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					                      Report on CARE‟s First Regional Conference on

                        AND THE CARIBBEAN”

                                Quito, 22 to 26 May 2006


      This document presents the moderator‟s report of CARE‟s First Regional Conference
      on Private Sector Partnerships (PSPs) in Latin America and the Caribbean that
      gathered 36 CARE executives from 10 countries and 6 special guests, 2 from
      international cooperation agencies and 4 from the private sector, in Quito, Ecuador
      from 22 to 26 May, 2006. The complete list of participants can be found in Appendix

      In addition to this Introduction, the report contains the following Sections and

               II.     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
               IV.     CONCLUSIONS

               Appendix 1:     List of Participants
               Appendix 2:     Sequence of presentations
               Appendix 3:      Summaries of presentations on access to markets for
               Appendix 4:      Summaries of presentations on access to markets for
               Appendix 5:     Summaries of presentations on other CSR experiences
               Appendix 6:     Summaries of presentations on CSR from the standpoint of
                               the private sector
               Appendix 7:     Results of self-evaluation exercise with regard to
                               Knowledge Management

      The complete contents of all the presentations were delivered to each participant on a
      CD before the end of the Conference.

The Conference theme was CARE‟s relatively new strategy, that is being put into
practice in several countries around the world, of establishing partnerships with the
private sector in order to accomplish CARE‟s strategic objectives by means of: (i)
resource mobilization for projects, (ii) reduce the negative impact of corporate
activities, (iii) provide market access to poor producers or service providers for their
products or services, and obtain access to goods and services markets for poor people
as consumers or service users (iv) advocacy for more just international rules and (v)
changing attitudes in the world of development and private sector, by obtaining, for
instance, private sector support to achieve other goals like fight to HIV&AIDS.

The Conference‟s activities centered around a total of XX presentations that are
summarized below and joint reflection regarding their content in either break-out
groups or plenary sessions:

(i)     6 conceptual presentations, 4 made at the start of the Conference by CIUK, 1
        made by CARE Ecuador and 1 by CARE Central America, that framed the
        rest of the proceedings;

(ii)    2 presentations by CARE USA related to the critical topic of selection of
        private sector partners with which it is appropriate to associate and with

(iii)   19 presentations, made by CARE executives from all 10 countries
        represented in the Conference, and 2 presentations made by representatives of
        international organizations, on specific projects in which private sector
        alliances were established in order to: (i) provide market access for products
        and services being offered by poor communities;         (ii) provide access for
        the poor to purchase goods and services they need; and (iii) support the
        attainment of other social goals (eradication of child labor, the fight against
        HIV/AIDS and transparency in the private sector).

(iv)    3 presentations on various aspects of PSP made from the private sector‟s

(v)     2 presentations and 1 self-evaluation exercise related to learning and to
        knowledge and information management.

The joint reflections that these presentations elicited allowed for identification of
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that CARE faces in the realm of PSP
and were the basis for establishing short-term action plans.


   The topics that were addressed and the reflections thereon are not presented here in
   strict chronological order but have instead been grouped by subject areas. Appendix
   2 presents a summary table of all presentations in chronological order, as they are
   recorded on the CD that was delivered to each participant that indicates the thematic
   group to which each has been assigned, as follows:

            1.   Conceptual framework, general visions and PSP strategies
            2.   Selection of potential private sector partners
            3.   Experiences with market access for producers
            4.   Experiences with market access for consumers
            5.   Experiences with other kinds of PSP projects
            6.   CSR and PSP from the private sector‟s perspective
            7.   Knowledge and information management

   1. Conceptual framework and general visions:
       6 presentations:

           Monday 22 May, in the morning:
              1.1. Conceptual Framework, CIUK
              1.2. Kenya Conference Conclusions, CIUK
              1.3. Toolbox, CIUK
              1.4. PSP in LAC and PPA-ALC Project, CIUK & DFID

           Monday 22 May, in the afternoon:
               1.5. PSP Strategies, CARE Ecuador

           Thursday 25 May, in the afternoon:
                1.6. Use of Revenue-Generating Enterprises by NGOs,
                     CARE Central America

