them on their journey to employment. Again, the „On Route‟ report
(2004) highlights the shortage of accredited festival training in the UK and expresses the need

    ACE On Route world wide carnival arts conference, (2004)

for some form of accreditation to improve profile, recognition and acceptance of carnival arts
and artists.

       Case Study - Luton International Carnival

          Although as a local authority run event Luton International Carnival cannot
          directly employ volunteers, it does work alongside the new UK Centre for
          Carnival Arts who offer training courses in a variety of carnival-related topics.
          These include Mas Camps for the making of carnivals floats and costumes, and
          steward training. As a result of these courses hundreds of volunteers are able to
          gain accreditation in carnival-related topics each year and are in turn able to use
          the skills gained to participate in the actual carnival event. This helps to embed
          the carnival within the community and enables a wide range of volunteers to gain
          a variety of skills which they can use not only at the Luton Carnival but at other
          events and in employment.

Acts and Artist Development

For new, emerging and established performers, celebratory events provide a platform for their
act which has the potential to be seen by hundreds of thousands of people. Event organisers
seek to develop an artistic programme which will appeal to its audience. Celebrating Enterprise
aims to harness the energy and confidence-building effects of participation in community based
events and relate them to the enterprise opportunities that they encompass. This applies to
artists and performers as much as to backstage or trading staff. For many community groups,
participating in local celebratory events opens up other opportunities for performance and
business creation and can have an effect on the personal development of its performers. For
example Kelli Young of the pop band Liberty X got her first break performing on the stage at
Derby Caribbean Carnival.

It is important that performers at community-based celebratory events benefit from participating;
whether this is through payment or an increase in exposure will depend at what stage they are
at in their careers and what kind of event it is. Benefits could also come in the form of
professional development. Many organisations offer good levels of support for emerging artists
and performers which allows for continued development in a range of skills, not all of which are
exclusive to festival performance. For emerging acts this can make the difference between
making a living from performing or continuing with a more amateur existence. Many festival
organisers that work with artists in this way feel that their community and education
programmes are a good way of enabling performers to give something in return. Not only do the
performers benefit from the relationship, but members of the community in which the festival is
based can also. The Three Cities Caribbean Carnival Residencies involved artists that took part
in (among others) The Derby Caribbean Carnival in 2005, and aimed to bring new skills to
community carnival groups, school children and young people. This is a positive example of
how local people can not only watch artists perform at the event but also learn and develop their
own skills through working with them.

Issues and Challenges
For acts based in disadvantaged communities, the opportunity to perform at a festival could be
the key to developing a business and making a living from performing. There are a number of
acts that have taken part in Carnaval del Pueblo for example (through support from the Equal
programme) that have been able to practice and improve their and have as a consequence
been invited to participate in other events, including the Mayor‟s Thames Festival. For festival
organisations, showing support to local acts could enable them to engage with a wider audience
and get these people involved in the festival in a variety of ways. It is encouraging that many
community-based festivals are now looking closer to home when commissioning acts.
Shoreditch Festival and Brick Lane Festival are two events in particular that look towards
emerging artists from their communities to fill their programme.

Case Study – Music Village

Cultural Cooperation has a reputation for supporting the acts at their Music Village
Festival and sustaining this support in relation to their education projects. All acts
involved in Music Village are able to call upon the organisation for help with issues
such as contracts, marketing and organisation and this has helped create a formal
network for artists to share experiences with each other. London: Diaspora Capital is
a web-based resource that has been developed by Cultural Co-operation and aims to
provide greater visibility and opportunity for London-based artists of diverse national
and faith backgrounds. This type of resource enables a diverse range of performers
to link up with each other, promote themselves, and develop opportunities to help
them launch their careers and allow them to flourish.

Traders and Economic Development

Whereas local traders and stallholders were once seen simply as a way to subsidise festival
income and provide essential visitor services, they are now viewed by some festival organisers
as potential contributors and partners in events. Several festival and carnival organisations are
beginning to consider their traders as a reflection on themselves and as a representation of the
community in which they are embedded. Although this practice is not widespread, the success
of events such as the Shoreditch Festival, which take seriously the economic development of its
traders, is likely to have an impact of other events who are looking to further involve local

The provision of concessions at festivals and carnivals is a long standing tradition; visitors
expect an array of stallholders and services to be available at any event. For most visitors, a
cold beer, ice cream or ride on the ferris wheel form an integral part of their carnival and festival

Although many traders are veterans of festival trading, relatively cheap pitch rents and weekend
opening mean new and emerging businesses can make a low risk attempt at testing out their
offer. This is especially true of small, local business ideas, which may have grown from existing
business or through informal work at festivals and events, such as basic catering services or
clothes making. Once established, traders can take advantage of the festival and carnival
season to cement their business and move from one event to the next.

The success of traders at events can lead to significant impact on local economies and the
economic development of an area. It is not only stall holders within the events that can benefit.
Permanent traders within the locality can also see an increase in turnover during the event
period, which in turn can see an overall impact on the area. It is estimated, for example, that the
Notting Hill Carnival has an overall economic impact of £93 million. These types of figures can
help to prove the case for festivals and carnivals and help establish them as important events in
a community‟s calendar.

Issues and Challenges
For many small businesses and individuals with ideas for business creation, festivals and
carnivals can be a helpful way into the process of developing a successful business. Creative
skills developed through involvement in these events may lead to increased confidence and an
increased chance of commercial success. However, it is important to remember that success
does not come easily and that many small businesses fail. In this sense, it is a responsibility not
only for the festival and carnival organisations but also the local authorities and other bodies to
support emerging businesses and help develop individuals and their business ideas. In the
report looking at the economic impact of the Notting Hill Carnival (2003), the London
Development Agency (LDA) suggested that a training and skills/business development strategy
would help identify the strengths and weaknesses of small businesses involved in the carnival

and address areas including management, marketing, legal and tax issues, health and safety
and finance3.

The challenge for events organisers is how to incorporate traders further into the mainstream of
their event, to their mutual benefit. This might involve incorporating more creative and arts
based businesses into the event or giving discounts to non-commercial or start-up businesses.
Local established businesses might also be encouraged to get involved, using a focus on
community as an incentive. Some festivals have partnerships with local businesses whereby in
return for advertising, tickets or other services traders offer special deals to festival attendees in
the form of discounts, special offers or combined festival/restaurant packages. All this enables
local traders to develop a greater sense of understanding of the event and allows them to
participate and develop their clientele.

Case Study – Edinburgh Festival Fringe

The Fringe epitomises self-sufficiency in that almost everything in the festival is
entrepreneurial, from individual performance through to the organisation that runs it.
Involvement with the Fringe is a great opportunity for any budding entrepreneurs or
new businesses that are looking to develop, whether they are stallholders, shops or
walking tour organisers.

The Festival Fringe can be an example to small, less advantaged groups who want
to be part of a festival. The festival has enabled many people in the past to get
involved in the event on many different levels, encouraging involvement, enterprise
and skills development from starting up newspapers and walking tours to hotel
booking services and jewellery stalls. The involvement of street traders has added
another level to the festival and has helped it become one of the biggest festivals in
the world. This in turn has created an economic impact of around £75 million.

    LDA The Economic impact of the Notting Hill Carnival (2003)

The continued development and sustainability of the UK festival and carnival sector is a concern
for many people involved. There is no longer a dedicated Carnival Arts Officer within Arts
Council England and some money that may once have been earmarked for work in this area is
being diverted towards the London Olympic Games in 2012. For many people, the survival of
festival and carnival is important not only because of the performance aspect, but also because
of the way these events can bring together communities, develop young people‟s skills, provide
employment opportunities and benefit the local economy. It is therefore imperative for carnival
and festival organisations and bodies to work with a range of funders to support the continuation
of their work. The cancellation of Leicester‟s Caribbean Carnival in 2006 and its subsequent
return this year highlights the precarity of festival activity in the face of uncertain funding

The importance of funding for festivals and carnivals is clear. These events are usually one or
two days long, but can last a number of weeks, and therefore the cost of staging them can be
enormous. Because of the high health and safety risks, the number of people involved and the
amount of materials needed, high costs have become the norm. However, it should be
remembered that funding needs to be sourced not just for the actual event days but for the year-
round running of festival organisations. Many carnival and festival organisations, especially
those that are grassroots and community based, find it a constant struggle to fund their
organisation at a level that allows them to develop and thrive.

Research on the UK festival and carnival sector regularly calls for greater financial support. This
kind of research is the evidence many events use to lobby local authorities, funding bodies and
others to make a case for wider support. The quantity of research detailing the variety of
positive effects these events can have would appear to make strong case for public support.
However, it is also important for festival and carnival organisations to promote the benefits of
their events to local businesses and others to maximise the potential investment from other
sources. Some are already doing this; Spitalfields Festival for example is very efficient at
fundraising and they have good relationships with a number of corporate donors including
HSBC Insurance and News International plc.

The festivals and carnivals involved in this research have different experiences when it comes
to fundraising. Relationships with local authorities, funding bodies and the like differ from
organisation to organisation, meaning that there can be no comprehensive funding model that
should be followed by all. However, there are a number of good examples of organisations
which have found effective solutions to funding problems and worked hard to continue building
on this success.

For a number of the mapped festivals and carnivals (Spitalfields Festival, The Derby Caribbean
Carnival), a strong relationship with their local authority has proved paramount to their survival
and development. Local authority support, whether direct financial or „in kind‟ can be the make
or break of an organisation. Support from a local authority also impacts on the extent to which
an event can affect the community in which it is based. Many local authorities encourage local
grass roots participation through subsidised entry to events, community workshops and offers of
voluntary placements. The London Borough of Tower Hamlets - the self-styled „Festivals
Borough‟ – for example has developed close relationships with a variety of festivals including
Spitalfields Festival. The „in-kind‟ support which a local authority can provide often consists of

help with securing entertainment licenses, health and safety briefings, provision of outdoor
space and marketing. This specialist support is extremely valuable, especially for events run by
volunteers, who may not have the time or expertise to deal with these issues. However, these
relationships can sometimes break down and festivals that are unable to comply with certain
Council procedures may find relationships deteriorating and even funding being cut.

For other festivals and events, developing relationships with big business and corporate
organisations has been the key to their success. These kinds of relationships can be beneficial
both in terms of finance and support with other aspects of running an organisation. Developing
links with community-based festivals and carnivals can appeal to corporate interests as it is
often seen as a means of engaging with communities that might not always feel embraced by
large corporations. This kind of corporate social responsibility can also have a positive effect on
staff members, who often feel good to be associated with community-based arts. However,
some organisers feel that there is a negative side to corporate sponsorship as it can mean that
a grassroots event loses its community appeal.

In our research, the majority of festivals have partnerships with local authorities, but also rely on
a certain amount of sponsorship and help in kind. Certainly, it is clear from our research that
strong relationships with all funders is key to the development and sustainability of a festival,
whether it be a smaller community-led event like Derby Caribbean Carnival or a more
established festival such as Spitalfields.

Issues and Challenges
Often the biggest challenge for festival and carnival organisations is sustainability, both in terms
of the event itself and the organisation. This requires year-round funding for staff and
operational costs, and project funds for the event and related work such as education and
community work. For an organisation to sustain itself in this way, strong relationships with
funders is imperative. A professional approach is essential as shortcomings in relation to health
and safety for example could mean an end to any continued funding agreements. Derby
Caribbean Carnival for example has worked hard with council colleagues to improve the
security and safety aspect of the event, which has led to a strong partnership between the two
organisations. Most funding bodies require a high degree of professionalism and proof of
spending etc. if they are to continue funding any one organisation past their initial contribution.
In some cases funders have pulled out of funding agreements because the organisation could
not commit to a professional way of working.

Another challenge for community-based festival and carnival organisations is the continued
engagement with their communities. This can be greatly enhanced with funding for year-round
continued education and community programmes. In the case of the Spitalfields Festival and
the diverse communities that inhabit the area, strong education and community projects have
encouraged a greater interest in the festival. The festival has engaged with old, new and
emerging communities in the area and throughout the borough of Tower Hamlets and has
programmed music from these cultures as a way for regular festival-goers to gain an insight into
the area‟s history. The organisers recognise that there is still some way to go in making their
events wholly accessible to the local community, and use education projects and partnerships
with local organisations such as Oxford House to encourage further engagement with the

Finally, it is an ambition of many festival and carnival organisations to be able to offer a range of
professional development programmes to their staff members and performers. This again
requires specific funding mechanisms. Most funders can see the benefit such training can
provide, which can be especially beneficial to community based volunteers and new acts who
are looking to develop the skills needed to build confidence and routes to employment.

Case Study – Spitalfields Festival

  As mentioned above Spitalfields Festival is a good example of a festival that has
  been successful in securing funding. They received public funding (Arts Council
  England London, London Learning and Skills Council, commercial sponsorship
  (including Bircham Dyson Bell and Singer & Friedlander) and support from
  foundations and trusts (including The Holst Foundation and Garfield Weston
  Foundation). The festival also has good returns from the box office.

  Spitalfields Festival has built significant partnerships, especially in education, and
  has been recognised by ACE for this. Organisers try to be business minded and
  make deals to benefit the festival. Although they have been successful with
  funding, the festival still has a shortfall. Its large reserves could mean it does not
  always get as much funding as possible as on paper they are very healthy but do
  not believe they would last more than a year without continued external support.

The regeneration of many deprived neighbourhoods in recent years has meant that a number of
disadvantaged communities and socially excluded groups have seen the place in which they
live change. For many areas, part of these developments has been an increase in the way arts
and culture are used for the benefit of the community. There are numerous examples of
community-based festivals and events that have been born out of, or contributed to
regeneration initiatives and which have encouraged the local communities to join together to
celebrate their culture and the place they live. The Lambeth Riverside Festival and the
Greenwich and Docklands Festival are examples of how festivals and events can contribute
widely to regeneration initiatives.

It is important that regeneration projects seek to involve the people they will affect, and cultural
events are a good way to do this. Many of the disadvantaged communities affected by
regeneration want to be part of the process. This can be achieved by involvement in decision
making, skills and enterprise training which all contribute to making an area a pleasant place to
live, work and visit. Festivals and carnivals have become good showcasing events for
regeneration initiatives. The incorporation of festivals into regeneration programmes has
enabled local people to benefit from the changes being made and at the same time enjoy the
events in their own right. Shoreditch Festival for example was born out of a community led
regeneration agency, the Shoreditch Trust, and aims to encourage local groups, businesses,
schools, artists and individuals to become involved in the regeneration of Shoreditch. Free
festival skills training directed at local unemployed people and subsidised stall rents for small
local businesses are two ways in which the Shoreditch Festival encourages local people to get
involved, learn new skills and develop.

Issues and Challenges
Even though the regeneration of a location is an ongoing process, festivals based around such
projects may run their course or change in direction. Perhaps for many festivals the challenge is
breaking away from a regeneration project and existing as an independent event. Spitalfields
Festival (see Case Study below) was born out of a regeneration initiative but has since gone on
to become a high profile event in its own right, whilst still contributing to the development of the
local area.

Case Study – Spitalfields Festival

The festival was born out of the need to raise money for the redevelopment of Christ
Church and contribute to the regeneration of Spitalfields and its surrounding
communities. Even though raising money has not been the sole aim of the festival for
many years, the event is still based primarily in the heart of Spitalfields, an area that
is still constantly changing and that has a wealth of history and diversity. The
festival‟s current mission statement suggests a commitment to raising the profile of
the historic quarter of Spitalfields and the surrounding area and promoting the
continuing regeneration of London‟s East End. It is through working with the area‟s

diverse communities, businesses and artists that Spitalfields Festival continues to
achieve its regenerative aims. Through partnerships with local arts organisations
such as Oxford House and through education projects with schools, the festival is
able to involve local people in a festival that could so easily be seen as unconnected
and irrelevant for many local residents.

Festival skills, training and networking

Like many organisations, festivals, carnivals and events are increasingly interested in making an
investment in their staff, communities, artists and audiences. Many of these organisations have
realised that in order to run a successful company and event, care must be taken to provide,
amongst other things, measured training and development programmes to enable a greater
sense of professionalism.

Alongside this, skill sharing and networking is essential to the creative industries in general, and
to the production of events, carnivals and festivals in particular. As a sector characterised by
complexity, convergence and interrelatedness, the sharing of knowledge, the development of
partnerships and access to a skilled workforce is of primary importance. However, while a
certain amount of informal networking and skill sharing was found to take place in the festivals
under investigation, it was also found that much more could be made of these opportunities.
One of the largest issues that emerged was the lack of time available to facilitate networking
and training. Many festival and carnival organisers, for example, did not stop to visit or even
acknowledge other festival activity because their own schedule was so tight. It is only once a
specific event has finished that many members of festival organisations feel they can relax and
reflect on the past festival season. Even though informal networks are a valid form of
networking, it is felt that sharing information in a more formal and cooperative manner would
only be beneficial for festival organisers.

Even the smallest community festival demands a wealth of knowledge and skill from its staff.
This can range from technical production (staging, lighting, etc) to marketing, stewarding at the
event, artist management and funding specialists. The importance of networking and skill
sharing to the festival sector is marked, as the sector relies on a high proportion of volunteer
workers, who may not possess specialist qualifications. However volunteers often move from
festival to festival, gaining and sharing skills as they go. In this way up-skilled volunteers can be
seen as a great asset to the festival sector. Nevertheless, volunteers we interviewed often
expressed some frustration at the lack of both on-the-job training, and the lack of short courses
specifically geared to the festival sector.

Issues and Challenges
The challenges faced by festival organisers in terms of the skill level of the festival workers and
volunteers are manifold, and the cyclical nature of festival work means that there are difficulties
in attending conferences and courses. Much of the work in festivals can be quite specialised: for
example fundraising has little to do with act procurement or technical production. Volunteers
and organisers alike voiced their frustrations at the lack of opportunity for more intensive training
periods for volunteers. Many volunteers felt that their previous experience did not fully equip
them for the day-to-day tasks that they were given. Interestingly, many of the skills that were
lacking were not festival-specific, but included more general skills, such as the use of particular
computer packages. Fundraising skills were highlighted by a majority of the festivals as an area
that needed to be further developed.