       1.1. Conceptual Framework (CIUK)
       Monday 22 May, in the morning
       Hugo Sintes

       The Conference began with Hugo Sintes of CIUK‟s presentation of a
       “Conceptual Framework for Private Sector Partnerships”. The presentation
       started off with an analysis that describes the so-called “magnitude of the
       tragedy” as evidenced by the worldwide „decent work deficit‟ for the poor, the

fact that capital tends not to gravitate towards the poorer nations and the
enormous complexities of accomplishing effective social connections among
various actors. Studies were then presented that suggest high levels of
confidence in NGOs that contrast with low levels of confidence in the private
sector, clear potential complementation between the two sectors, and an analysis
of relations between the two that shows low current cooperation (12%) but high
potential cooperation in the future (61%). The entire analysis, it was suggested,
leads to the almost inevitable conclusion that joint work and collaboration with
the private sector is almost inevitable in order to move forward in the fight
against poverty.

Several possible manners of engagement were then identified including
receiving donations, relational marketing, receiving volunteers from a company,
receiving free assistance and consulting, selling the community‟s products to the
company and vice versa, performing social and environmental studies, alliances,
joint initiatives or ventures, dialogues, etc. Several possible engagement models
were then presented including: (i) the 3-ring model (in the public policy sphere,
CARE as a policy proponent; in the corporate sphere, CARE as a partner or as a
challenger; in the capital sphere, CARE as investor); the 5 Cs model
(Compliance, Control, Community Investment, Creation of New Value and
Collaboration); the possible strategies model (Collaboration or Confrontation in
the business world or in the field of civil society); the so-called “Sustainability
Classifications” that identify four possible strategies: killer whale, shark,
Dolphin or Sea Lion; a model that identifies corporations‟ and NGOs‟ main
activities (with regard to corporate philanthropy, the NGOs perform funds
gathering activities; with regard to the corporations‟ core activities that generate
their profits, the NGOs can perform programmatic activities): WWF‟s 4 Cs,
pyramid model (Conservation, Challenge, Communication, Cash) that
contemplates relationships based on 1, 2, 3 or all 4 Cs.

Joint Reflection regarding the proposed conceptual framework

Reflection first centered on the “Sustainability” model and on the question
“Where do we see CARE?” Answers were proposed on two levels – the
descriptive, related to where CARE is, and the normative, related to where
CARE should be. On the descriptive level, there appeared to be wide consensus
that CARE is on the side of the sea lion or the dolphin, i.e. on the collaborative,
more than on the confrontational side, given that CARE typically does not take
on an activist, polarizing role and some COs act like sea lions, requesting and
receiving funds. On the normative level, the question arose whether we should
assume only one role, recognizing that circumstances can indicate which is the
appropriate one and that it is difficult to remain constantly in only one quadrant,
although the ideal might be to try to be intelligent dolphin.

With regard to the model that relates the NGOs‟ activities to a company‟s main
activities, it was recognized that: (i) to a high degree, we relatee to companies on
the higher level of the pyramid where they act as philanthropists; (ii) the main
potential for mobilizing companies‟ actions on behalf of CARE‟s strategic

objectives lies rather on the level of their core activities where their profits are
generated; (iii) on that level, companies are moved by business criteria, not
philanthropic considerations; and (iv) contradictions can arise between relating
to companies on one or the other level of the pyramid (the ever more tense
relationship between programs and funds-gathering) that pose the interesting
challenge of helping companies to reduce those contradictions.

1.2. Kenya Conference Conclusions, CIUK
Monday 22 May, in the morning
Hugo Sintes

In sum, bearing in mind our objective of reducing poverty, there are many ways
on which we can relate to the private sector, each of which can be legitimate in
given circumstances. Besides, there can be a dynamic between one and another
(for example, moving from funds-gathering to alliances), after going through
due diligence procedures that are not always performed, or are not performed
worldwide. For this, as a leading PSP institution, it is important that CARE
remain proactive in selecting sectors with which it is willing to work, assign full
value to its intervention capabilities and improve its information and human
development systems. To these conclusions was added a long list of concrete
priorities that were neither debated nor validated.

Joint reflection on conclusions of the Kenya Conference

With respect to due diligence and worldwide relationships, tom Caffrey of
CIUSA pointed out the existence of two data bases - Donor Direct and - and of the “Corporate Alliances” option on
CARE USA‟s web portal, which anyone present can access to request
information on existing alliances. Gianluca Nardi emphasized the importance of
these sources as tools for establishing a community of practice and expressed the
hope that a virtual library of alliances can be established.

Several participants underlined the conclusion that establishing new
relationships with the private sector means changing the traditional point of view
and recognizing that many companies work on social problems not just for
reasons of need but also out of conviction.

1.3 Toolbox
Monday 22 May, in the morning
Hugo Sintes

“The purpose of this toolbox is to make a series of general suggestions on what
can be done and how to do it available to CARE‟s offices that are interested in
private sector matters. The toolbox is currently being developed. A first draft of
each chapter has already been written. Publication and translations are expected
in June-July. The toolbox will be a “live” document to which new experience

and advice can be added.”

The Toolbox includes and exploration of the concept of Corporate Social
responsibility (CSR) – definition, standards, critiques, lessons; the private sector
and reduction of poverty; types of private sector engagements; influence on the
private sector through international codes of conduct, dialogue and political
influence; and ways of getting markets to function on behalf of the poor through
partnerships, social enterprises and programs, access to markets and marketing.

Joint reflection on the Toolbox

Questions were raised regarding testing and validation of the document. The
answers were that it will be internally tested and will be open to continued
updating, even with inputs from this Conference. As for validation, the
document will be shared with outside experts and could go to one or two
countries for more formal validation.

The issue was raised regarding whether the toolbox will have the force of a
guideline. The answer was that it is intended to provide detailed advice.

1.4. ASP in LAC and the PPA-ALC Project (CIUK & DFID)
Monday 22 May, in the morning
Gianluca Nardi

Starting form the fact that Latin America has gone through radical
transformations in the last 20 years that have not taken place without profound
internal contradictions, a unique LAC (Latin America and Caribbean) PSP
model has emerged under the stimulus of several specific regional realities
including the relative weakness of governments, socially responsible practices in
several sectors with high environmental impact, a new generation of
entrepreneurs and businesspeople with a CSR vision along the entire production
chain and high commitment to CSR on the part of small and medium-sized
companies that make up 95% of all companies and employ between 40% and
60% of the entire regional labor force.

The model is not uniform across the region. On the contrary, there are different
levels of progress in CSR in the various countries in the region: for example,
there is low commitment to civil society in Ecuador as against the regional
leader, Panama with a 70% rating; in several other counties, low corporate
governance can be observed, as against a 60% rating in the regional leader,

The challenge for CARE is seen in terms of taking PSP beyond philanthropy, to
interventions related to companies‟ core businesses under the hypothesis that
market mechanisms can be used to benefit poorer communities, not only in
economic terms.

The focus is primarily cooperative: it consists in providing services and
structuring alliances, without discounting the possibility of exerting influence,
although not through aggressive campaigns.

There are currently some 14 projects in progress of which 8 are PSP for
providing access to markets for producers and for consumers or users. Many of
these will be presented in this Conference.

In May 2005, PPA LAC, a programmatic agreement between DFID and CIUK
was started, with a specific appendix for Latin America and the Caribbean
(LAC) for US$ 2.7 million per annum for 3 years to contribute to poverty
reduction through PSP, influence on the IFIs, working with civil society and
fighting against HIV/AIDS.

In the specific context of PSP, the intention of PPA LAC is to generate greater
understanding of the impact of pro-poor business plans and of innovative
practices, to engage in networks with civil society, CSR networks and local
governments and to develop internal training. In the field of innovative
practices, to which US$ 270 thousand p.a. have been assigned, the main focus is
on access to markets, with 4 projects (that were presented in this Conference –
please see below, Section 3) related to cocoa in Brazil, organic fruit in Ecuador,
artichokes in Peru and milk in El Salvador. Internal training will be developed
by way of forming a community of practice for systematizing experiences and
for learning (please also see below, Section 7), association with British
companies and the WSUP global initiative (please also see below, Section 4).