While there is course provision for many of these more general skills, the festivals - including
the larger festivals that can pay staff year-round - found it difficult to find both the time and the
funds to send volunteers and other workers to attend these courses. Training provision in
festival-specific skills such as festival marketing, event management and production were felt to
be lacking. Some festivals, such as the London Mela, overcome this difficulty by buying in
existing expertise. Stokefest has a similar approach – while they do not pay professionals, in
effect they “buy-in” volunteer labour for the organisation of specific areas of the festival.


           continue locally based courses for festival organisers and workers
           festivals should conduct a skills audit of their workers and volunteers
           joining festival associations can encourage partnership working and networking
           ensure that existing network initiatives are better connected to each other
           develop local networks in places of high sector activity
           „Investors in People‟
           community training schemes
           local people‟s informal involvement
           challenge to involve more local people/communities

Case Study - Informal Networking and Mobilising Partnerships –
Stokefest and the London Mela

On the surface these two community festivals – the London Mela and Stokefest
appear to have little in common, and no connection. However, although these
festivals come from different traditions – one celebrating Asian cultures, and one
celebrating all cultures and artforms found within Stoke Newington, the day-to-day
production of these (and other) festivals are very similar.

While there is no formalised arrangement between these festivals, the producer of
the London Mela – Julian Rudd (Remarkable Productions) and the producer of
Stokefest (Robin Collins) are part of an informal network. As head of the London
borough of Ealing events team, Julian founded the London Mela. When he left to
start his own production and events company – Remarkable Productions, he
continued to produce the Mela. Alongside this Julian and his company run ISAN –
the Independent Street Arts Network. In conjunction with the production of Stokefest,
Robin also runs a Hip-Hop Circus. Julian and Robin met through their festival
activities, and continue to share information and skills. Although this is a very
informal connection, both parties claimed that it was a very satisfactory relationship
and a useful way to assist their own festivals, as well as contribute to a wider
festivals sector development.

Festivals play an important role within the wider tourism sector, not only for economic reasons,
but also because they also provide a sense of excitement and a sense of place for many local
areas. As a result, festivals occupy an important place in local authorities‟ tourism calendars,
and are often marketed as a regular part of the tourism offer of an area.

The impact of festivals on the visitor economy has been the subject of a number of recent
reports, from the economic impact studies of various festivals (Notting Hill, Edinburgh, Carnaval
del Pueblo etc), to the Arts Council commissioned research into the impact of festivals in the
West Midlands on the visitor economy.4 Their findings are in line with the case study festivals
under consideration in this report. These findings include:

• festivals offer potential as good promotional vehicles for cities, towns and villages, as they can
enhance a destination‟s image and identity, improving perceptions of the place and the people
that live there.

• festivals are good at fulfilling visitors‟ needs: research conducted by the English Tourist Board
has shown that festivals provide opportunities for „enlightening, learning and enriching

• throughout Europe, culture in general, and festivals in particular, have been shown to attract
younger, more affluent visitors than the average.5

The links between local festivals and branding of places are strong. In particular the image of a
local environment can be greatly enhanced with a strong festival offer. However there are
issues with promoting festivals as tourist destinations. Many community festivals are staged to
attract local people, who may not wish to be positioned as tourists in their own local
environment. Here then is a tension between “tourist” and “festival audience”, and festivals that
celebrate a particularly local character should be aware of the positioning of their audiences in
this way. Many of the festivals interviewed are aware of this tension, while for other festivals this
is less of a problem. For example the Mayor‟s Thames Festival is of such a scale, and its
location is at one of London‟s more popular tourist attractions – the south bank, that appealing
to tourists is a matter of course for the festival. Stokefest, on the other hand, remains a very
localised celebration, and for the festival‟s organisers, large numbers of tourists would change
the nature of the festival. While Stokefest is engaged in considerations about audience
development, this is occurring along more local lines, and are broadening their programming for
a local market, rather than a non-local one. Another model is the Brick Lane festival where the
aim is to attract attendees that become a „tourist in their own city‟, playing on the „exotic‟ image
of the area, with the idea that they will then return more regularly the rest of the year.

The importance of tourism to the festival sector appears on the surface to be mainly to do with
the marketing of a local area, to add to the desirability of the locale. However, much of the

 Franco Bianchini, Christopher Maughan, and Paola Merli, Festivals and the Creative Region (Arts Council England,

impetus behind the encouragement of tourists to attend local festivals is economic; tourists
traditionally have a much higher spend per head than local festival goers.

Thus there is a pull towards encouraging tourists to attend local community festivals for the
money they bring in to an area. This is particularly the case for festival events that are held in
more rural areas, or where the festival has an international reputation (such as Edinburgh),
where the tourist spend becomes higher due to overnight stays. A report into the Edinburgh
Festivals by City of Edinburgh Council, Scottish Enterprise Edinburgh and Lothian, VisitScotland
and EventScotland (2004) stated that 47% of festival attendees were on a trip with at least one
night away from home6.

While there is a temptation to market festivals as tourist destinations to aid audience
development strategies, not all festivals will benefit from this. Festivals that seek to involve
locals – that position themselves as embedded in a particular community – cannot afford to
reposition themselves to a new, non-local market without running the risk of significantly
changing the nature of the event itself. On the other hand, for some events, particularly those
that do have an international element, that showcase international acts, this may be a good way
of developing a wider audience.

Issues and Challenges

             In any location, harmony must be sought between the needs of the
             visitor, the place and the host community.7

The challenge then becomes very festival specific. Festivals such as Stokefest that are engaged
with celebrating the local would not do well to pursue a tourist market, compared to a festival
such as Notting Hill Carnival, which although rooted historically in the local area, also engages
with a much wider cultural celebration of Carnival arts that has an international audience and

Local festivals that rely heavily on an influx of tourists may upset local residents who feel the
visitors put a strain on local resources. This is the case even with large and successful festivals
such as Edinburgh, where there is a huge influx of tourists. Some locals plan their holidays
around this event and leave the area during the time of the festival.


             shared marketing strategies between tourist destinations and festivals will be useful for
              audience development
             however those festivals that want to retain a strong local sense should not necessarily
              aim to attract large numbers
             provision of other tourist facilities – accommodation, transport links etc - must be
              integrated into a strategy to attract tourists to festivals

      Case Study – Accidental Tourism in London at the Mayor’s
      Thames Festival

    City of Edinburgh Council et al Economic Impact Study (2004)
    English Heritage Tourism Facts (2000:29)

      Festivals in London may have the opportunity of attracting a small number of
      tourists by chance. The prominent site of the Mayors Thames Festival on the
      south bank of the River Thames means that many tourists who were in the area
      anyway attended the festival in 2006. In this year 15% of festival-goers came
      from outside London, and 11% were international tourists. Indeed the audience
      figures from the Thames Festival in 2006 show the strong links between festival
      going and tourism: 36% of the festival audience planned to visit a tourist
      attraction that day, while 27% planned to visit a gallery, museum or cultural

    Thames festival Annual Report (2006:6)

Audience Development

Audience Development of cultural and arts events has been professionalised as a discrete
sector within arts management and marketing. While much of this work comes from outside the
festival sector from museums, galleries and theatres, the basis on which the development of a
particular audience rests, and the links with marketing strategies for culture and the arts is
similar. Audience development is a strategic process (or more correctly a number of strategic
processes) that can widen the diversity as well as the size of audiences, and increase
participation in the arts and cultural sectors more broadly.

While once it was true that “few festivals are able to provide reliable information about where
their audiences come from”9 with the recent emphasis on economic impact studies in the arts in
general, and festivals in particular, many (particularly larger festivals) have begun to collect this
data. The various audiences that are attracted to festivals, other than tourists, have not been
effectively segmented. However, it is clear that where there is audience data from festivals, the
processes of segmentation and identification of potential new audiences is beginning.

The importance of audience development for festivals is similar to the audience development of
other arts and cultural events. Attracting more diverse audiences (in terms of age, ethnicity, and
other demographic categories) is important in terms of encouraging the widest possible
participation in cultural life. Cultural participation is high on the agenda of local authorities and
regional and national policy confirms this imperative.

The Arts Council has developed a list of strategic priorities in terms of increasing audiences for
the arts by 2012:

       •   Bringing the arts to a wider audience
       •   Encouraging individuality and experimentation
       •   Nurturing creativity across the generations
       •   Embracing the diversity of our culture
       •   Exploring new forms of expression10

Cultural participation has been found to have wide-reaching benefits for the individual and for a
local area. The liveability agenda speaks to the fact that participation in culture and the arts has
benefits for health, community cohesion, inter and multicultural agendas and general well-being.
Festivals encourage participation in the arts by providing an inclusive space where audiences
can participate and consume cultural products on offer. Free festivals are a particularly good
way to encourage an interest in different cultures and artforms, without the expense associated
with more traditional performances in static venues, and they appeal to a wide range of ages,
and ethnicities.

  Rhydderch, G. et al „Arts Festivals in Cumbria: A description of the sector and proposals for its support and development‟
     Henley Centre How can the Arts Council increase audiences for the arts by 2010?

Not only does a high level of participation from festival-goers lead to a successful festival in
terms of audience engagement, but also for many festivals these elements are a way to
highlight the work of local arts organisations and bring them to a wider audience. Many of these
outreach and arts education programmes that take place within the festival environment are
funded separately, and therefore represent good value for money in terms of festival arts
programming. In leveraging funding and support, festivals need to be well-informed about their
existing audiences, and their future strategies to attract new ones.

The challenge in audience development for festivals is mainly due to the difficulties associated
with gaining accurate audience data. Festivals with box office software and ticket sales may do
this as a matter of course; for free community-based festivals this is a different matter. The best
way to collect this information is via an audience survey, that can stand alone, or form part of a
wider process of evaluation of the event. However many smaller festivals may be limited in this
activity due to the cost of professional audience surveys and economic impact studies. There is
also an issue of organisers recognising the value of such studies, as some may not feel that the
benefits merit the outlay of time and resources.

Case Study – Carnaval del Pueblo

Through Celebrating Enterprise three London based community festivals have been
able to look at the economic impact they are making and as a result have been able
to look at where their audiences come from and how they can be developed. For
Carnaval del Pueblo, the results from 2006, where there were 100,000 visitors, show
that they are reaching out to a significant proportion of London‟s Latin American
communities, while at the same time attracting a diverse audience. Forty-five per
cent of respondents identified themselves as being of Latin American or Caribbean
origin, a category which included people from eight different specified Latin American
countries. Although Colombians still feature more strongly than the others, their
dominance does not appear to be overwhelming. Those who described themselves
as British, Black British or English totalled 29%, and the remainder were from a wide
variety of backgrounds. In 2007, it was estimated that the festival attracted one in
eight of the 200,000 Latin Americans in London; a significant accomplishment for the
festival and its organisers. Knowledge of these proportions has informed marketing
and fundraising strategies for the future.

Education and outreach

Most of the festivals we examined have a programme of arts education and outreach
programmes that sits within the overall festival structure. Even those community festivals that
are not artform-specific display and encourage a high level of arts participation, in particular for
children and youth. For example, the Mayor‟s Thames Festival liaised with over 160 schools in
their pan-London project, and engaged over 5,500 young people in an arts project based
around recycling. This culminated in a communally created sculpture clothed with flowers made
from recycled plastics, managed by Otherworld Arts. Carnivals also have a long process of this
kind of work as the various mas bands come together over the months preceding the carnival to
work on costumes, and dances. Much of this work is highly creative, and involves groups that
are hard to reach with other types of arts participation. This is in line with the research done by
the British Arts Festivals Association (BAFA) who found a high percentage of festivals running
some kind of education and/or community arts outreach programme.11

The importance of education and outreach work to festivals varies from festival to festival.
However these types of programmes make an important contribution to arts participation, and
can be used to access traditionally hard to reach groups. The management of such
programmes is usually handled by organisations that sit outside the core festival structure, and
much of this labour occurs outside of the traditional festival cycle of activity where the festival is
used as an opportunity to showcase the work that has taken place.

Not only is this type of work valuable in attracting new participants for the arts, but it also
contributes to the festival itself with outside groups strengthening the festival offer on the day.
Alongside this, these projects can attract valuable additional funding outside of the regular
festival funding streams.

Issues and Challenges
The type of arts education work varies greatly, and in the case of the carnivals, much of the
work is not funded. Many young people use their summer holidays to make costumes for
participation in the street parades at Notting Hill and other carnival celebrations. Because much
of this work is voluntary and occurs informally, it is difficult to fund. However, some of the larger
organisations, like Masquerade 2000, do receive funding and engage with many young people
in hard to reach groups. This organisation also has an outreach programme that involves young
offenders, and works closely with a number of festivals to showcase their work.

  Allen, K and Shaw, P. Festivals Mean Business: The Shape of Arts Festivals in the UK, British Arts Festivals
Association (BAFA) (2000)

Case Study - The Mayor’s Thames Festival

The programme of formalised arts participation in the Mayor‟s Thames Festival is
one of the largest of the festivals under study. In 2006 the festival involved over
31,500 people who danced, sang, performed, and created artworks. Many of these
were involved through arts education and outreach work. The festival also had an
international arts education element, engaging schools in London, and linking them
with schools in China and India.

The educational elements of the festival are very strong, and constitute an almost
year-round programme of workshops and events with schools across London. While
much of the education work was showcased over the two days of the festival itself,
the majority of work occurs from March through September, with projects involving
242 schools in London.

Place making

Festivals transform place and space, albeit temporarily, from local everyday places, into
temporary environments of celebration. Festivals are concerned with both the production and
the consumption of culture; in this way the landscape is transformed into a culturally charged
one where groups of people come together to “maintain themselves culturally” 12 and where the
opportunity is presented for others to join that group.

In recent times place promotion and city branding has been high on the agenda for local and
regional government. The intersections between local economic development, tourism and
regeneration are clearly identified within the festival celebration. As such, the cultural nature of
festivals cannot completely be separated from these commercial interests; however, for local
audiences and festival goers, place making not only involves these wider commercial structures
of global tourism and city branding, but also speaks to more everyday structures of liveability
and the local. The links with regeneration are strong here, and festivals have been seen by local
authorities as a key way to promote this agenda.

Challenges and Issues
Place making is an organic process that relies on the individual‟s relationship with the local
environment, and with other local groups. As such, it is not something that can be easily nor
completely programmed into a festival event. However, a sense of the local‟ of engaging with
local audiences, artists, craftspeople and traders, will certainly contribute to the sense of local
community. While it is possible to programme these into a festival to give a local flavour to the
event, it remains difficult to stage or predict how these local communities will come together on
the day.

 - market to local audiences via local press, flyers, local shops etc
 - provide a space where organic community building can go on – i.e. where audiences can
    find out about their local area, meet and network in an informal environment

Case Study - The Mayor’s Thames Festival as a Celebration of the
River Thames

One of the most important elements in the Mayor‟s Thames Festival is to highlight
the range of activities on the south bank. This aim was certainly successful in 2006,
with 66% of respondents in the audience survey saying that attending the festival had
changed their perception of the area for the better.

Alongside this the “your river your say” questionnaire highlights people‟s views of the
River Thames. The results for 2006 were as follows:

     Waterman, “Carnivals for elites? The cultural politics of arts festivals.” Progress in Human Geography 22,1 (1998:60-61)

      95% said they used the riverside walkways
      70% had never walked on a Thames beach at low tide
      52% had never taken a river cruise
      91% think the river is under-used

This clearly demonstrates the way in which the festival, while based around arts and
performance, contributes to the sense of importance of the River Thames, and
encourages the audience to consider the river as a valuable asset, and to make use
of it in other ways.

Conclusions and Recommendations

The mapping exercise was undertaken to understand the experience of festival organisers,
volunteers, traders and artists. It has highlighted many characteristics, issues and challenges
that cut across festival types and which are shared by what can be called the festival sector as a
whole. The development of funding priorities and the constant search for funding partners are
just two of the challenges faced by community festival organisers. Together with more practical,
operational problems, it is clear that there is another major issue facing the festival sector.
There is a distinct lack of inclusive policy that considers all types of festival events, from artform-
based festivals and small community celebrations, to commercial events and internationally
renowned festivals. This means events can often operate in a fragmented climate and
opportunities for sharing best practice, funding, networking and skills development opportunities
remain limited.

The following recommendations come out of the mapping exercise and through consultation
with a range of festival organisers, volunteers, traders, artists and funding bodies. They form the
basis of an argument in favour of an integrated festival policy.

      Professional Approach to Volunteering
Volunteers are an essential component of festivals and a number of organisations consulted in
this report expressed the desire to professionalise their approach to volunteer management. Not
only would this enable organisations to use volunteer time to their advantage, but it would also
allow volunteers themselves to use their experience to positive effect. There are a series of
initiatives that could be implemented in order for a more professional approach to be achieved.

For formal volunteers or those undertaking work placements within an organisation a more
structured approach to development is recommended. For the individual involved, a focused
development plan that could lead to further employment within the organisation or towards
employment elsewhere would be well received. For the festival organisation itself, this type of
approach would lead to a more focused volunteer, who had direction and a purpose in their

Research shows that informal volunteers are a significant part of this growing sector. The
success of courses including Costume Making, Float Design and Music Production, delivered by
Southwark College as part of Celebrating Enterprise, has meant that members of the Latin
American community were able to fully prepare for a greater involvement in Carnaval del Pueblo
in 2007. This acts as an example to festivals of ways in which they could provide informal
festival volunteers with appropriate training and support that could enable them to use their
festival experiences as progressional tools to employment and skills development.

To embed festivals fully within the community, an effort to strive for locally focused recruitment
is recommended. As seen at the Shoreditch Festival, a local approach can integrate the
community further into an event and enable the festival to draw on local knowledge and
passion. Local recruitment drives will create interest and involvement and could also aid skills
development within the community.