The challenge for the future is to progress from (i) the current diverse but
isolated experiences towards (ii) integration of Country Offices in the region and
(iii) integration with other local and international actors.

Joint reflection on PSP in LAC

It was pointed out that the LAC experience that was presented reflects a
movement from COs towards a greater integration, as opposed to the traditional
experience of going from broader and even global levels towards the country
level, although it was commented, on the contrary, that the so-called „global‟
experiences are in any case one-country (USA, UK, Brazil). In any case, it was
generally agreed that integration on both directions should be more systematic.

It was clarified that support intended for training could be internal, within CARE
or external, for example for private companies.

Reflection also centered on the concept of „innovation‟ with recognition that it is
a tremendous challenge that consists of at least two things: (i) product and
program innovation and (ii) taking experience from one country to another.

The question was asked whether the analyses of CSR in the LAC region that
were presented are based on criteria also used for ISO 26000. The answer was

that, given the fact that several indicator systems exist, the indicators that were
presented are country level indicators, not individual company indicators, and
that CARE has not taken a position regarding appropriate indicators because it is
not our role to do so.

1.5. PSP Strategies, CARE Ecuador
Monday 22 May, in the afternoon
Fernando Martínez and Karina Morales

This presentation began with the reflection that CARE Ecuador had engaged in
several unconnected initiatives in several program areas that led to the thought
that a strategy was needed that was coherent with CARE‟s mission and with our
worldwide organization.

Development of that strategy included internal reflection with all of the areas of
the CARE Ecuador CO and with other COs, an aperture towards CIUSA (for
example on the subject of Due Diligence) and towards CIUK, and the
systematization of cases in which CARE Ecuador had engaged with private
companies. The results were (i) the definition of several types of companies, (ii)
the definition of several types of relationships, (iii) a set of decision rules for
engagement (or not) with companies, (iv) the definition of 5 fields of CSR action
and (v) the definition of CARE‟s roles with regard to CSR.

The types of companies identified are: those that extract or use natural resources
in a non-sustainable manner; those that make use of natural resources and have
undertaken sustainable processes; public services; industries or services with
negative socio-environmental impacts; CARE‟s donors and partners; and
CARE‟s suppliers.

The types of relationships identified are: no relation by CARE‟s decision;
confrontation; direct influence; indirect influence; provision of services as a
remunerated activity (training, Technical Assistance); provision of services
without remuneration; social investment for which CARE channels resources;
alliance with the private sector for a common objective but with no flow of
resources; and interaction as a team or as partners.

Partnership decisions must have en incidence on CSR practices of partners,
allies and or suppliers, establish rules for working with monopolies or
oligopolies and establish joint participation in project design and execution. Said
decisions should in addition be based on analysis and knowledge gained in field
visits, conversations with shareholders and other local and regional actors,
participatory decision-making, the concept of „solidarity in consumption‟,
respect for cultural diversity, the quest for mutual benefits, work with local
governments to reinforce institutions, shared values, and interest at the higher
levels of corporate management. In addition, pressure must be brought to bear
on the State that sometimes stimulates improper practices, for it to exercise its
control functions.

The 5 fields of action for CARE that were identified, that are not indicators, are:
quality of workers‟ lives, responsible marketing, environmental responsibility,
commitment to the community (for example, compliance with ILO 169), and
corporate ethics and transparency.

The roles identified for CARE include political influence, education in the law
and in rights, participation in CSR networks, promotion of partnerships,
increasing CARE‟s internal capabilities, advising private companies and
promoting responsible consumption.

Joint reflection on Care Ecuador’s PSP strategy

The connection between CARE Ecuador‟s analysis and CARE USA‟s Due
Diligence forms (please see Presentation 2.1, below) was explored. It is not clear
whether or not its use is mandatory. The conclusion was reached that it is
worthwhile for each CO to go through an analytic process similar to that carried
out by CARE Ecuador, in order to contextualize the subject of Due Diligence
and to insure appropriate internalization by all members of CARE personnel of
the importance of careful selection of corporate partners.

The question was explored of whether CARE‟s and corporations‟ missions and
visions need to coincide or need only be complementary: the general conclusion
was that they should be complementary.

The case of a company with which CARE Ecuador considered the possibility of
rejecting a partnership was analyzed. The company is related to the extractive
industries and the proposed project represented considerable potential income
for CARE. The project was undertaken, and it left important lessons learned
regarding the need for careful selection because it generated considerable social
resistance, the company opted for “buying” social support and there were strong
local political repercussions. The case underscores the difficulty of conciliating
possible rejection of a corporate partnership with the potential benefit to
communities that can result from engagement, even if confrontational, with
companies the practices of which could be improved. In this regard, reflection
centered on the potentials of dialogue with private companies, international
organizations and national and local governments considered in CARE
Ecuador‟s approach.

1.6. Use of Revenue-Generating Enterprises (RGEs) by NGOs
Thursday 25 May, in the afternoon
Marcos Neto, CARE Centro América

The results of work being done jointly by CARE Central America and the
William Davidson Institute, at the University of Michigan‟s Business School
were presented.

 The proposal put forth starts out from C.K. Pralahad‟s idea that at the base of
the socio-economic pyramid there are 4 billion people whose income is less that
US$ 1,500 per annum. Beyond Pralahad‟s original idea that this segment of the
pyramid represents a huge potential market opportunity that private companies
should not ignore, the idea has arisen that persons in that segment are also
potential participants in market economies as producers and as suppliers of
multiple services including sales.

Building on these ideas, on experience already developed by CARE with SPS
and on recognition of the fact that there are three types of companies (those
focused only on social issues, those focused only on profits, and those focused
on both), this presentation proposed taking CARE beyond merely cooperation
with private companies into becoming a promoter and shareholder of its own
Revenue-Generating Enterprises (RGEs).

Some of the fundamental questions to which this idea leads include: What would
the implications be for CARE of entering into the promotion and ownership of
these kinds of enterprises? What are the potential benefits and the potential
risks? What are the potential perceptions of the public and of donor companies?
How would CARE be affected internally? How would the persons and
communities that are beneficiaries of our programs be affected?

The potential benefits of RGEs include the creation of sustainable opportunities
for income generation for the poor; empowerment of poor communities; creation
of a model for the private sector through evidencing of the fact that the profit
motive and a social focus are not mutually exclusive; and greater financial
independence for CARE.

Potential disadvantages include a possible loss of „mission focus‟ on CARE‟s
part, possible drop in corporate donations, potential internal tensions for
philosophic reasons or because CARE‟s current personnel does not have the
necessary skills for assuming a business-oriented role and possible
endangerment of CARE‟s status as an NGO.

Next steps foreseen with regard to this new idea include the creation of a pilot
project in CARE Central America through the incorporation of a holding
company, the generation of an initial set of RGEs and the formulation of their
business plans.

Joint reflection on the RGE idea

Many people considered the idea extremely interesting and saw that it holds
enormous potential.

  On the other hand, there were expressions of concern regarding the possible loss
  of CARE‟s social spirit and the potential for inner conflict was recognized,
  especially with field personnel who work most closely with the poorer human
  groups and communities that we seek to support.

2. Selection of potential PSP partners
  2 presentations:
      Monday 22 May in the afternoon:
              2.1. Due Diligence, CIUSA
      Thursday 25 May in the afternoon:
              2.2. Sector review: Oil and Gas Industry, CIUSA

  2.1. Due Diligence, CIUSA
  Lunes 22 de mayo por la tarde
  Thomas Caffrey

  The Due Diligence Guidelines are a set of criteria that reflect CARE‟s ethical
  values and of processes for approving the selection of companies with which
  CARE can or cannot work in partnership or from which it can or cannot receive
  donations. These guidelines are necessary because they help CARE to stimulate
  companies to act in a socially responsible manner and protect CARE from the
  image risks that can result from associating with companies that do not behave
  in that manner.