A national database aimed both at volunteers and festivals could cement this more
professionalised approach. At the moment, volunteers seeking festival placements do not have
one single place to look for opportunities – therefore a database listing vacant posts would be
effective. It would also work for the festival organisations and could include a database of
people looking to volunteer, including their skills and ambitions.

      Support for Emerging Local Talent
For a number of the festivals consulted in this report, the involvement of local artists is key to
their success and engagement with the community. However, support needs to be put in place
to give opportunities to more local performers. This could come in the form of networking events
for local artists or a database of emerging acts to support their attempts at turning their act into
a business.

     Stronger Relationships with Traders and Businesses
Festivals‟ relationship with traders and local businesses is often inconsistent and informal.
Traders have spoken of feeling unconnected to events and are regularly treated purely as an
income generator by festivals. It is therefore recommended that festivals attempt to embed their
traders further into the event. Certified health and hygiene, customer care and financial training
for emerging local traders would enable them to professionalise their business, which in turn
would add to the local economy. Regular briefing meetings between organisers and traders
would improve relations and allow any issues to be discussed before the event. Lastly, a
national database (which could be linked to the databases suggested above) containing both
information, advice and contact details for both traders and festivals would increase the
possibilities of relationships and businesses developing.

     Inclusive Networking
Festival membership organisations tend only to concentrate on individual sub-sectors and do
not always appeal to community-based festivals. Therefore recommending an inclusive, open
network where best practice can be shared across the sector is the best option. How this can be
achieved and who is responsible is hard to pinpoint, but festivals themselves can make the case
for better connectedness between networks and challenge local authorities and agencies to
involve and connect with more grass roots organisations.

For these recommendations to be enacted, it is necessary for an agency, governing body or
festival organisation themselves to implement and manage the approach. The challenge for
community festivals is to establish their own strong events that can improve and add to the
community festival sector, therefore making an impact on the sector as a whole and leading to a
more unified proposition.

Useful Resources

2012 Arts Network
The 2012 Arts Network is a place for anyone interested in the arts and the Olympic Games to
talk about their interests, plans and ambitions, and start working towards 2012.

Arts & Business
Arts & Business acts as a crucible where businesses and arts organisations come together to
create partnerships to benefit themselves and the community at large.

Association of Festival Organisers (AFO)
Working for and with festival and event organisers and supporting live music, dance, song, arts,
crafts and theatre.

British Arts Festival Association (BAFA)
A membership organisation covering the widest span of arts festivals in the UK.

An online resource for British based masqueraders, steel bands, costume designers, carnival
events, sound systems and practitioners.

The leading support organisation for the creative and cultural sector, includes the capacity
building programme „Festival Focus‟.

Creative Partnerships
The Government‟s flagship creativity programme for schools and young people, managed by
Arts Council England and funded by the DfES and DCMS.

Includes information and coverage of UK festivals, including festivals news, tickets, reviews and

European Festivals Association (EFA)
Representing more than 100 festivals and 11 national festivals associations in 38 European and
non-European countries.

European Mela Network
Grown from a desire by Mela organisers to have a body that represents Mela interests and
promotes understanding of what Melas do.

Festival Eye
Website of the magazine which includes listing of camps, festivals and other outdoor events
in the UK together with reviews, artwork and photography.

Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators (ICSA)
The recognised global voice on governance and regulatory issues in the private, public and not-
for-profit sectors.

International Festivals and Events Association Europe (IFEA)
A place to share ideas and best practice and to facilitate continued development and promote
networking and international exchange.

London Organising Committee for the Olympic Games
Regularly updated information about London 2012, including the UK Cultural Festival,
ceremonies and bid projects.

Mela Festival
Information and listings for UK Melas, including performers and stallholders.

National Council for Voluntary Organisations (NCVO)
Provides information, advice and support to people working in or with the voluntary sector.

National Rural Touring Forum (NRTF)
Represents a number of mainly rural touring schemes and rural arts development agencies
across England and Wales.

New Audiences
Set up to encourage as many people as possible, from all backgrounds and every walk of life, to
participate in and benefit from the arts.

Tourist Boards
Visit Britain
Information and advice on planning a trip around Britain – has links to regional information.

See Also

Appendix A - Festival Overviews

Edinburgh Festival Fringe
Overview of Event
The Fringe began in 1947, when the Edinburgh International Festival was launched. It was seen
as a post-war initiative to re-unite Europe through culture, and was so successful that it inspired
more performers than there was room for. Aware that there would be a good crowd and focused
press interest, six Scottish companies and two English decided to turn up uninvited and fend for
themselves; the Fringe was born.

The Fringe 2007 featured 31,000 performances of 2050 shows in 250 venues, a marked
increase on the previous year. There were an estimated 18,626 performers on Edinburgh‟s
Fringe stages. Theatre made up 32% of the programme, followed by comedy (30.5%) andMusic
(17%). Musicals, children‟s shows, dance and physical theatre, exhibitions and events made up
the rest of the programme. 40% of all shows were world premieres with 93 being UK premieres
and 236 European. 304 shows at Fringe 2006 were free. 1.6 million tickets were sold during the
2007 Fringe, smashing all arts festival records.

It would take someone 5 years, 11 months and 16 days to see every performance that took
place in 2006 back to back. The Fringe has a 75% market share of all attendance at
Edinburgh‟s year-round festivals and annually generates around £75 million for the Edinburgh
and Scottish economy. The Fringe sells 118% more tickets than it did only 10 years ago
(776,560 in 1997, 1,531,606 in 2006).

              Over 1 million tickets sold last year
              Has now eclipsed the International Festival
              Well respected and attended

Festival Enterprise

Almost everything in The Fringe is entrepreneurial, from individual performance through to the
organisation that runs it. Absolutely anybody can turn up and perform, making it a great
opportunity for any budding entrepreneurs looking to develop their skills and their business,
whether they are stallholders, performers or walking tour organisers.

The Festival Fringe can be an example to small, less advantaged groups who want to be part of
a festival. The festival has enabled many people in the past to get involved in the event on many
different levels, encouraging involvement, enterprise and skills development. Even though the
festival is not exclusively aimed at disadvantaged groups within the Edinburgh community, it
aims to encourage a wide range of performers and entrepreneurs to Edinburgh. This said, it is
always a risk to perform at The Fringe. There are festival support structures in place to help
budding entrepreneurs; however in the end you are on your own and it can make or break
someone‟s career.

There are no specific schemes that encourage entrepreneurialism during the festival but there is
scope for these. The Fringe is a model for free enterprise and promotes a culture of working
together. Scottish Enterprise has run a training and development programme for venue
managers and help to promote entrepreneurship at all levels. The programme includes selling
shows, running venues (many of which have developed into significant businesses), supporting

market traders and recommending ways to create an energy and a buzz which adds to the
festival. Also there are many small enterprises such as walking tours, accommodation websites
dedicated to The Fringe visitors (Festival Flats), services for performers (such as printing,
marketing/press, flyering).

Equity runs master classes during the festival in developing a theatre company. This is part of
the festival‟s year round remit to offer training and support to performers and companies. They
also produce the publication „How to sell a show at The Fringe‟.

All sorts of private enterprises have built up around the festival, which the organisers have
actively encouraged. Most importantly this happens with venue managers as a venue in
Edinburgh can be almost anything, from a church hall to university buildings, to a hotel‟s
baggage room. There are also 20-25 market stalls, trading when the high street is shut down
and filled with street performers for 12 hours a day. The Fringe office coordinates applications
for this and judges them according to type of product; priority is given to traders who sell
something they have made themselves. This has created an additional dimension to the event,
and makes a small contribution to The Fringe income.

The street performers themselves are also individual entrepreneurs. There are no auditions, but
they are asked to provide some information about their background as well as to have public
liability insurance. They are supplied with a platform to perform and they have been known to
make £2000 in a day. They bring energy and interest that would be seriously missed if not

A whole industry concerned with marketing and publicity has built up around the festival. There
are taxi cabs, bus sides and rickshaws with advertising on them and all manner of marketing
gimmicks. Getting noticed really is big business in Edinburgh. There are now a number of
people involved in helping artists get noticed, all adding to the entrepreneurial nature of the

              Entrepreneurial beginnings
              Everyone is invited to get involved
              Focus on self-sufficiency


The Festival Fringe employs around 1000 people on a full time basis over the year, so has
grown into a significant employer. There is also a lot of indirect employment around the Fringe,
for example hotels, tourism, bars and restaurants. Coupled with this, Fringe staff are all
assessed individually on their skills and development needs as there is a small training budget
each year. This does not stretch very far but staff are sent on courses mainly focusing on
sponsorship, development and accounts.

              Significant employer
              Indirect employment

There are two free newspapers devoted to the festival – Fest and Three Weeks, both of which
were started by volunteers. They rely on volunteer labour for the reviews and articles, but over
the years they have adopted an increasingly professional approach to publishing and to
advertising. They started off quite small but are now sophisticated. It would have been very easy
for the Fringe organisation to have stifled these publications at birth as they were student-led,

but they helped them out. The founders of Fest are now successful consultants and journalists,
after developing and honing their skills at The Fringe.
            Volunteers starting own enterprises
            Developing their own skills for future employment

Acts and Performers

For acts and performers at The Fringe, there are important festival-wide support structures in
place: a joint programme and a joint box office for example. But in the end performers are on
their own in Edinburgh. This is reflected in the deal the vast majority of performers have with
their venues; most of them are on a box office split which means they receive a percentage of
what they have been able to sell.

Performers are often questioned about why they go to Edinburgh, take risks and spend large
amounts of money producing shows. Firstly is because they want to be one of 17,000
performers, which is an unforgettable experience. Secondly, is to get attention as there are
about 2000 journalists from all over the world that descend on Edinburgh. It is a very unfair
environment; some companies will get four or five reviews; others never see a reviewer.
However, the most important reason is career development. There are over 1000 scouts, from
TV, festivals and agencies, looking for talent.

Because of this, artists need to create a buzz around their show, to draw the journalists and
scouts in. This creates a huge industry around the performers themselves and has led to an
army of publicists and PR companies at The Fringe. This level of independent PR activity is also
very beneficial to the festival as a whole. It creates a buzz and a frenzy around the event and it
has been described as if The Fringe office had a PR department of over 1000 people.

              Career development
              Industry built around the performers

Economic Impact

The Fringe itself has not contributed to any economic impact strategies as such as agencies
and researchers tend to view the Edinburgh festivals as one entity despite the fact that they are
all very different. The major research study of the Edinburgh Festivals (2004) suggested that
The Edinburgh Summer Festivals as a whole generate £135 million in Edinburgh; of this The
Fringe alone generated £75 million. This included; £31.6 million from accommodation, £7 million
from transport, £17.4 million from retail, £15.1 million from entertainment and £22.5 million from
food and drink.

              The Fringe has major impact economically
              No formal studies into The Fringe itself

Funding and Costs

Details from the 2004 Annual Report suggest that the majority of The Fringe‟s income (67%)
comes from trading. The rest comes from donations and sponsorship (20%), grants (City of
Edinburgh Council 2% and 2% from Scottish Arts Council) and from investments and other
income sources. The 2007 Fringe attracted a range of sponsors, not only for high profile events
such as the opening party and the E Ticket Tent, but also for more educational and arts based
projects. These included Bank of Scotland (Junior Press Gang and Fringe Sunday School),

Brodies (School Poster Competition), PRS (Fringe Sunday New Music Stage) and Napier
University ( jobs).


The Edinburgh Festival Fringe has shown how, from humble beginnings, a festival can develop
into one of the major events in the festival calendar. The festival‟s focus is entrepreneurial and
this is reflected in the many different ways someone can get involved. The festival organisers
have tried to develop a festival that encourages involvement from many angles and uses the
arts to encourage professional development and skills sharing.

Spitalfields Festival

Overview of Event
The Spitalfields Festival is a classical and contemporary music festival comprised of two
festivals throughout the last three weeks in June, and over ten days in December, as well as a
year-round education and community programme. Over 70 events made up the festival in 2006
with 7964 people attending the summer festival and 3632 attending the winter performances. To
encourage a local and diverse audience tickets are always available for £5 or under and a third
of all performances and events are free.

The festival started in 1976, through Christ Church Spitalfields, when Judith Serota was asked
to help organise a festival as a way to raise funds for the church. It began with the summer
festival, and soon became a separate organisation; the winter festival started in 1995. Christ
Church was originally the main venue, but during the refurbishment it became necessary to
explore other venues including Wilton‟s Music Hall, Shoreditch Church, and other community
venues and spaces, including hospitals. Since Christ Church has reopened, the festival has
remained in several venues as it enables a variety of programming.

The festival programme is an eclectic mix of concerts and events, designed to reflect the area
and communities in which it is based. The Ffstival concerts cover a broad range of western
classical music, from early music through to cutting edge contemporary work. Spitalfields is a
diverse area that has seen constant change. Spitalfields Festival therefore is more than a music
festival and more than a community programme and aims to focus on a range of areas.

              Continued regeneration of the local area
              Focus on local communities

Festival Enterprise

Although not primarily focused on enterprise development, Spitalfields Festival does aim to
encourage and support local people and artists to get involved at many different levels. It is
important for the organisation that local people are encouraged to get involved in the festival, as
volunteers, audiences or by performing. Local people are given opportunities to perform through
the education and community programmes, and local professional artists are also involved.
Because Spitalfields and the wider Tower Hamlets area is so diverse, the festival aims to
engage excluded groups within the community and encourage them to be involved; this is an
important part of the festival‟s objectives.

Even though this is not strictly encouraging enterprise, it does enable local people to feel part of
an important event in their community. Through the education and community programme, local
people can forge new relationships and express their creativity through performance. The
festival states in its objectives that it aims to enable participants of all ages to develop skills in
the arts through practical involvement in a range of activities appropriate to their needs and
interests. The festivals work with two community choirs and a number of community centres to
encourage more local people to learn new skills and hear a wider variety of music.

The festival runs a training scheme for young musicians that provides an insight into the
professional music scene and facilitates contact with professionals, helping to inspire up-and-
coming artists. This enables artists to develop their skills, not only in performance-related
activities but also in education and community work. It is not just performers who get the chance
to develop enterprise and are encouraged to be part of the festival. Local traders, though not

formally part of the festival, are encouraged to use the festival as a platform for their business
and many actively support the festival in return. Spitalfields is an enterprising area in itself with
the market, restaurants and music scene contributing to the atmosphere of self promotion and

              Encouraging local people to get involved
              Promoting skills development
              Strong artist support and opportunities for professional development


The festival currently has 11 members of staff and is lead by an Artistic Director who is
supported by the Executive Director. The Festival is governed by a council which incorporates a
series of advisory committees including education, finance and artistic policy. Below the
advisory committees are the staff members who all have clear job descriptions and
responsibilities, making the organisation very structured. During the festival freelancers and
volunteers (stewards) are used as well as a technical crew and front-of-house manager.

Spitalfields Festival as an organisation is very staff-focused and it spends a large percentage of
its annual budget on staff training. There is a sense that staff development is at the core of the
organisation and staff and volunteers are encouraged to develop and hone their skills at the
festival. Courses available include finance for non-finance managers, marketing, animateur
training, health and safety and disability training (coming this year). The festival spends around
£7000 per year on training which equates to approximately 1.3% of its turnover.

              Encouraging staff members to develop
              Investors in People
              £7000 per year spent on training


A volunteer, usually a recent graduate, is employed in the office during the summer and winter
festival periods. The role is recruited as if it were a paid position with an application process and
interview. The summer festival could not function without this person; they are essential to the
operation. The volunteers who work in the office use the experience to further their careers, gain
contacts and develop their skills. Last year‟s volunteer is now working as a marketing assistant
at a theatre, which is testament to the festival‟s training and development commitment. The
present Marketing and Concert Administrator started in a part-time role but no other members of
staff started as unpaid volunteers. However, it does sometimes work the other way round; the
sponsorship assistant will leave but still volunteer during the festival because they were
reluctant to lose the connection with the festival.

The festival has a database of volunteers who have worked on previous year‟s festivals. Most
volunteers work as stewards, but some help in the office with flyers and mail-outs. The
volunteers have chosen to be ambassadors for the festival as they are fans and want to help
make the festival a continued success. The publicity for the festival advertises for volunteers, as
the organisation is trying to attract more younger people; many of the current volunteers are
older people, either retired or part-time workers. The volunteers attend two briefings per year
where they find out about their roles, health and safety, and the programme of events. In
exchange for their labour they get to learn about new music and give something back to the

Some volunteers have been participating for over ten years, whilst others come from abroad to
take part; this shows the importance of the volunteers to the festival and the volunteers‟
commitment. All volunteers fill in feedback questionnaires after each festival as their input is
used for generating ideas for future events. Many of the volunteers also volunteer at other
classical music festivals and theatres. The festival does not rely too much on informal support;
however friends and family are sometimes called upon to distribute leaflets and promote the
festival. At the 2006 festival a pool of 88 volunteer stewards supported festival activity, with the
biggest events relying on 20 volunteers giving up four hours of their time.

              Hands-on work placements
              Skills development encouraged
              Essential for success of festival

Acts and Performers

The Artistic Director discusses with the artistic team the artists she would like to appear in the
festival. They are then contacted to see if they would like to be involved. All acts are
professional and can be quite expensive. However, they do have amateur and school
performances as part of the main festival. Many of the artists take part in the big concerts and
then also work in schools as part of the community programme. The festival sets high standards
for all its work, whether a professional orchestra, locally based act or school project.

As regards the education projects, longer relationships are developed with artists. Some acts do
return in subsequent years but in general the organisation tries to have a different programme
each year. There is no fixed policy for acquiring artists but organisers aspire to use some local
and more diverse acts. Spitalfields is a national festival and is trying to build an international
reputation, while at the same time building relationships locally in the community in conjunction
with organisations such as Cardboard Citizens and local businesses, schools and community

Artists are engaged in a variety of educational activities and in return the festival provides
appropriate opportunities for continued professional development. The festival aims to
encourage festival artists to get involved in the wider community, through performances to
adults and young people through the community concerts programme.

              Professional and amateur acts
              Local and diverse performers
              High standard throughout

Traders/Local Business

The festival does not include any official traders, although some venues, Wilton‟s Music Hall for
example, do provide catering for their audiences. The festival likes to offer catering to their
audiences, especially in the summer. Dino‟s, a local restaurant often sets up a stand outside the
church gardens selling food and drink. This is a long-standing relationship. Dino‟s does this
because they like the festival and being part of it. They do not make much money and no money
changes hands between the festival and the restaurant but both benefit from the relationship.
Patisserie Valerie distributes flyers and has once catered for the outdoor team for free during
the festival. The festival is also exploring opportunities with other local restaurants. The festival
gets to know local traders who help promote the festival by putting up posters and getting into
the festival spirit.

Local traders have benefited from the festival. Many of the restaurants see increased numbers
on concert nights and because of special festival deals. The festival has also worked with
market traders, who have often kept their stalls and shops open longer on festival nights. Winter
2006 in particular saw an increase in visitors to the area‟s stalls and shops as one festival
performance was broadcast on a screen in the market place. The festival also sends groups of
artists into the market in advance of concerts to take part in small taster performances; this
increases interest in the festival and creates crowds in and around the market area that the
traders can benefit from. Spitalfields Estates, who manage the market, support the festival in
order for this market concerts to happen.

Even though the festival does not have any specific strategies to support traders and is not
focused on developing traders at their events, they do have an impact on the local stalls, shops
and restaurants. Increased numbers of visitors to Spitalfields during the summer and winter
events mean that local traders can hook into the festival and benefit from it.

              No dedicated festival traders
              Good relationship with local restaurants
              Helps to grow local businesses

Funding and Costs

Spitalfields Festival is funded through a number of sources including companies, trusts and
foundations, individuals and arts funding bodies. The festival believes the multiple sources of
funding are essential in managing the various strands of work they participate in. They have a
number of long-term funders including Arts Council England, London, Clifford Chance, City of
London, HSBC Insurance, Musician‟s Benevolent Fund and London Borough of Tower Hamlets.
The large percentage of raised income from the private sector sits in contrast to many other arts
organisations that rely primarily on public funding bodies. The festival has built strong
relationships with City and London businesses, many of whom sponsor the event. The
organisers believe that without this kind of support the festival could not take place.

Spitalfields has a Service Level Agreement (SLA) with London Borough of Tower Hamlets worth
£25,000, which currently runs until 2008. The festival meets regularly with the Arts and Events
team who in return for funding want the festival to provide good monitoring statistics and
financial records. The council attends selected workshops and concerts. The council believes
that the festival has built up strong connections with other institutions in the borough and like
that they make their programme relevant to the local community.

The council has contributed funds to the festival since 2001, when it began giving small grants
through its events fund. The festival has also received small amounts from the education budget
through mainstream grants. The SLA, which is for core funding, has details of the number of
performances and the ratio of free events and community and education workshops the festival
must provide. The council has also set targets relating to the diversity of audience and
workshop participants, which the festival must meet to guarantee future funding.

              Have good relationships with funders
              Trusts and foundations
              Sponsorship

Economic Impact and Regeneration

The two events that make up Spitalfields Festival both make a substantial impact on the local
area. The festival attracts around 12,000 visitors per year to the area. This is a significant

number and helps to raise the profile of the arts in the borough. In business terms, the festival
definitely helps to grow local businesses; as already discussed more people come into the area
and spend money, mostly in the market and surrounding restaurants. In 2005 the festival ran a
voluntary exit questionnaire; the results were detailed in the 2005-2006 Festival Report. Only
146 questionnaires were received so the results cannot be treated as wholly representative.
However, it does show that a large proportion of the festival audience ate, drank and shopped
locally with 17% of people spending £101 or more.

Although the original function of the festival was to pay for the restoration of Christ Church
Spitalfields, a grade 1 listed building, this has not now been the purpose of the festival for many
years, and this role has been taken over by the Church and Friends of the Church. However the
festival has helped to put the building on the map as a major London concert venue, as well as
contributing to the regeneration and increased popularity of the whole area. It is part of the
festival‟s objectives to promote the continuing regeneration of the East End of London and raise
the profile of the historic quarter of Spitalfields. The festival has a good relationship with
Spitalfields Market, and the redevelopment of Christ Church has occurred at the same time as
the regeneration of the Spitalfields area.

The festival has also helped to put other local buildings on the map, (particularly during the
restoration of Christ Church) through its use of other venues for concerts e.g. Shoreditch
Church and Wilton‟s Music Hall. The combined regeneration of the market and the church has
helped the festival contribute in a substantial way to the area‟s development. However, in the
last five years or so the current process might best be called „gentrification‟ and has not
benefited all local people. This may mean that local people will feel distanced from the festival
as more „outsiders‟ move to the area and access tickets. In this sense, it is even more important
for the festival‟s education and community agendas to be successful.

The festival does not have any specific policies about hiring local people, although they do try to
hire from local area and they have employed freelancers from Spitalfields in the past. The
people or companies employed must be professional and of a high standard, as well as
competitive, and these criteria take precedence over local considerations.

              Has aided the regeneration of the area
              Has seen an influx of visitors to Christ Church
              Danger of adding to „gentrification‟ of the area

Education and Community

Spitalfields Festival began developing an education and community programme in 1989 and
since then has worked with local schools and community centres to support people of all ages
classes and races. Spitalfields believe their work in this field has been considerable and has
had significant success, particularly with the local immigrant communities, including Bengali,
Jewish and Somali people. The programme takes regular performers from the festival into
education centres, as well as taking local people into the festival to perform, for example,
Jonathan Dove‟s award winning cantata ‘On Spital Fields’, performed in the 2005 summer
festival, involved the composer working with school children and local community groups to
write the piece.

The festival has engaged with old, new and emerging communities in Tower Hamlets and has
continuously programmed music from these cultures as a way for their regular audience to
receive an insight into the history of the local area. The festival does realise, however, that
many of these communities are not part of their mainstream audience. This does not mean they
have failed to include these communities in the festival as they still make their events widely
accessible for them and try to relate events to their community and education work. When they

have programmed events that showcase non-western music, a significant percentage of
audience members have been from minority communities.

Although much success has been had with involving minority communities in the festival and
acknowledging the fact that it is primarily a festival of western classical music, the organisation
does realise that they need to be further engaged with minority populations as a potential
concert audience. They believe that this could be achieved in one way by engaging with the
local media, who could have a greater influence on potential audience members. It is also
acknowledged that when projects are successful with the local immigrant communities it is
because partnerships had been formed with local grass roots organisations (Oxford House for
example) which have the trust of the communities already in place. These partnerships not only
benefit the festival and the local communities but also the other organisations that can use their
involvement to raise profile. In 2008 the festival will be engaging with the emergent Chinese
communities and making the festival accessible to them.

              Regular performers from the festival into education centres
              Local people perform in the festival
              Local schools and community centre


Although at its heart Spitalfields Festival is a series of traditional concerts, it has developed a
presence in the local area that goes beyond this. In terms of community provision and
engagement, Spitalfields Festival has attempted to connect through an ambitious programme of
events that have encouraged local people not only to attend high profile concerts but also get
involved through education and community programmes, which have in many cases led to skills

At present the festival is concentrated in the west of Tower Hamlets; the council would like to
see a conscious effort from the festival to explore how they can put some content in the east.
This would enable the festival to engage with a larger and more diverse audience and create
opportunities over a wider area. In terms of enterprise and skills development, the festival
organisers can see the potential for development and would like to commission research on the
impact of the festival on local people.

Derby Caribbean Carnival

Overview of Event

The Derby Caribbean Carnival is a two-day event that takes place annually in July. It is
organised by the Derby West Indian Community Association (DWICA) Caribbean Carnival Task
Force and has support from Derby City Council and Arts Council England East Midlands (ACE
EM). The carnival first took place around 20 years ago, and started as a much smaller, one day
event. In the last decade it has grown into a two day event, although the organisers feel it has
kept the local feel.

The 2006 carnival took place in Osmaston Park and the Market Place in the city centre and
attracted approximately 35,000 people across the weekend. The event is made up of the
procession day and the carnival day, each contributing different elements to the carnival. The
procession day encompasses the carnival procession, costume competition and stage show for
local talent. The following day is reserved for a stage show that showcases national and
international performers. This means that there is a diverse range of people taking part, from
small local carnival troupes to Leicester-based bands and acclaimed international artists.

The carnival is a popular event that adds to the city‟s diverse calendar of entertainment and
offers many different communities the chance to get together in a social environment. The
carnival is open to everyone to take part and although the majority of participants and attendees
are Afro-Caribbean, local marching bands, Irish dancers and other groups from across the
region are encouraged to perform. Many believe the carnival transcends boundaries and
encourages strong community and family relationships. The carnival bridges the generation gap
as many older volunteers work alongside younger people.

              Community involvement
              A local feel
              Acclaimed international artists

Festival Enterprise

DWICA has a strong belief in encouraging skills development among young people. The centre
provides workshops in design, costume making and carnival arts which are delivered by outside
organisations. They hope that this will encourage learning and skills development and an
interest in carnival. The workshops are aimed at young people but also the staff and volunteers,
ensuring a developing interest in learning carnival skills amongst the people involved in aspects
of the carnival. DWICA also coordinates Saturday schools focusing on skills and learning and a
summer school which focuses of music, dancing, craft and other activities. It feels this not only
encourages skills development but also community cohesion.

DWICA hopes that the carnival can promote entrepreneurialism as people are encouraged to
develop their own business ideas through involvement in the carnival. There have been
instances where local people have set up their own carnival bands to take part in carnival and
some of the stallholders that take part on the day are local people, although most are from
elsewhere. Though principally a way to celebrate and enjoy the traditions of carnival, the event
also has a positive effect on employment in the community and has a role to play in the
development of skills and business creation.

              Coordinate workshops for young people, staff and volunteers

              Making the most of the carnival connection


DWICA is responsible for every part of the carnival and relies upon its staff and volunteers to
coordinate the event alongside other year-round projects. There are no full-time staff working on
the carnival itself but DWICA has two full-time and two part-time staff members. The carnival
has a series of sub-committees that are involved in a number of projects for the event, including
logistics, funding and sponsorship, security and floats and procession. Because of the nature of
the organisation, DWICA relies upon volunteers and outside help to make the carnival happen;
without hundreds of people working for free throughout the year the event would not take place.

It is important that DWICA and the carnival as a whole build good relationships with other
organisations that are involved in carnival, as being a small organisation means that they need
to represent themselves and carnival well. The East Midlands Carnival Arts Partnership
(EMCAP) works with local authorities and ACE EM to enhance the cause of carnival as an
important art form in the region. DWICA‟s staff believe that it is in the interests of all people that
carnival remains a well-supported art form as it is important not only as the basis for black arts,
but also for the opportunities it affords young people in exhibiting their skills and improving race
relations, as well as the provision of employment and its contribution to the local economy.

              Integral volunteers working alongside DWICA staff
              Good relationships with other organisations


There are about 20 volunteers that work throughout the year, each responsible for different
areas within the carnival. There is a core group of about six volunteers and these relationships
have built up over the years. They meet very regularly and decide on how the carnival is
organised and executed. The management committee and community work together and is the
driving force behind the carnival.

DWICA also advertises for other volunteers to help with other aspects of the event and on the
day itself. Everyone is encouraged to help in any way they can and nobody is ever turned away.
All that DWICA require is for all volunteers to attend a meeting before the carnival day where
they receive briefings and job descriptions. As well as formal volunteers, DWICA has a large
amount of informal support which includes help with sewing, making costumes, providing
refreshments etc. It is vital for the carnival‟s success that DWICA has these support structures
in place and has strong relationships with everyone who works for the event in whatever

Many volunteers participate for the love of it and for the enjoyment of carnival day and are
usually found through word of mouth, through attending the carnival or seeing the general
advertising for the event. Many local people from the Caribbean community volunteer and
DWICA is keen to keep it this way and also encourages people from other communities to get
involved; all local people can own and share in the carnival. Some of the paid and core
members of the carnival team started as volunteers as long as 20 years ago. For the past three
years a number of these staff members have been paid, but this funding is now due to end. It is
testament to the commitment of the staff that many have agreed to remain at the organisation in
voluntary positions once the funding has run out. The event is truly built from within the
community and that is where they want it to stay.

On carnival day, experienced volunteers work alongside paid stewards; for this to be efficient
briefings take place before the event where all volunteers can voice concerns and ask
questions. DWICA would like to see this process more formalised, with improved training
accreditation for the volunteers‟ hard work. They would like to see volunteers take something
away from the experience that would help them in their professional life and help to
professionalise the organisation. For the volunteers, any training and skills development is an
added bonus and is not why they lend their support.

              Reliance on volunteers‟ skills
              Large amount of informal support
              Organisation would like to see formal training and accreditation

Acts and Performers

The carnival is made up of the procession and the two stage shows, encompassing a diverse
range of performers and performances. Relationships with troupes that take part in the
procession are built up over the year. Sixty young people wanted to be involved in the DWICA
troupe this year where they meet twice a week, for making costumes and devising dance
routines. 35 make up the troupe on the day and other troupes are also invited to take part, from
Derby, other East Midlands cities and around the country. There are around ten troupes on the
day and other smaller groups, such as a radio station, Samaritans, and the Fire Service that
also take part in the parade.

Each year the carnival has a theme and everyone is welcome to get involved in devising ideas.
On the stage there are usually between 10 and 20 performers each day. DWICA finds the acts;
this is an important part of the organisation‟s role as the acts are a big attraction for spectators.
DWICA have built up local relationships each year and have lots of young up-and-coming
groups on the stage to promote local talent. The stage has been a showcase event for many
acts before they became famous such as Liberty X and Beverley Knight. DWICA are also part of
City Events Planning Group, where local events meet each other and network; this helps with
the planning for the carnival.

              Focus on traditional carnival procession
              Local, national and international performers of all ages
              Showcase for young, up-and-coming acts

Traders/Local Business

There are many stalls at the carnival, which are mainly food and clothing but there are also
some which are run by charities and promotion companies. These companies do not all have
Caribbean links, although many of the food stalls do. The majority are the same each year, but
DWICA have found that some have stopped applying because of new legislation from the
council. Now there is a higher standard which stallholders have to comply with when they apply
to DWICA. The stallholders are mainly not local, but professional traders from around the
country. They are there to finance the event and keep spectators happy. DWICA has had
problems with illegal traders, but feel as though they cannot really do anything about them.
There is no alcohol sold at the event, apart from the DWICA-run and council-controlled beer tent
near the main stage. Security stop people bringing their own alcohol into the park and everyone
is searched prior to entry; however DWICA have found it increasingly difficult to do anything
about people on the street drinking whilst watching the parade.

Because Derby Caribbean Carnival is community based and run mainly by volunteers, stalls
and traders are seen primarily as income generators. There are no schemes to encourage

entrepreneurialism for traders or potential businesses. Although they do like to encourage local
involvement and business creation, it is essential for DWICA and for the future of carnival that
an earned income is generated from the hire of stalls and pitches.

              Professional stallholders and traders
              Priority to generate income

Organisation and Funding

DWICA receives funding from ACE EM to run the carnival; for this it submits an annual
application. The funding is secure but not guaranteed, and so the committee works on the basis
that they need to find other sources of funding. DWICA has a good relationship with ACE EM
which enables them to work with them throughout the year. The DWICA fundraising team (who
are all volunteers) have good knowledge and always try new funding sources. They receive
sponsorship from Western Union, TNT Rolls Royce, Derbyshire Building Society and Midland
Mainline. These sponsors usually want something in return; for example their company colours
for the costumes, advertising banners, stalls or promotions. Rolls Royce gave £500 and use of
their car park, for which the carnival can then charge visitors, which helps with income. They
also receive the assistance of the police, St. John‟s Ambulance and the fire brigade. These
relationships have improved over the years, which has helped with risk assessments and in
sharing information on the increasing amount of gang activity at the carnival.

The organisation has become more efficient over the years and is now evaluated annually,
which helps maximise ACE funding. They now have to put more of the budget into security for
the event, but are able to use volunteers as marshals to help the private company and keep the
cost down. Over the past three years the local authority has been involved to help with
infrastructure. DWICA receives a grant of £2500 towards infrastructure, but this is only a small
contribution towards the bill of £20,000 for park hire, toilets and security. The whole carnival
costs £100,000. Regular monthly meetings are held with the council and they are involved in the
event planning as a whole. Nearer carnival, DWICA meet weekly with the council as they are
also responsible for the health and safety element of the carnival. This used to be an internal
responsibility but the council‟s recent involvement has meant it is now more professional.

              Successful in securing sponsorship
              Good relationship with funders

Economic Impact

George Mighty, Chairman of DWICA, believes the carnival makes a significant impact on Derby
and the surrounding areas and communities. Because the carnival is easy to get to and free to
attend it means many people visit across carnival weekend and spend money in the city. Many
of the trains and hotels are booked up for the weekend which has a substantial economic
impact on the city as a whole. A report by De Montfort University states that the average
attendee to the carnival spends £450 over the weekend, which shows there is a significant
impact. In DWICA‟s eyes their impact on and contribution to Derby in economic terms should
mean they receive more funds from the City Council.

              Significant impact on Derby


Derby Caribbean Carnival and DWICA as a whole actively engage with young people through
workshops and volunteer involvement. It is important for the organisation that they appeal to

young people from the surrounding community and encourage their participation, not only in
carnival but also in the year-round schedule of events that take place. Nasreen Iqbal,
Relationship Networking Officer with Derbyshire Enterprise Agency believes that the young
people in the organisation have developed through helping to organise events and are active in
carnival and creating a sense of identity for themselves. She believes they feel as though the
carnival is something to look forward to, get involved in and consequently, it has always been a
success. According to Nasreen, being involved in the carnival group helps to build trust,
connections and ideas amongst the young people involved.