  There are three categories in which a company or a given practice can be placed
  at the end of a Due Diligence process: Green for companies that are widely
  recognized for their social and environmental responsibility (for example, the
  renewable energies industry); Yellow for companies or practices that are
  questionable and that require further analysis to determine CARE‟s level of
  engagement, in which 8 industry sectors (for example the pharmaceutical
  industry) and two practices are located; and Red for products, services or
  practices that do harm to the communities that CARE serves, in which 6
  industrial sectors (including tobacco and weapons) and 2 types of practices
  (including child labor) are located.

  The responsibility for insuring that Due Diligence procedures are followed
  corresponds to the unit that will derive principal benefits from the relationship or
  the pre-existing Manager of a relationship with CARE. For example, for a water
  project in Tajikistan with support from Procter & Gamble, CARE Chicago
  and/or CARE Tajikistán.

  There is an extensive set of procedures for carrying out a Due Diligence
  investigation that center around 5 main questions: (1) Could the company fall in
  the red category? (2) Is there an existing relationship with CARE US or CI? (3)

Is the company already on conditional red status? (4) Does the company intend
to use CARE for its own image benefit or for that of others? Has something
negative come up in any one of the 5 different research sites, including:

Certain other important criteria include the idea that in the case of large
multinational corporations with many subsidiaries, the worst practices in any
one of them defines the categorization for all of them.

Joint reflection on Due Diligence

The tension between seeking donations from companies and, on the other hand,
seeking for them to act in a socially responsible manner was recognized.
Nonetheless, there was general agreement that these two objectives are not
necessarily mutually exclusive.

Emphasis was also placed on the fact that the guidelines for categorizing and
selecting possible partners do not exclude the possibility of exerting influence on
one or more companies through dialogue.

The subject was explored of what happens if a company with a pre-existing
relationship acquires a subsidiary that is or would be in the yellow or the red
category (for example, for abuse of child labor). In general, the recommendation
would be to enter into dialogue with that company to attempt to obtain
abandonment of the practice and, failing that objective, to establish an orderly
exit strategy in order to get out of the relationship without unnecessary

2.2. Sector review: Oil and Gas Industry, CIUSA
Thursday 25 May, in the afternoon
Thomas Caffrey

A confidential presentation was made regarding this review that is not yet
complete. Without revelation here of any of the review‟s substantive elements or
of its conclusions, because they are confidential, it is worth mentioning the fact
that the review is being carried out with respect to an industry that has enormous
social and environmental impacts all around the world, with a very considerable
investment on CARE‟s part in terms both of consultants‟ fees and of the
dedication of a number of senior executives‟ time and effort.

3. Experiences with market access for producers:
  12 presentations:

      Monday 22 May in the afternoon:
          3.1. Proyecto SINERGIA, IADB in El Salvador

      Tuesday 23 May in the morning:
           3.2. VEGCARE, CARE Kenya, CIUK
           3.3. Making Markets Work for the Poor, DFID in Bolivia

      Tuesday 23 May in the afternoon:
           3.4. FORESTRADE – Coffee, CARE Guatemala
           3.5. PROEXPORT – Coffee CARE Honduras
           3.6. PROMESA – Amazonian fruit CARE Ecuador
           3.7. Amazonian cocoa project, CARE Brasil
           3.8. Alliance among artichoke producers, CARE Perú
           3.9. Milk producers, CARE Bolivia
           3.10. Milk producers, CARE El Salvador
           3.11 Fish and natural dyes, CARE Perú

      Wednesday 24 May in the morning:
          3.12. Several PSP with CARE Brasil

  Summaries of the contents of all 12 presentations are to be found in Appendix 3,
  and their complete contents are in the CD that was distributed at the end of the
  Conference. There follows a comparative analysis of the presentations, the joint
  reflections that they elicited and the SWOT analysis done with regard to access
  to markets for producers.

  Comparative analysis of the 12 projects

  A comparison of these 12 projects allows for the detection of interesting
  differences with regard to at least four key variables: (i) the number and types of
  participating institutions other than the producers that the projects aimed to
  assist; (ii) the location of the initiative for the project; (iii) the role of the support
  institution (CARE or other); (iv) the role of the private companies involved.