Derby also took part in the 2005 Three Cities carnival project. The Three Cities Caribbean
Carnival Residencies aimed to bring new skills to community carnival groups, school children
and young people, with a series of special workshops and various performances. The
residencies programme gave hundreds of people involved in Caribbean carnivals in the three
cities (Derby, Nottingham and Leicester) the chance to work directly with major names from the
Caribbean through workshops and live performance. Not only did it culminate in a series of
performances at carnival, but it also had an impact on local musicians, performers, costume-
makers and carnival groups of all types, as they were able to get involved in the build-up to
carnival and in the event itself. There was an opportunity to learn new skills and ideas which
were used in the 2005 events and remained valuable for many years of carnival performance.
The project allowed DWICA and the carnival to work alongside top Trinidadian carnival costume
designer Richard Bartholomew and his team of five costume-makers and other groups,
including Mandela‟s Carnival Troupe and St Benedict‟s School. The Three Cities Create and
Connect residency project aimed to bring new skills, techniques and experiences to the local
groups and consequently created 63 new costumes for the 2005 carnival. There was also a two
day course led by Jamaican reggae singer-songwriter Rohan Lee and his education team which
covered many exciting and crucial elements of reggae, including DJ skills, dance workshops,
the use of sound systems, reggae melodies and rhythms and songwriting. Workshop attendees
learnt about the history and culture of reggae, and developed and improved their practical skills
and techniques.
The evaluation of the project suggested that articipants were provided with a fast track
opportunity to develop and hone skills, to gain increased confidence and to benefit from
increased enjoyment, inspiration and stimulus through contact with and support from
established professionals in the carnival world. Overall the feedback from the evaluation forms
was very positive with many participants stating that they would like to be involved if another
project were organised.

There was an additional public benefit in terms of the numbers attending the Derby Carnival
platform event in Derby Market Square who experienced the outcome of the work. It is
estimated that upwards of 1,500 people at Derby Carnival had the opportunity to see and hear
the platform performances. One of the performances by a group from Leicester so impressed
the organisers that they mentioned that they would like them to appear again at Derby Carnival.

It was suggested that there is a need for further support to maintain and develop the important
collaborative approach that was strengthened through Three Cities Create and Connect 05/06.
The carnival legacy from 05/06 includes new costumes, a skills legacy (as a result of master
class and workshop activity, particularly in design and making), enhanced marketing functions
and created greater enthusiasm and desire for more input and inspiration, particularly from
respected artists with international experience of carnival. This was reflected in the initiative
from the Mandela Centre in Derby to establish a 2007 mas camp to build on the Create and
Connect legacy with a further programme of work involving a range of young people.

There was a particular aspiration (across all the cities) to develop performance skills further
amongst young people and young musicians, who can benefit from input to help to showcase
their developing work in the carnival arena. As a result the Three Cities Cultural Consortium
decided to support ongoing carnival development in 2006 with a focused and intensive music

workshop programme. The work that took place in 2005 and 2006 has helped DWICA look
towards the involvement of young people and how they develop skills and interest in carnival.

              Focus on young people
              Aspiration to develop participation in projects further
              Commitment to ongoing input


Part of the success of Derby Caribbean Carnival is the continued commitment of the mainly
voluntary team at DWICA and the involvement of hundreds of formal and informal volunteers
throughout the year. They have created a carnival organisation that has succeeded year after
year in putting on a successful event which affects a diverse range of performers and visitors.
The relationships that DWICA has built up and the success of the East Midlands Carnival Arts
Partnership and others has meant that the support structures are in place to further develop the
carnival beyond 2007.

DWICA would like to encourage as many organisations as possible to be involved with carnival,
which could also build upon the Three Cities Initiative and will continue to encourage skills
development and enthusiasm for carnival arts in the city.

DWICA aims to encourage a certain level of entrepreneurialism and skills development through
their use of workshops and through their involvement in the Three Cities Initiative. Although they
cannot focus on these themes as they have few dedicated staff members, they are committed to
encouraging and empowering socially excluded groups and young people to get involved in
carnival whilst learning new and valuable skills.

              Commitment to empowerment of certain groups
              Strength of community involvement
              Good, strong partnerships

London Mela
Overview of Event

The London Mela was established in 2003 with the support of the Mayor of London to celebrate
and showcase performances and cultures from Asia and Asian culture in Britain. Melas originate
from the Indian sub-continent; the term “mela” means to meet, and its common usage is to
describe a group of people gathered together to celebrate. The London Mela takes place
annually in August for one day. The London Mela has rapidly become one of Europe‟s largest
South Asian outdoor festivals, attracting over 200,000 visitors in the last three years. The event
is held in Gunnersbury Park in west London, and has 10 zones and 6 stages, with 450
performers. The programming of the event is known for its diversity of Asian arts, both
traditional and contemporary, including classical, urban and experimental music, visual arts,
street theatre and comedy.

The London Mela, while a local event, is a celebration of the Asian diaspora. The mela is open
to all, and one third of festival-goers are from non-Asian backgrounds. Due to the broad nature
of the acts on offer, the mela bridges the generation gap, and offers a wide range of Asian arts,
including high profile international acts.

              Local community involvement
              Broad based programming of Asian arts
              Acclaimed international artists

Festival Enterprise

The mela‟s artistic policy of cross-artform working and highlighting both new and established
acts makes it a perfect test bed for younger Asian artists wishing to break into the industry and
gain valuable experience and exposure. The high quality of traders also presents a strong
opportunity for the economic development of Asian-led small business.

For the organisers, the participatory elements are high on the agenda. The London Mela
supports artists‟ development, and has the capacity to commission work. Alongside this, each
year they run a community stage which aims to give experience to younger acts, and assist
them to develop into professionals.

The London Boroughs of Ealing and Hounslow are two of London‟s most diverse boroughs, and
have a large number of South Asian residents. The majority of the festival-goers are local
residents from these boroughs. This has led to a programme of community involvement with the
festival; local community coordinators are appointed, who develop relationships in the
community. Through these key people new contacts are developed with local traders and
artists, furthering the possibilities for local entrepreneurs and acts.

Alongside this, the London Mela participates in the European Mela Network, which actively
networks, and collaborates with, other melas in the UK and Europe, to lobby and profile the
work of the melas to wider circles and funders.

              Development of Asian-led business and artists
              Works with other melas for the encouragement of the mela festival sector


The London Mela is co-produced by Remarkable Productions and Events Ealing (the local
authority events team). This partnership works very well, with Remarkable Productions
organising and producing the festival, and Events Ealing acting as the delivery body. The high
calibre of partnership working between these two organisations can be at least partially
explained by the fact that the Director of Remarkable Productions, Julian Rudd, used to work at
Ealing Borough Council in the Events team, before moving on to set up Remarkable
Productions, who produce a number of festivals each year, as well as coordinating the
Independent Street Arts Network (ISAN).

Events Ealing has a core team of approximately 5 staff members, which swells to 30 or 40 when
festival season is in full swing. Recruitment for these positions is handled largely via
advertisements in industry press, and as in all creative industries work, there is a high level of
word of mouth information that reaches a wide network.

In terms of the Mela, there is a high level of bought-in expertise for a wide range of
organisational activity. Sub-contractors manage the act procurement and traders and technical
and stage production is handled by freelancers. Alongside this there is also a freelance
fundraiser and a marketing manager. There is a full-time administrator position from April to
September, but no year-round full-time support.

              Excellent relationship with local authority
              No year-round full-time staff
              High level buy-in of expertise


Unusually for a festival there are no volunteers recruited, either for the production of the festival,
or as stewards on the day. As the festival has always been on a large scale, and as there is no
full-time year-round staffing of the London Mela, it is felt by the organisers that it would take up
too many resources to recruit and train volunteers. Another reason for this policy is the high
level of bought-in experience and freelancers for whom it would be operationally difficult to
oversee voluntary work. Events Ealing do, however, deal with volunteers in the form of work
placements from time to time, on an ad hoc basis.

              All staff members, including stewards, are paid

Acts and Performers

The London Mela is a showcase for both local and international Asian arts, and self-consciously
programmes an eclectic mix of acts. The broad and cross-artform programming includes
classical music, comedy, British-Asian urban music, Asian influenced street theatre and circus
performances, sporting activities and interactive workshops. There are over 450 artists involved
each year, as well as a number of community participants.

In 2006 the London Mela ran a programme to connect with three other Melas (Bradford,
Liverpool and Baishakhi Mela in East London), via the European Mela network. This resulted in
the photography exhibition – “The Grand Trunk Road” which explores the trade route through
south Asia.

The festival also commissions new works for the event. To date three pieces of outdoor work
have been commissioned. Two new pieces will be highlighted in the 2007 Mela - Tabla Blah

Blah and the Kaleidoscope Project, both funded by the Arts Council. Tablah Blah Blah is
influenced by iconic images and features live performances as well as sound scapes produced
in collaboration with DJ Bobby Friction and Pandit Sharda Sahai. The piece will be performed by
the students of Pandit – ji – the Sangeet ensemble at the Mela in 2007. The Kaleidoscope
Project aims to make visual arts and traditional mela art forms more accessible to larger
audiences. This project is directed by the young people of Grange Park Infants School and
produced by Emergency Exit Arts.

              Community involvement
              Broad-based programme
              Acclaimed international artists

Traders/Local Business

There is a wide range of stalls and food on offer at the mela; the stall holders are a mix of small
stall holders and more professional traders who are present at a number of festivals. The sale of
pitches at the London Mela generates income of approximately £40,000 just from food and craft
trade stalls. The alcohol, ice cream and fun fair concessions are on top of this.

Trader procurement is sub-contracted to a freelancer with a large database of appropriate craft
traders. In general food traders for the event are much easier to find than the craft stalls. To
maintain a high standard at the mela in terms of the quality of goods on offer at the craft stalls,
there is a selection process in the traders‟ procurement, where contact is made with the traders,
and photographs of stock are examined. This enables the mela production team to monitor
carefully both the quality of goods on offer, as well as making sure that there is a wide variety of

              Community involvement with local business
              Selection process to ensure quality traders
              High level of income generation from carefully handled concessions


The main funder of the London Mela is the Mayor of London. The support of the Mayor of
London is important to the festival not only in a financial sense, but also in that it significantly
raises the profile of the mela, and with this enhanced image, the festival has been able to attract
even more funding and publicity. Other funders of the London Mela include Arts Council
England, which supports the festival itself, as well as assisting with the commissioning of new
work for the festival, and the London Boroughs of Ealing and Hounslow. In the past Heritage
Lottery funding was bid for and received, however currently this is seen as too laborious a
process, so applications for this funding are no longer made. Earned income comes from the
traders and concessions. Alongside this, the London Mela attracts a high level of sponsorship,
particularly from the Asian media, due to the high level of Asian audiences at the event itself.
Sponsorship is handled carefully, and considerable effort is made to give the sponsors
appropriate visibility and product placement. Sponsors include: BBC Radio, Barclays, BMI, and
Sahara India Pariwar, one of India‟s largest conglomerates. The London Mela‟s careful attention
to its sponsors has produced good results. According to a 2005 audience survey, 44% of mela-
goers knew of one the principal sponsors. Such a high level of sponsorship, even international
sponsorship, is unusual for a local community festival, and indicates the level of professionalism
of the festival organisers.

              High level of sponsorship
              Strong funding

Economic Impact

As yet there has been no economic impact study done on the London Mela.

Audience Development

During the 2005 mela an audience survey was conducted to understand and help to segment
the festival‟s audience. From this survey it was found that 69% of the audience comes from an
Asian background, 24% from a white background, and only 1% from a black background. It is
clear that in particular those from white and Afro-Caribbean background could be a source for
audience development strategies.

The age range of mela-goers represents a good spread, with 28% being between 16 and 24
years olds, 28% 25-34 and 20% 35-44. The majority of visitors are from the local area with 42%
coming from the boroughs of Ealing and Hounslow. Surprisingly, the next highest category of
attendees is from out of London – with 9% commuting to the mela. This certainly reflects the
mela‟s aim of providing a local community festival, with strong international and Asian Diaspora
ties. Overwhelmingly the audience survey revealed that the strongest reason for attending was
the music and performances.

              High level of local attendance
              Possibility of diversifying audiences

Conclusion – Future of the Festival

Although the mela is one of the most successful London festivals, the ambitions for the future
are to get to the stage where the festival is financially secure and sustainable, in particular in
terms of staffing, via further revenue generation from sponsorship and funders. Alongside this,
the wishes for the mela are to continue to present a broad-based programme of high quality
curated performances and to develop more partners - local, national and international - to
achieve this.

              Continue broad-based programme and commissions
              Continue to develop partners
              Create situation where the festival is sustainable and less reliant on funding

Music Village
Overview of Event
The Music Village Festival is Europe‟s longest running festival of world culture. It began in
London in 1983 and has since focussed on a wide range of subjects including traditional
cultures of particular geographic regions and worldwide themes such as culture and faith. In
total there have been 22 Music Villages which have featured over 3000 artists from the UK and
abroad, encompassing acts from over 80 countries. Over a million people have attended since
the festival began. It is a mix of public events including concerts, activities for schools,
exhibitions, workshops and talks.

Music Village is developed and managed by Cultural Cooperation, a registered arts and
education charity with a 20-year track record of promoting cross-cultural contact, dialogue and
understanding. The festival programme is one of three interrelated strands that Cultural
Cooperation work on year round. The festival provides a safe environment for festival-goers to
understand and celebrate unfamiliar cultural forms. Most events are free, which means people
from all cultural backgrounds, social classes and ages can participate regardless of income.

              Worldwide themes
              Diverse audience
              No financial barriers to attendance

Festival Enterprise

Cultural Cooperation and the Music Village festival offer an alternative to many commercially
focused events. They encourage a wide participation across a number of events, aim to appeal
to diverse communities and give the most hard-to-reach members of the community a chance to
attend world class concerts and events. It is important that Music Village is a reflection of the
communities in which events take place and celebrates diverse world cultures.

              Encouraging wide participation
              Appeals to diverse communities


Music Village is run by the small team at Cultural Cooperation, who also run three other
programmes throughout the year, London: Diaspora Capital network and the year-round
education programme. The core executive management team comprises of full and part-time
paid staff, volunteers and additional contract staff to help with particular aspects of the
programme. There is a certain amount of reliance upon volunteers both in the office and as
stewards at the festival.

              Small staff team
              Rely on year-round volunteers and stewards


Cultural Cooperation and the Music Village festival have two strands of unpaid workers;
volunteers and interns. Not everyone would be suitable to work within the organisation; this may
be because they are retired and not interested in an office-based role, only want to work part-

time, or do not have the skills required. Therefore, volunteers are invaluable during the festival.
There are usually between 20 and 25 people volunteering over the Music Village weekend,
undertaking tasks that do not require a huge amount of training. On the other hand, the
organisation is able to train an intern for a specific role. They have taken on three in the past
and one has made a clear commitment and became a project assistant and now works part
time. Cultural Cooperation believes that different people are attracted to the different roles of
volunteering and internships, and that both are vital to the success of the festival and the
organisation as a whole. The increased involvement of Westminster City Council, primarily as a
funder, has meant that a focus has been put on increasing the involvement of Westminster‟s
diverse communities as volunteers at the festival. This is something that Cultural Cooperation
and Westminster City Council are looking to develop in the future and at the moment is in the
planning stages.

The organisation has a number of long-term volunteers, who respond to emails asking them for
help with things they have done in previous years. They also use free bulletin boards for specific
projects they need help with. Interns are required to have the skills needed for a specific project
and to be able to commit to regular work which is usually more than half a day a week. For
members of staff like Selina Papa, the long-term volunteers are so valuable to the organisation
that they have become part of the extended family. People such as Paul Hughes-Smith
concentrate on using skills they have developed in previous employment such as press
marketing and photography. They have also had students from colleges such as Birkbeck
working as workshop assistants.

              Volunteers have opportunities for career development
              Are highly skilled
              Learn on-the-job to progress

Acts and Performers

The organisation tries to invite new acts to each festival; however they do prefer to re-use some
acts to keep the levels of professionalism high. This gives opportunities to some less-
established acts to learn from and engage with the more experienced performers at the festival.
This has helped to create informal networks between performers who have taken part in the
festival, which has resulted in the creation of a formal network where artists share experiences,
problems and solutions with each other. This happens once every few months as the
organisation has secured funding for this project which also includes professional development
and educational projects where artists work in schools.

At each festival there is a diverse range of performers, both from the UK and abroad. This helps
to promote a sense of engagement and of unique music in one setting. Selina Papa believes
that the ambience and space that is created is key to the way the festival and artists are
perceived, as is the peace and mutual respect witnessed at the event. At the moment Cultural
Cooperation offers whatever support it can to groups participating in Music Village, for example,
help with contracts and bureaucratic issues. They are also offered the chance to play live on
their radio show which can help with skills such as timekeeping, live performance and
organisation. Participants also receive help with marketing, designing leaflets and receive free
tickets to distribute to their local community, encouraging an audience and offering free
marketing to the artist. They can also sell CDs at the event – the festival has a space in which
the artist‟s representative can sell their memorabilia. There is also a time for all artists to
network and talk to each other backstage; they are encouraged to be together and learn from
each other.

              UK and international
              Professional development programme for UK artists

              Networking opportunities

Traders/Local Business

The festival does not include any traders for two primary reasons. Firstly the parks where the
event is held will not normally allow it, and secondly Cultural Cooperation would rather it be a
music-centred event, with only limited distraction of products to purchase. Cultural Cooperation
do sell their own festival merchandise – at minimal profit - and encourage people bring and
share their own food. The brochure deliberately carries no advertising or corporate sponsorship.

              No traders
              Festival souvenirs available

Funding and Costs

The organisation is funded in a number of ways. Its core costs are funded year-on-year by Arts
Council England London (£150,000). Cultural Cooperation has also received regular funding of
£35,000 from the Association of London Government (now London Councils). In boroughs
where a larger amount of work is undertaken, more funding is received from the local authority
(Westminster and Richmond for example). Because the organisation works across London they
find it hard to secure funding and develop long-term relationships with the local authorities so
they have tended to work in the same boroughs for the educational projects and London
Diaspora Capital.

The organisation has a very wide reach, and a strong network of communication in different
communities, which is reflected in its audience. Arts Council funding keeps the core team
running and Heritage Lottery Funding has made the education programme self-sufficient for
three years, but this will come up for renewal soon and HLF will not fund the same programme
twice. Cultural Cooperation has no corporate sponsorship; the festival tends to rely more on
international grants and trust and foundations such as The Esmee Fairbairn Foundation
(£40,000) and The Ford Foundation (£75,000).

Cultural Cooperation has good relationships with its funders and is working hard to secure long
term relationships with Westminster City Council for example. Strong relationships built over
time have helped to establish the reputation of Cultural Cooperation and have made the process
of organising and producing Music Village easier and more successful.

              Good relationship with ACE
              Strong political relationships


Cultural Cooperation‟s education programme works with schools, young people and artists to
celebrate cultural diversity in the arts. There is a year-round workshop programme in schools
and a Music Village Schools programme that focuses on international artists participating in the
festival. One of the organisation‟s main objectives in relation to education is to create
opportunities for skills acquisition and to provide arts education and training for all levels of

Cultural Cooperation also offers training to artists and educators under its career professional
development programme. This offers the opportunity for artists (particularly those who work in a
non–western art form) to develop their skills so they can deliver arts education workshops in

conjunction with their performance work. Artists are also given the opportunity to learn from a
mentor whilst working in a school on a long term project. On completion of the course the artist
is given a certificate from Cultural Cooperation, which is part of the London Open College
Network. This course gives artists a rare opportunity to develop their skills and receive
accreditation that can be used for future employment.

              Skills development from school children to artists
              Programmes that relate directly to the Music Village festival
              Supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund


Cultural Cooperation and the Music Village festival have an important role to play in the
development of cross-cultural arts work. The year-round focus on the celebration of culture and
diversity means that it can emphasise participation and community involvement as well as high-
quality performances and events. Over the years Music Village has stimulated community
cohesion and spirit and has endeavoured to involved members of the community, who have
often felt isolated, in high-profile activities.

Cultural Cooperation has worked hard to build a network of artists who have been able to learn
from their participation in both education and community projects as well as the Music Village
festival. The opportunity to participate in professional development training has given many
artists the skills needed to branch out with their own educational careers that can complement
their artistic and performance activity.


Overview of Event
Stokefest was established in 2003, as the previous local community festival, the Stoke
Newington Midsummer Festival was facing closure due to financial problems that could not be
resolved under the existing festival‟s organisational structure. This was due in large part to the
fact that the festival had become very successful and large, and there were not the funds to
support the increased infrastructure required. The local authority withdrew funding support close
to the start of the event itself, and although the festival went ahead, the overspend could not be
absorbed by the SNMF organising body, and unfortunately they had to cease activity.

A public meeting was held where the festival‟s closure was announced. This meeting was
attended by Robin Collins, of Open Source Productions, who was (and is) a local resident with
arts management experience and qualifications. He and some friends who also worked in the
creative industries decided not to let their local festival die; from this, Stokefest was born.

Due to the previous successes of the Stoke Newington Midsummer Festival, local support for
the continuation of a festival in the area was high. While the two festivals are quite different
events – SNMF had a strong street festival element, while Stokefest is staged in Clissold Park -
there are a number of the same people involved in the periphery of the festival, and the
audience comes from the same catchment area.

Once the decision to continue the tradition of a local community festival was made, Open
Source Productions was formed in 2002, as a voluntary not-for-profit organisation to run the
event. Stokefest remains a firmly local festival, with an emphasis on recruiting local acts, traders
and audiences.

The festival attracts between 20,000 and 30,000 people and engages over 250 artists, 40
different community organisations and 90 craft, trade and catering stalls. The emphasis on
establishing and maintaining strong local links can be seen in the following objectives of Open
Source Productions.

   1.   Encouraging friendship, cohesion and participation within the community
   2.   Act as a catalyst for new creative community projects and support existing ones
   3.   Build a foundation for skills training and knowledge transfer in the community
   4.   Increase audience diversity and encourage exchange across cultures
   5.   Facilitate opportunities for family interaction through play
   6.   Provide access to free or affordable diverse and cultural activities
   7.   Contribute to the process of community regeneration
   8.   Promote the use of green neighbourhood and public spaces
   9.   Enable businesses, voluntary and educational groups to forge creative partnerships

Staffing and Volunteers

Stokefest is run by Open Source Productions and relies entirely on voluntary labour. There is a
core team of 6-8 which expands in the festival season with a number of locally recruited
volunteers who are encouraged to participate year-round through informal networks, and public
meetings. The voluntary ethos is at the heart of the festival. Even the festival directors and key
personnel work on a voluntary basis. At present there is no board; however this is something
that the festival is considering establishing.

Recruitment of volunteers occurs all year round, and many approach the festival to work in
various aspects of the festival‟s production, from office-based pre-production, through to artistic
development, and also as stewards on the day. The recruitment of volunteers is facilitated by
the monthly public meetings that occur throughout the year. This guarantees a high level of
community involvement and ownership of the festival itself.

Alongside this, recruitment is maintained via posters in local shops and notice boards,
advertisements on the internet through the festival website and arts email lists, and through the
local press with opportunities announced via press releases. Once recruited, the volunteers are
managed well, with a number of training sessions some months before the festival event itself.
During the lead-up to the event, training continues with a longer session the week before the
festival. Here, volunteers are introduced to the rest of the crew and security. This enables the
volunteers to feel a part of the festival event, which in turn assists them with their duties. On the
morning of the festival, the volunteers have a further briefing session with stewards, police, and
representatives from the council, and they are shown around the site. The volunteers also are
all given a handbook that contains vital information.

Although some in the festival world feel that volunteers can be a drain on manpower in terms of
management and supervision, the voluntary ethos of Stokefest, with its DIY approach, shows
that the recruitment, training and supervision of volunteers can be a huge asset and resource to
the festival.

              Completely voluntary workforce
              Sophisticated recruitment and training
              Voluntary ethos at heart of this community festival

Acts and Performers

The high standard of performers and acts found at the festival are largely recruited locally.
Although the festival in this particular incarnation of Stokefest is relatively new, the fact that the
Stoke Newington Midsummer Festival took place in the locale for many years before this means
that many local artists and performers have a long relationship with the festival.

In 2007 there was a vast array of areas and stages, each presenting an eclectic mix of music,
performance and arts. Each area is handled by a sub-group of organisers, and many are
optioned out to local arts groups, sound systems and organisations. The programming of the
areas in 2007 included: Champion Sound, the promotional wing of the Shoreditch venue cargo
with a number of high profile DJs, the Global Hoedown Stage, produced by the Magpies Nest
Acoustic Club in association with Continental Drifts (the international event and entertainment
company), which showcased music inspired by folk, and music from around the world, remixed
and reinterpreted. The Global HoeDown Stage was sponsored by Cut-A-Shine, PRSF and Arts
Council England. Local Reggae sound systems Solution Sound and Gladdy Wax provided their
sound systems and a variety of reggae, and the Raison D‟Etre Stage was hosted by Healer
Selecta who showcased a variety of local acts. Core Arts held a creative corner with a wide
variety of interactive arts and crafts projects alongside an acoustic stage. There was a circus
stage, and a number of other interactive art areas.

The wide variety of acts and arts on offer is representative of the local area: a very high
proportion of performers and artists are local. The procurement of artists and acts occurs via a
combination of people offering proposals (again the monthly meetings encourage this high level
of local participation) and recruitment via established networks within the local creative
community. The management of the various areas is determined via adverts in the local press,
email and word of mouth.

The festival is always inundated with local bands, due to its good reputation and the fact that
there has been a longstanding festival in the area. When local bands apply the festival
organisers link them to the appropriate area organiser.

              High level of local acts
              Management of each area optioned out
              Wide and eclectic range of programming
              High level of interactive arts
              Much programming family friendly

Traders/Local Business

Great care is also taken to establish a good combination of stalls and traders for the festival, as
the organisers see traders as essential to a good festival environment. The traders, in particular
crafts traders, are vetted for appropriateness; the main consideration is to provide as large a
variety as possible of different goods.

Alongside the crafts and food traders, there are a number of organisations who use the festival
to promote their cause, and many social enterprises are also represented. This social
consciousness appeals to the local audience. Among the groups represented in 2007 were:
Animal Aid and Advice, Campaign against the Arms Trade, City and Hackney Alcohol Service,
Coalition for Corporate Accountability, Friends of the Earth and a number of other cultural and
arts charities and church groups.

Traders are recruited via local press, flyers in local shops, pubs and bars and on the website.
There is also a large word of mouth network that attracts traders. Once recruited, a strong
relationship is maintained between the traders and the festival – ensuring health and safety
certification is up to date and that all paperwork is filed correctly.

The strong sense of the local that Stokefest promotes is further echoed in the traders that the
festival promotes, as over 90% of traders are local. This showcasing of local crafts, arts, goods,
and organisations furthers the community feel of the festival. In terms of income generation, the
stalls account for approximately £10,000, and the ice cream and alcohol concessions are
handled separately, generating further funds. One bar is run by the festival itself to assist with

              Wide range of stalls
              Heavy vetting for quality and variety
              90% of traders are local

Funding and Costs

Stokefest receives no public funding. The income generated from commercial sponsorship and
from the stalls and the bar provides the main source of income for the continuation of the
festival. The continued running of the festival then, is made possible by the organisational
structure of the festival (in particular optioning out the management of particular areas and
stages to a number of well-networked individuals) and the fact that the festival is run entirely
with voluntary labour. Due to the local theme and high level of community spirit in the area, a
number of donations are made by local businesses and residents and there are some
fundraising activities held throughout the year. Open Source Productions are looking at
establishing some public funding to assist with the 2008 festival. Currently they are negotiating
with the council for this.

              Stokefest receives no public funding
              Main source of income from concessions, stalls and donations
              Voluntary ethos makes it possible to stage the festival at all
              Looking to secure funding in the future

Economic Impact

While there have been no economic impact studies done on the festival, anecdotally the festival
organisers believe that the festival is good for local business. Participant observation at the
festival would confirm this as there was a large crowd, many of whom visited local shops
alongside the festival site at Clissold Park. Also, by having such a high proportion of local
traders at the festival, the mid and longer term economic benefits of brand awareness and an
increased awareness of local goods more generally by the festival goers cannot help but
stimulate the local economy.


The high number of interactive arts areas at Stokefest represents a strong educational and
outreach policy. This is outlined in a number of the goals in Open Source Productions‟ mission
statement/statement of aims, particularly those to facilitate opportunities for family interaction
through play, and to provide access to free or affordable diverse and cultural activities.

The activities at Stokefest range from an international colouring competition, to involvement in
the Church Street procession, and all-day workshops in a variety of artforms hosted by a
number of arts organisations. There have also been taster workshops in martial arts, and a
Chinese crafts area. While many of these activities are geared to children, other areas that
provided interactive dance also accommodated adults.

              Stokefest‟s aims promote interactive arts and arts education
              Several opportunities for participation in workshops and other interactive arts
              Many artforms and art from many different cultures represented

Conclusion – Future of the Festival

One of the priorities of the festival is to secure some financial assistance in the form of funding.
However the voluntary ethos will still remain strong. One main change to the festival is the
possibility of the closure of Church Street leading up to Clissold Park. The Stoke Newington
Midsummer Festival had permission to do so and many festival-goers have expressed interest
in having the street closed again. This would open up more venues for the festival and the
possibility of a Stokefest Fringe may be realised. Alongside this there is already a strong
environmental bent to the festival – much of the festival waste is recycled, and there is the idea
of promoting a car-free festival day in the local area.

Stokefest is trying to forge a close partnership with both Spice Festival and Shoreditch Festival.
Not only would this establish a strong local festival offer, but also in the lead-up to the 2012
Olympic and Paralympic Games, Stokefest wants to present a united front of festivals in the
area so that the individual festivals are not competing for the same monies, but can share funds
and co-author a great event.

Aside from these objectives for the future, the Stokefest organisers want to continue to
programme a high quality local festival that showcases local acts, artists, performers and local

The Mayor’s Thames Festival
Overview of Event

The Mayor‟s Thames Festival was launched in 1997, and takes place annually each September
for two days over a weekend. From its inception, the festival has grown year on year and is now
the largest free open air arts festival in London. The festival was established to celebrate one of
London‟s greatest assets – the river Thames, and one of the most important elements in the
Mayor‟s Thames Festival is to highlight the range of activities on the south bank of the river.

In 2006 the festival attracted over 665,000 visitors who were entertained by over 50 street arts
companies, 54 street bands, and over 31,500 people who danced, sang, performed and created

              Largest free open-air festival in London
              Contributes to place making and establishing south bank as the premier cultural
               centre in London
              High level of participation – over 31,500 people involved

Staffing and Volunteers

The Mayor‟s Thames Festival was set up as a charitable trust and company limited by
guarantee, which reports to a board of trustees. The festival is produced by a handful of fulltime
staff (between 9 and 10)who are also responsible for the production of the Coin Street Festival.
2006 was the first year the same team had been involved in the running of the festival over two
consecutive years. However due to the large audience numbers and increase in funding and
partnerships, it was identified that the team was over-stretched, and the need for further
infrastructure investment has been identified. There were 6 site managers in 2006 (there will be
9 in 2007) and will be more involved in the run-up to the festival. It has also been identified that
there is a need for more stewards.

The Mayor‟s Thames Festival uses a number of volunteers both in the lead up to the festival
itself, and a number of others on the day as stewards. Volunteers occupy four key positions in
the organisation of the festival and some have been in the same position for four years. There
are also instances of volunteers who have gone on to part-time paid work with the festival.
Training within the festival production side occurs informally on an ad hoc basis and includes
office based training, e.g. with computer packages. The opportunity to expand the volunteer
base for the festival is limited due to the small office space the festival runs from and the limited
number of computers available.

Alongside the volunteers utilised in the office in the lead-up to the event, many other volunteers
are recruited as stewards for the event itself. It has been identified by the festival that many
more stewards are needed to handle the ever-increasing audience at the festival. This may be
overcome by developing close links with King‟s College London, who run an event management
course and it is likely that the shortfall of stewards will be recruited from there.

              Fulltime staff cohort of approx nine
              Need for more stewards to cope with large visitor numbers has been identified
              Volunteers used in the office for the production side of the festival
              Want to engage with more volunteers, but limited office space makes this difficult
              Volunteer stewards may be recruited from King‟s College, London

Partnerships and Local Authority Relationships

The relationship the festival has with the local authorities in the area is complicated as there are
three different local authorities to deal with. Alongside this there is the Port Authority and eight
different land owners of the site on which the festival is staged. The Mayor‟s support of the
festival makes these relationships work more easily by providing an overarching authority.

              Have to deal with a wide range of stakeholders

Acts and Performers

The festival diverges from the traditional formula of having a number of music stages and areas.
There is a large number of street artists involved in the festival, and there is a high level of
collaboration between artists and performers. Alongside this, much of the work is commissioned
for the festival.

The rundown of events within the festival programme is as follows:

      Night Carnival: a night time procession, highlighting the work of various carnival groups
       and other arts groups, with over 2300 participants.

      River Concert, featuring an array of international and local artists over the two days of
       the festival.

      Fireworks display over the river marks the finale of the festival.

      Pan-London Project: over 160 schools were involved in this project and it engaged with
       5,500 students. The theme was recycling, and the project culminated in Carmen, a large
       communally created sculpture clothed with flowers made from recycled plastics,
       managed by Otherworld Arts.

      Adult‟s and Children‟s Sing for Water, involving two choral performances. 750 adults and
       750 children were involved.

      Small scale street arts: a programme of street theatre by the Oxo Tower wharf over both
       days of the festival, highlighting some of the best street arts.

      Al Fresco Ballrooms

      Puzzle Pathway: an education and outreach programme in 2006 that involved 48
       schools from London and engaged over 1400 young people. Funding was secured for
       this strand of the programme for 2007.

      Stirring the Waters, including the Great River Race (two barge races), and the RNLI and
       sea cadets providing demonstrations.

      Foreshore activities, including the setting up of an urban beach and beach party, with
       music and acts. Alongside this “Firing on the Foreshore” used Thames clay that was
       made into objects and fired in a bonfire of Thames driftwood.

      Your River Your Say: Survey on people‟s use of the river, as well as a debate about the
       future of the Thames.

Funding and Costs

The festival operates on 43% public funds, and 57% private funding and sponsorship. In 2006,
there was a 7.5% increase in festival income from 2005 with 17% of income derived from new

The public funding of the festival comes from a variety of sources. It is an Arts Council Regularly
Funded Organisation (RFO). In the past the festival has also benefited from Single
Regeneration Budget (SRB) gloss funds, however due to the cessation of this funding stream it
has had to establish funding from other sources, including a higher proportion of corporate and
commercial sponsorship. In 2006 new funding streams were made available from Heritage
Lottery, City of London, the British Council, Arts Council London and HSBC. Alongside this, the
London Borough of Southwark contributes £20,000. A new budgeting and financial reporting
system was introduced in 2006 which has improved financial control of the festival. While this
has not opened up any new income sources, it has enabled the festival to undertake more
concrete financial planning.

Commercial sponsors provide the bulk of funds for the festival. The festival team has formed
partnerships with over 50 corporate sponsors, trusts and foundations, including British Airways,
Duracell, Price Waterhouse Coopers and Shell. The festival can attract such heavyweight
corporate sponsors due to the high numbers that the event attracts each year, as well as the
level of programming and the central site itself.

Traders, Local Business and Economic Impact

In 2006 an economic impact study of the festival was conducted by Visit London, and it was
found that the economic benefit of the festival was £3.5 million, up from £2 million in 2005. The
average spend per person for the 2006 festival was £9.34. Based on these figures, the festival
generated £6.2 million over the weekend. This represents a significant impact on the local area.
Alongside this, the economic benefits for other businesses on the south bank have been cited.
Indeed, the Tate Modern maintains that it is one of their most successful trading weekends. The
Clink Museum also reports that visitor numbers increased over the festival weekend in 2006 by
28% on the Saturday and 38% on the Sunday.


The educational elements of the festival are very strong, and constitute an almost year-round
programme of workshops and events with schools across London. While much of the education
work was showcased over the two days of the festival itself, the majority of work continues from
March through September – with projects involving 242 schools in London.

Overall 5,500 pupils from 161 primary schools in London were involved with recycling and
flower making workshops for Carmen, a co-operatively made sculpture. The art education
project Puzzle Pathway linked 32 London secondary schools with 16 other schools in India and
China. The young people made artworks inspired by a study of their river. 780 students from 25
London primary schools were involved with the Children Sing for Water music education project,
which was sponsored by British Waterways London and the City of London.

Despite these impressive figures for school participation, they were actually down from 2005.
This decline will be redressed in 2007.

Audience Development

The 2006 audience survey conducted by Manning Gottlieb OMD on behalf of Visit London found
that the overall audience grew by 40% from 2005. If the audience continues to grow, there are
real issues with congestion on the south bank. Plans to ameliorate this are underway.

Other headline findings include:
      66% came to the area specifically for the festival, while 34% happened upon it
      57% planned to stay a couple of hours at the event, 17% just an hour and a further 17%
       planned to spend all day at the festival
      36% arrived by London underground, 33% by bus, 12.5% by rail, approx 5% on foot, 5%
       by the DLR and 5% by car
      32% found out about the festival from Metro newspaper, 21% word of mouth and 14%
       from the Evening Standard
      74% of festival-goers live in Greater London, 15% are from the rest of the UK and 11%
       from overseas
      37% were aged between 25-34, 33% 33-44, 13% 16-24, and 13% 45-54
      55% described themselves as white, 18% as mixed race and 9% as African
      21% came from economic band AB, 48% from C1, 22% from C2, 7% from DE
      While attending the festival 36% planned to visit a tourist attraction, 36% planned to visit
       a pub, bar or restaurant in the area, and 27% planned to visit a cultural venue

Conclusion – Future of the Festival

The success of the Mayor‟s Thames Festival is actually the largest challenge the festival faces
for the future. Due to the site of the festival along the south bank, pedestrian congestion
threatens to create a problem for the festival in the coming years, particularly if visitor numbers
continue to rise as they have done over the last years. There are a number of plans in place to
ameliorate this problem including more and better-trained stewards, and the possibility of
opening up further spaces along the river.

In terms of programming, the festival wishes to continue its high calibre acts, and high level of
participatory arts. Specifically, more international links with other river cities will be strengthened
throughout Europe, and China.

Overall the festival wishes to remain the most successful free festival in London, showcasing
the ciy‟s greatest asset, the river Thames.

Notting Hill Carnival13

Overview of Event
Notting Hill Carnival is Europe‟s largest festival event, and is the world‟s second largest carnival,
after the Carnival celebrations in Rio, Brazil. The carnival was first held in 1966, but in the form
of a “revived English fair.”14 From these beginnings, with only a few thousand spectators, the
event quickly became more in line with the Carnival traditions found in Trinidad and Tobago,
and grew into a celebration on an international scale. The carnival takes place annually on the
bank holiday weekend at the end of August and attracts nearly a million people each year.

The Notting Hill Carnival is made up of five cultural and artistic disciplines called „Carnival
Arenas‟. The Arenas represent the music, poetry, song, performance and costume of the
carnival: Masquerade (or „mas‟), Calypso, Steelpan, Soca DJs (mobile sound systems) and
static sound systems.15

Staffing and Organisation

The London Notting Hill Carnival Ltd (LNHC) was established in 2003 to plan and organise
carnival. The establishment of the LNHC was in response to a chequered history of obstacles
and poor management. In 1981, the Arts Council threatened to cease funding unless a proper
organising committee was established. Then, in 1988 a review of the carnival‟s management
structure found an urgent need to increase the skills levels and the overall professionalism of
the planning committee. In 2002, a leadership dispute within the organisation led to the
establishment of a temporary company to oversee the carnival for that year. In 2003, after a
long consultation process and elections from the five arenas the LNHC was established and
continues to host the carnival.


Much of the production of the Notting Hill Carnival is heavily reliant on volunteers. Costume and
float production occurs throughout London in the lead-up to the carnival. While some of the
organisations affiliated with the carnival such as Masquerade 2000 get some funding from other
source such as the Arts Council, much (if not all) of the labour required to manufacture the
elaborate costumes and floats takes place on a voluntary basis. Volunteer stewards are
recruited via press and internet, word of mouth and other forms of localized advertising.

St John‟s Ambulance also provides volunteers on the day. In 2007 St John‟s Ambulance
volunteers provided 15 Ambulances and 11 treatment centres. Over 150 volunteers are on hand
each day of the carnival to treat carnival-goers along the entire route and provided first aid and
medical support. Many of these volunteers are highly skilled doctors, paramedics, nurses and
first aiders.

Traders/Local Business

   Much has been written on the Notting Hill Carnival. For further reading please see the bibliography provided.
   Cohen, A., Masquerade Politics: Explorations in the Structure of Urban Cultural Movements, 1993:1
   For more information including the history of the carnival please see the GLA‟s Notting Hill Carnival: A
Strategic Review (2004)

For the economic impact report in 2002, many traders and local businesses were interviewed. In
particular telephone surveys of 65 businesses in and around the carnival area were conducted
alongside a postal survey of licensed traders at the carnival. All except one of the traders
operated on both the Sunday and Monday of the carnival. The traders and stallholders that
operate at the carnival sell a variety of goods, but the vast majority sell food and beverages,
with over 70% selling Caribbean foods, and 45% selling other types of food. Alongside this there
were a small number of traders selling music (3%) and clothing (3%). For many of these traders
the Notting Hill Carnival is their only trading opportunity, with 59% only selling at the carnival. A
further 30% were involved in a more general festival market and attended other festivals.

The ethnic breakdown of the traders reflects the heritage of the Notting Hill Carnival, with over
40% of the traders coming from Black, African/Caribbean origin, 22% of Black African/other
Black origin, 15% British and 5% Asian.16

Interestingly, the visitors‟ survey that was conducted for the economic impact study found that
visiting the carnival would change spending patterns on non-carnival days, as many felt they
were more inclined to buy Afro-Caribbean produce in the future. However, this was not tracked
after the event, and therefore only measures interest felt on the day, not actual consumer
spending patterns.

Economic Impact, Funding and Costs

In recent years the arts sector has seen a shift towards evidence-based policy as a way of
highlighting the economic value of a project, event or organisation. Economic impact studies
have become a valuable tool in making the argument for arts funding and in underlining the
importance of the arts in the UK.

In 2002, the LDA commissioned an economic impact report of the Notting Hill Carnival.17 The
headline finding of this report was that the Notting Hill Carnival generated approximately £93
million and supported the equivalent of 3,000 full time jobs.18 This is a good return as the costs
of producing the event are estimated at £6-10 million (in 2002).

The success of economic impact studies in demonstrating the value of festivals and in
generating the figures to back up funding needs is clear. However, it has been suggested that
there is a need to move beyond this type of evidence and develop a way to illustrate the wider
benefits of the arts. Due to the lack of evidence sometimes available and limitations of economic
impact studies, some commentators (Belfiore 2007, Hewitt 2004) have suggested that a move
towards illustrating the cultural and social benefits of the arts might be more valuable.

Although the carnival has been shown to have a large economic impact, none of this notional
revenue is redistributed to offset some of the costs of producing the carnival. While the
voluntary ethos is crucial to the spirit of carnival, some redistribution of these monies would
enable small mas bands and float makers, to be able to produce their costumes and floats more
easily. For Steve Pascal, Chief Executive of Notting Hill Carnival Ltd, the situation is clear: „The
money is being made, but not getting to the people…the economic impact study, even if
exaggerated, says that millions of pounds are generated for London‟s economy. But this wealth
is not redistributed‟.19

Enterprise, Skills Development and Training

   LDA The Economic Impact of the Notting Hill Carnival 2003:6
   De Montfort University and Mann Weaver Drew – add report details
18 18
      LDA The Economic Impact of the Notting Hill Carnival 2003
   (Pascal 2007).

While there are-well known entrepreneurs that have operated at the carnival for many years (for
instance Levi Roots who became famous for his successful bid for investment on the TV
programme Dragon’s Den), much of the skills development and training that takes place for the
Notting Hill Carnival does so in an informal way. The multitude of mas bands, of float makers,
and costume makers that operate throughout London in the lead up to the carnival itself cannot
be underestimated. While some of these have a more formalised structure, such as
Masquerade 2000, and may even receive funding, much of this work is “under the radar” in
terms of formalised arrangements, networking, and certification. This voluntary and free labour
(and other donations in kind) is a significant resource that the carnival relies on year after year.

The economic impact report acknowledges this as “a breeding ground for creative industries
skills development.”20 Indeed the costume making, design, dance, musical, production and
project management skills that take place throughout the “carnival community” in London have a
commercial application in various creative industries. However, without some formalised
recognition of these skills, it is difficult for these individuals to move into the commercial sector.

Audience Development

For the economic impact study, questions about the make-up of the audience for Notting Hill
Carnival were asked. From this research it was found that almost 10% lived in Kensington and
Chelsea, 12% came from elsewhere in west London, 43% came from other London boroughs,
10% from south east England, 15% from elsewhere in the country and 8% from abroad
(including 5% from Europe). These results suggest a reasonably high attendance from
overseas, approximately 90,000 and a further 316,000 were visitors from outside London.21

These numbers of overseas and outside of London visitors are significant in terms of economic
impact as overseas and non-local visitors tend to spend more, particularly on accommodation.
In this instance 22% of respondents who lived outside west London said they were staying
overnight for the carnival, however many (40%) of these stayed with friend or relatives and did
not pay for their accommodation. Those who did pay for accommodation paid an average of £55
per person per night.22

Conclusion – Future of the Festival
Notting Hill Carnival does not suffer from poor attendance. On the contrary, one of the main
challenges for the event in recent years has been its success. The carnival is one of the
premiere events on the European Festival Calendar. Despite a history of management capacity
problems, and the continued media fascination that attempts to highlight crime figures during
the event, the carnival will continue to be one of the most popular events of its kind in London.
The figures released in the economic impact report, the Carnival Arts Strategy by the Arts
Council England, and the backing of the carnival by the Mayor of London, will ensure that it is a
continued fixture on the festival calendar.

20 20
     LDA The Economic Impact of the Notting Hill Carnival 2003:7
   LDA The Economic Impact of the Notting Hill Carnival 2003:5
   Ibid 2003:5

Luton International Carnival

Overview of Event
Luton International Carnival is an annual event that takes place every late May bank holiday,
between 12 noon and 7pm. The event is organised, delivered and financed by Luton Borough
Council. The first carnival, which was more a modest Victorian street fair, took place in 1976
and was part of the borough‟s centenary celebrations. By the early 1980s, the parade element
of the carnival had been introduced with the aim of developing a focus on the emerging
Caribbean community and as a way to combat the riots that had taken place over past years. It
was anticipated that the carnival would encourage and support unity within the community. The
event has since evolved into Britain‟s largest one-day carnival, acquiring international status in
1998. The Luton Carnival Arts Development Trust, a body independent of Luton Borough
Council, received the largest single lottery award for carnival development.

The 2006 event attracted approximately 140,000 people to the town, cementing the carnival‟s
place as the flagship event in Luton. The event has three music stages, five sound sites, street
entertainers, food and craft stalls and a carnival parade that features over 60 groups and
organisations, including schools from Luton, Nottingham, Birmingham, the Isle of Wight and
London. In consequence, around 2000 people take part, representing a diverse range of ages,
cultures and communities. As with all events, there are changes each year, and the likelihood is
that the carnival will reduce in geographical size in the future. The reduction in size is partly due
to the changing nature of the town centre, which is becoming more residential, and partly owing
to the need to contain the event in order to remain within the budget and ensure sustainability. It
is considered more important to grow in terms of quality than quantity. This, along with licensing
and noise regulation, will affect the number of stages and sound sites in future events.

The 2006 carnival was spread across the town. The parade centres on Wardown Park and the
streets adjacent to the centre of town. Street theatre, dancers and live music perform across the
town and at Market Hill, resulting in the entire event site covering approximately six square
miles. To ensure a successful and trouble-free carnival the event organisers collaborate with a
number of other organisations. These include Bedfordshire Police, security services and the
Luton Carnival Arts Development Trust (LCADT), which has recently been renamed the UK
Centre for Carnival Arts.

              Focus on community
              Britain‟s largest one day carnival
              Strong relationship with UK Centre for Carnival Arts

Festival Enterprise

It is important for the organisers that the carnival is a reflection of the cultures and communities
of Luton and the region as a whole. It aims to celebrate the traditions and art forms at the root of
carnival from Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Europe and South America by engaging the diverse
communities within Luton and encouraging involvement both in the carnival and carnival arts as
a whole. In this sense it reflects the notion that participation in creative activities can empower
individuals from socially excluded groups.

              Empowering individuals from socially excluded groups

              Reflecting the cultures of the region


The carnival is organised and operated by the Arts Development Unit at Luton Borough Council.
For the 2006 event, it employed 12 full and part-time paid staff, with a variety of responsibilities
(including all non-carnival related activity across the year). This included overall management,
programming and performers, technical and logistics, VIPs and the parade. They also have
team members responsible for stalls, traders and site planning. The UK Centre for Carnival Arts
is a partner, and coordinates a highly successful programme of events throughout the year,
including mas camps which work to design and create the costumes for the carnival parade.
Each year, planning for carnival starts a month after the previous carnival has finished. The UK
Centre runs outreach programmes, workshops and personal development projects through
carnival arts across the year in schools and with community groups and individuals. They have
assisted the development and fundraising activity of the Luton Association of Mas, as well as
assisting community groups with costume making and funding skills development activities.
They contribute to the artistic development of carnival but the organisation of the parade is
undertaken by Luton Borough Council.

Luton council feels that the organisation of the carnival would benefit from production
responsibilities moving from the local authority to a more appropriate body. The UK Centre for
Carnival Arts would be the most favourable option as it seems impractical that they are not
directly involved in the organisation of the event. They would like to see the carnival in the
centre‟s remit but with council support and involvement.

              Staff have a variety of skills
              Also involved in non-carnival activity
              Year round events associated with carnival


Because the carnival is run by the local authority there are a number of restrictions meaning that
it is difficult to „employ‟ volunteers. However, in the past they have had an office-based carnival
volunteer; this person is now works as a freelance contractor, which reflects the available routes
from volunteering to full time employment. Luton Borough Council does have a Volunteer Policy
but this mainly applies to community education and development work. Also, many of the acts
and carnival groups that take part have their own volunteers throughout the year and on carnival

Although the council department does not employ volunteers on carnival day it does have a
relationship with the UK Centre for Carnival Arts which trains stewards and now has over 200
qualified individuals. It is believed that attendees expect fully trained, paid staff and a well-
executed professional event; therefore volunteers are rarely called upon. Because of the
Security Industries Act (SIA) all public-facing workers must have a license; this is having an
effect on small festivals and events as they cannot afford to pay for professional
security/stewards instead of using volunteers. The UK Centre‟s stewards are not, in the main,
SIA trained but NVQ qualified which can limit their role and usefulness.

New initiatives will help volunteers and new businesses identify potential enterprise and take the
first steps towards employment or business creation. For many volunteers it is through their
roles at the carnival that they realise their true employment potential.

              Difficult to „employ‟ volunteers

              Steward training available at UK Centre

Acts and Performers

As a rule, the carnival aims to have a variety of acts and a different selection of performers each
year. A press release is sent out in advance, along with information on how to apply to be part
of the carnival. The carnival is also attached to The Hat Factory, an arts facility in the centre of
Luton that seeks to develop arts within the town and the surrounding region. Carnival staff will
keep abreast of Hat Factory events taking place and local acts that might be a good choice for
the carnival. In 2007 a Carnival Talent Quest was planned where local groups could perform in
front of a selection panel for the chance to perform at carnival. This is good local PR and draws
on local talent; it also expands the life of the event by attracting local and new talent to other
events running alongside the carnival. Furthermore, as many of the local council events are
interlinked (St Patrick‟s Day, Mela etc) a creative hub has grown in Luton and has helped
develop a series of relationships that are built upon each year by council staff. Carnival talent
quest did not happen in 2007 for various reasons but it is a concept that they hope to revive.
There is also a plan to strengthen programming and artistic vision for the event by programming
and working in partnership with many groups within the town including UK Centre, Luton
Sounds Forum, African Caribbean Community Forum and others.

There is not an official theme for the carnival, although groups are encouraged to create their
own themes and ideas. For the 2007 event there was a focus on the abolition of slavery to
coincide with the anniversary. This is seen more as a programming strand to the event and part
of the vision of the carnival as a whole. The 2007 event was planned to include a large and
diverse range of acts covering the sectors of dance, music and street arts. There is also a slot
on the main stage for unsigned music acts from the region and, featuring music as diverse as
rock, Irish folk, steel pan and Latin jazz.

The work carried out by the UK Centre for Carnival Arts aims to encourage the local
communities to get involved in carnival arts and in the carnival itself, this includes the mas
camps and training courses which are open to everyone and encourage carnival skills
development across the board. The opportunity to get involved in making costumes and
learning from national and international carnival artists help to bring Luton‟s communities
together under the banner of carnival and mean that more people are able to take part in the
event and contribute to its continued success.

Within the carnival parade, performers range from individuals to small groups and large national
companies. They are paid through the main budget, although more recently the council has tried
to encourage the groups to apply for Arts Council grants, with a view to them becoming more
self-sufficient. This would also allow for more of the budget to be spent on commissioning new
work. Many of the groups have been nurtured locally, including St. Vincents, St. Kitts, the Luton
Irish Forum and the Rustlers. The organisers feel as though many of their participants have
grown and developed with the carnival. They also make a point of programming stages with
local groups (which make up about 75% of acts); this is a conscious effort both to foster local
talent and to appeal to local people.

              Local events are interlinked
              Growth of creative hub in Luton
              Showcase for the year round work of UK Centre
              Encourages local communities to get involved in carnival arts and the carnival
              Fostering local talent and appealing to local people

Traders/Local Business

The organisers have many enquiries from carnival traders but can only take a small number on
the day. They have created a database which is constantly being updated as new enquiries are
taken. The process is the same as procuring acts; the organisers send out information and
interested traders must fill in an application form detailing their insurance and food hygiene
certificate to be considered for the event. It is important that traders have a strong professional
track record. The council inspectors will check or visit food traders before they are confirmed for
the event; this is a long process but essential for the council. There are around 100 traders,
including food, arts and crafts, charities and fun fair rides. The council estimates that
approximately £15,000 is earned from stalls and traders; the figure could be greater if it were
not for restrictions on space. A response policy has been developed to deal with various
unwanted activities on the day of the event itself; this includes dealing with unlicensed and
unauthorised traders, as well as those dealing in dangerous, counterfeit or illegal goods.

The carnival is driven by its artistic programme, (and principally within that, the carnival parade)
therefore although its importance is acknowledged there is a lesser emphasis on trading as a
whole. As well as stall holders; local businesses, shops and groups get involved by, among
other things, offering food to participants. For the carnival organisers this is a bonus as they like
to see local businesses involved. Many local traders have seen their businesses develop over
the years and feel as though the carnival has opened up other paths for them and built upon
their relationships. At present there are no offers of skills development or training courses for
traders, something which may be attractive to emerging local businesses and individuals.

In terms of supporting local business, the council does use local printers for signage and the
Herald Post prints and distributes the programme (this is subsidised). Nando‟s restaurant is very
active on carnival day by having a carnival theme and providing food for the Rampage Carnival
Group. The Arndale Mall centre stays open (which the council feels is a testament to safety) but
it can be very quiet whereas other town-centre shops, local bars and restaurants have a busy
days trading because of the thousands of visitors in the town centre and their proximity to the

The development of traders is an informal process in Luton and really if anything is aimed at
local businesses rather than socially excluded groups who are possible entrepreneurs.
However, the forging of relationships within the community has helped the carnival to develop
links with a number of traders and in the future this may be developed in conjunction with the
UK Centre for Carnival Arts.

              Stallholders required to have a strong, professional track record of trading
              Local business encouraged to get involved – skills embedded within community

Funding and Costs

The carnival receives £300,000 from the council‟s budget, which does not include any full-time
staffing costs. Bedfordshire Police are involved from an early stage, and all decisions are taken
in partnership with them in reference to route and evaluation. This means there a total policing
bill of £35,000 (£48,000 in 2007) plus £20,000 for British Transport Police and £56,000 (£35,000
in 2007) is spent on security, all of which is taken from the carnival budget. These costs are
expected to rise significantly for 2008. This is partly because every year the police demand
higher fees and even though both Bedfordshire Police and British Transport Police offer a
community discount, the costs are still high. British Transport Police now feel it necessary to
undertake a very substantial operation both at the Luton rail stations and further down the line in
order to minimise disorder and crime on the trains and stations and also to ensure that train

travellers do not arrive in Luton carrying weaponry. Their operation is very costly and they are
looking to recover an increasing proportion of these costs in line with their policy decisions.

At present only 20% of the overall budget is spent on carnival arts and associated matters. The
organisers would like to see a more balanced budget which would enable more dynamic artistic
statements, instead of concentrating on health and safety and security issues which eat up the
funds. They would like to commission more local acts and performance-based artists to take
part; however this would mean a larger budget attributed to this strand which at present is not
possible. The analysis of the data supplied by various organisations in 2004 suggests that the
revenue generated by carnival attendees, less the estimated costs incurred in staging the event,
amounts to a total revenue of just under £3.1million. It is stressed that this is an estimated
figure, based on incomplete information (as not all organisations that were sent a questionnaire
returned it, or alternatively did not supply the relevant data) and on calculations that have
involved the making of a number of assumptions.

              20% of budget spent on carnival arts/programming
              Organisers would like more local acts and artists to take part

Economic Impact

The latest economic impact study for the carnival was completed in 2004 and was the fifth study
looking into the impact of the carnival on the Luton economy. The analysis of the data supplied
by various organisations including stall holders, local businesses, procession entrants, transport
providers, emergency services and council departments, suggests that the revenue generated
by carnival attendees (less the estimated costs incurred in staging the event), amount to a total
revenue of just under £3.1million. However, it has been stressed that this is an estimated figure,
based on incomplete information (because not all organisations who were sent a questionnaire
returned it, or alternatively did not supply the relevant data) and on calculations that involved the
authors of the study making of a number of assumptions.

Arts Council England East believes that the carnival is generally perceived as a benefit to Luton
in economic terms and is thought to represent a sizeable benefit to the communities of the town.
In this sense it is clear that the carnival provides a certain, measurable impact that the
organisers can use when making the case for carnival and its continued development. The
carnival is also regarded by many as having a positive impact on Luton as a whole and the
development of the town through regeneration initiatives. Although not formally involved in any
specific schemes, the carnival is thought to have contributed to the development of the town
and along with the new UK Centre, made a positive impact on the town centre and surrounds.

              2004 turnover was £3.1 million
              ACE recognise the carnival as a benefit to Luton
              Has a positive impact on the town


Alongside the work of the UK Centre, an Arts Council programme, arts|generate, has also
played its part in developing carnival in Luton through identifying and addressing a range of
regeneration issues. Carnival Connections was delivered through the UK Centre (when it was
still LCADT) and was partnered by ACE East, Luton Borough Council and the National
Foundation for Youth Music. It focused on skills development, educational achievement, social
exclusion, community cohesion and motivating young people at risk. It also sought to raise the
interest and involvement of the town‟s diverse communities in the carnival and in carnival arts
and Luton as a whole.

Activities focused on the cross-cultural possibilities of carnival and the teaching of carnival
making and artistic skills. The combination of classes, workshops and performances helped
Luton residents (particularly those from disadvantaged backgrounds) to find their own ways into
carnival and build on the tradition of carnival in the town. As a result approximately 300 of the
1200 adults and young people who took part in Carnival Connections went on to take part in the
carnival itself.

              Focus on cross-cultural possibilities of carnival
              Making and artistic skills are developed

Enterprise, Skills Development and Training

Although not the focus of Luton International Carnival, enterprise, skills development and
training continuously come up in discussions around the carnival and its organisation. For many
people in Luton, carnival as a whole and the event day itself have contributed to their skills
development, enabled them to be entrepreneurial or has given them the opportunity to take part
in training of some sort. Whether for stall holders, members of the procession or stewards,
training and development initiatives have helped accomplish a variety of things for a range of

In terms of entrepreneurship, the carnival prides itself on its ability to work with local traders to
develop their business to enable them to trade during the carnival. Although there are no formal
routes to training or skills development, many believe that the carnival can be useful for
individuals and businesses in various ways. Building local contacts and trading at local events
can encourage an entrepreneurial attitude and many of the businesses involved in the carnival
have grown over the years. Because of this, the UK Centre has ambitions to focus more on
training for events, looking at carnival skills, catering training and personal development which
would link into the incubator spaces at the centre, many of which will be available for successful
businesses such as carnival clubs.

In all, the carnival has impacted a great deal on entrepreneurship, enterprise and development
in Luton. However, it is still a quantum leap from spare or part-time involvement to running a full
time carnival-based business or working in carnival-related activity. If this area is to develop
further in Luton the carnival organisers will need to proceed with training initiatives for traders
and provide a greater sense of support for those wanting to make a living from carnival.
              No formal routes to training or skills development
              An ambition of the UK Centre to focus more on training


Luton International Carnival is rooted within the community and has a focus on involvement and
development of Carnival in the region. It has a year-round focus and aims to address more than
just the art, as it connects to a variety of other local events. Because of its good relationship with
Arts Council England East and the UK Centre for Carnival Arts, the council can embed its
activity within the community and even though the event is not truly community-run, it puts
emphasis on involvement and giving everyone the opportunity to join in.

Because of the strength of carnival in the region, Luton has been able to develop into a
significant player in the carnival world and has used the year-round activity of the UK Centre to
build upon this reputation. It has ambitions to further develop its offer of training and skills
development, which will enable a greater focus on ensuring the communities of Luton can get
something more from the carnival than a day out.

The 2007 Luton International Carnival was cancelled due to adverse weather conditions and
extreme flooding. Over 2000 people were expected to take part in the carnival parade and in
excess of 100,000 people were due to attend Luton‟s biggest street party. But with areas of the
carnival route and park impassable due to flooding, and the prospect of continued bad weather
it was clear that there were risks to the safety and welfare of the participants, performers and
potentially the public. It was agreed by all involved that it was too dangerous to go ahead with
the event.

Appendix B - Bibliography

ACE Arts festivals and the visitor economy: Their contribution and their potential in the
West Midlands Region (2006a)

ACE The Arts Festival Sector in Yorkshire: economic, social and cultural benefits,
benchmarks and development (2006b)

ACE National Carnival Arts Strategy 2005 – 2007 (2005)

ACE On Route - world wide carnival arts conference (2004)

ACE Measuring the Economic and Social Impact of the Arts: A Review (2002)

AEA Consulting, Thundering Hooves: Maintaining the Global Competitive Edge of
Edinburgh’s Festivals (2006)

AFO A Report into the Impact of Folk Festivals on Cultural Tourism (2003a)

AFO The Impact of Folk Festivals (2003b)

Allen, K and Shaw, P, Festivals Mean Business: The Shape of Arts Festivals
in the UK, British Arts Festivals Association (BAFA), London (2000)

Batty, M. et al “The discrete dynamics of small-scale spatial events: agent-based
models of mobility in carnivals and street parades”, International Journal of
Geographical Information Science, vol 17, no. 7, 673-697 (2003)

Bianchini, Franco, Christopher Maughan and Paola Merli, Festivals and the Creative
Region (Arts Council England, 2003)

Dipannita Basu and Pnina Werbner, “Bootstrap capitalism and the culture industries: a
critique of invidious comparisons in the study of ethnic entrepreneurship.” Ethnic and
Racial Studies Vol 24 no.2 pp 236-262 (2001)

City of Edinburgh Council, Scottish Enterprise Edinburgh and Lothian, VisitScotland
and EventScotland, Economic Impact Study (2004)

Cohen, A., Masquerade Politics: Explorations in the Structure of Urban Cultural
Movements, 1993

Crompton, J., & Mkay, S., “Motives of Visitors attending festival events”, Annals of
Tourism Research, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 425 - 439, (1997)

Ealing LSP Success through Diversity: Ealing’s Sustainable Community Strategy 2006
– 2016 (2006)

English Heritage, Tourism Facts (2000)

GLA Notting Hill Carnival: A Strategic Review. (2004)

GLA Economics, Spending Time: London’s Leisure Economy (2003)

Goh, F, Stepping Up: a Development Report for Wirksworth Festival (December 2004)

Graham Devlin Associates, Festivals and the City: The Edinburgh Festivals Strategy
(City of Edinburgh Council, 2001).

Gursoy, D., et al, “Perceived impacts of festivals and special events by
organizers: an extension and validation,” Tourism Management 25, pp.171–181 (2004)

Farrar, M., A Short History of the Leeds West Indian Carnival 1967-2000 (2000)

Fox Gotham, K., “Theorising Urban Spectacles:             Festivals, tourism and the
transformation of urban space.” CITY, 9 (2) (2005)

Henley Centre, How can the Arts Council Increase Audiences for the Arts by 2010?
(Powerpoint presentation)

Irobi, E., “What They Came With: Carnival and the Persistence of African Performance
Aesthetics in the Diaspora,” Journal of Black Studies 37; p. 896 (2007)

Jamieson, K., “Edinburgh: The Festival Gaze and Its Boundaries,” Space and Culture
no 7; vol. 64 (2004)

Jeong, S., & Santos, C., “Cultural Politics and Contested Place Identity,” Annals of
Tourism Research, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 640–656, (2004)

Jura Consultants & Gardiner & Theobald Management Consultancy, Millennium Festival
Impact Study. (2001)

Klaic, D., ‟Research into Festivals in Europe‟ (unknown, work in progress, found on Arts
Research Digest

LDA ,The Economic impact of the Notting Hill Carnival (2003)

Lee, C., et al “Segmentation of festival motivation by nationality and satisfaction,”
Tourism Management 25, pp. 61–70 (2004)

Long, P. and Owen, E., The arts festival sector in Yorkshire: economic, social and
cultural benefits, benchmarks and development (ACE 2006)

Matarasso, F, Towards a Local Cultural Index: Measuring the cultural vitality
of communities, Comedia, Stroud, 1999a

Matarasso, F, Evaluation: some initial thoughts, unpublished paper, 1999b

Matarasso, F, Cultural Indicators, A preliminary review of issues raised by

current approaches, unpublished paper, 2001

McIntyre, M.H. A Report into the Impact of Folk Festivals on Cultural Tourism (Derbys.,
The Association of Festival Organisers, 2003).

Nindi, Pax ed., On route - the art of carnival (Arts Council, 2005)

Nindi, Pax, National Carnival Arts Strategy 2005-2007 (ACE 2005)

Prentice, R., & Andersen, V., “Festival as Creative Destination,” Annals of Tourism
Research, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 7–30, 2003

National Centre for Culture and Recreation Statistics, Australian Bureau of Statistics,
Measuring the Impact of Festivals, Guidelines for conducting an economic impact study,
Statistics Working Group of the Cultural Ministers Council, Australia, 1997

Nurse, K., “Globalization and Trinidad Carnival: Diaspora, Hybridity and Identity in
Global Culture.” Cultural Studies 13 ( 4 ) 1999 , 661 – 690

Raj, R., “The Impact of Festivals on Cultural Tourism”, paper delivered at the 2nd
DeHaan Tourism Management Conference, Nottingham (2003)

Rhydderch, G., Shaw, P., Allen, K., „Arts Festivals in Cumbria: A description of the
sector and proposals for its support and development‟ (Arts Council England North
West, 2003).

Southwark Council, A Community Strategy for Southwark 2003-2006 (2003)

Southwark Council, Strategy and Priorities for Arts, Culture and Heritage (2005)

Thames Festival, Annual Report (2006)

Van Limburgh, B., “City Marketing: A Multi-Attribute Approach”, Tourism Management,
Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 415-417, (1998)

Waterman, S., “Carnivals for elites? The cultural politics of arts festivals.” Progress in
Human Geography 22,1 (1998) pp. 54-74

Interviewees and research participants list

Thanks to all those who participated throughout the research, including those who spoke to us
at the festivals themselves. Particular thanks to all those who gave up their time to be

George Mighty – Chairman, Derby West Indian Community Association (DWICA)
Mable Slater – DWICA Volunteer
Maria Adlam – Dance Workshop Leader
Marion Nixon – Acting Head of City Development & Tourism, Derby City Council
Nasreen Iqbal - Relationship Networking Officer with Derbyshire Enterprise Agency
Nezrine Hudson – DWICA
Peter Meakin – Head of Arts and Events, Derby City Council
Ruby Bennett – Festival Trader, Derby Caribbean Carnival
Utkarsha Joshi – Officer Diversity, Arts Council England East Midlands

Donna Lettman – Artist, Performance II
Fahim Qureshi - Head of Arts Team, Luton Borough Council
Gina Shervill – Stallholer, Luton International Carnival
Janet Parker - Principal Arts Officer, Arts Development Unit, Luton Borough Council
Jill Shekleton - Assistant Officer, Development – Arts Council England, East
Kelly Vintiner – Volunteer, Luton International Carnival
Kofi Debrah - PR and Marketing Manager, UK Centre for Carnival Arts
Rangita Shah – Stallholder, Luton Mela
Terry Noel JP - Leader BT Melodians Steel Orchestra

Charlotte Ferguson – Arts Liaison Officer, Westminster City Council
Clea House – Volunteer, Cultural Cooperation
Kasai Masai – Artist, Music Village
Latif Bolat – Artist, Music Village
Paul Hughes-Smith – Volunteer, Cultural Cooperation
Philip Butterworth – Arts Council England, London
Prakash Daswani – Chief Executive/Festival Director, Cultural Cooperation
Selina Papa – Head of Operations, Cultural Cooperation

Christine Lewis – Volunteer, Spitalfields Festival
Judith Serota - Executive Director, Spitalfields Festival
Kate Wyatt - Events Director, Spitalfields Festival
Laka D – Artist, Spitalfields Festival
Ole Baekhoej - General Manager, Gabrieli Consort & Players
Philip Flood - Education Director, Spitalfields Festival
Sandy Critchley – Volunteer, Spitalfields Festival
Steve Murray – London Borough of Tower Hamlets

Paul Gudgin – Director, Edinburgh Fringe Festival
Kim Noble – Artist, Winner of the Perrier Best Newcomer 2000

Adrian Evans – Festival Director, The Mayor‟s Thames Festival
Sophie Branscome – General Manager, The Mayor‟s Thames Festival
Peter Slavid – Volunteer, The Mayor‟s Thames Festival
Emma Kerr - Volunteer, The Mayor‟s Thames Festival

Marilyn – Artist – Masquerade 2000
Paul Cowell – LB Southwark Events
Lara Mistry - LB Southwark Events

Robin Collins – Director Stokefest
Michael – Stalls Co-ordinator Stokefest
Paul Monks – Core Arts
Sam – Bubble Inc Trader
Andy Adenegan - Trader

Julian Rudd – Remarkable Productions
Boudicca Maloney - Remarkable Productions
Gus Corcoran – Events Ealing
Blue Whiting – Events coordinator, London Mela
Ajay Chhabra – Act Procurement, London Mela

Barry Creasy – Student, City University


To top