  Nº of institutions: The variety of possibilities is illustrated by the following
  comparative cases, among others:

      The simplest case, according to this variable, is VEGCARE (3.2) in which
      only care and VEGPRO participated.

      In the FORESTRADE project (3.4), a producers‟ association, a private
      company and CARE Guatemala participated.

    In the PROEXPORT project (3.5), a government institute, a municipal
    government, a private company in Honduras, 2 private companies in
    Canada, CARE Honduras and CARE Canada were involved.

    In the milk producers project in El Salvador (3.10) the IADB, an association
    of producers and another of industrial processors, 2 private companies, one
    Ministry CARE and another NGO intervened.

    In the milk producers project in Bolivia (3.9), one State entity, a University
    Institute and a municipal government intervened in addition to CARE
    Bolivia. This is the only case that was presented in which there was no
    involvement of a private company to assist small producers.

    In the SINERGIA project (3.1), 8 private companies and the IADB

Where the initiative lay: In most cases, the initiative was CARE‟s or the
IADB‟s Nevertheless, there are exceptions: in the Amazonian cocoa case in
Brazil (3.7) it was the Cargill Foundation‟s and CARE participated in a bidding
contest to determine which NGO would carry out the project. This shows that
the initiative does not necessarily have to be CARE‟s.

The role of the supporting institution (CARE or other): Here, again, a variety
of possibilities was presented. Some of these include:

    In the SINERGIA project (3.1), the IADB‟s role was financing 50% of the
    project. In addition, in the absence of an institution that was willing to
    assume the umbrella role of overseeing the project, the IADB took it on.
    In the VEGCARE project (3.2), CARE‟s role was that of facilitator and
    honest broker. Besides, it has made a capital investment in VEGCARE and
    assumes credit risks with VEGCARE.

    In several of the projects that were presented, CARE conceived and
    structured the respective alliances.

    In the Alliance among artichoke producers (3.8) and the Fish and natural
    dyes (3.11) projects that CARE Peru carried out, CARE took on a far more
    entrepreneurial role than in other cases, starting with an analysis of national
    and international markets and the identification of unsatisfied demand and
    market opportunities, going on to the formulation of business plans,
    generating interest in export companies, structuring pilot validations and
    demonstrations with non-poor producers, etc.

    The role of the private companies: Differences can also be observed as
    among a more strictly commercial role in some projects, as in the artichoke
    producers (3.8) and the fish and natural dyes (3.11) projects carried out by
    CARE Peru versus a greater degree of support to the smaller producers that

    can be seen in the SINERGIA project (3.1) or in the milk producers project
    in El Salvador (3.10). The promotion of another type of role for another
    type of private enterprise that can be sees in the promotion of new Technical
    Assistance companies in the Peruvian artichoke project (3.8) is also worth

Joint reflections on these projects

The most common reflection was on the importance of sharing this sort of
experience and learning about various different approaches that open
participants‟ eyes to other possible ways of carrying out each CO‟s and
organization‟s activities.

Given that much of the work in this kind of project is with producers in the
informal sector, the dilemma arose as to whether to help them become members
of the formal sectors because, as members of the informal sector, they are seen
by formal, duly registered producers as unfair competition; or whether, on the
contrary, CARE should help make markets more flexible in this regard.

The importance was underscored of complementation among different kinds of
institutions including NGOs, private companies, international cooperation
agencies, national and local government agencies, producers‟ organizations, etc.

The issue of what happens when CARE leaves was explored. The most
generally accepted answer is that the focus must be on promoting enterprises
with a social vision that can provide sustainability to projects like those

The subject of financing for small producers and funds for prompt payment was
explored, and several options were identified. Including CARE‟s extension of
credit or of guarantees, action by companies in the private financial sector
(frequently not banks but institutions that are closer to the poorer populations
like rural savings and loan associations), like that seen in some of the case
presented, or action by the IFIs like that seen in others. The importance of
promoting further opening towards pro-poor programs in the private financial
sectors and in the IFIs was also recognized.

Attention also focused on the topic, brought out by several presentations, of the
identification by CARE of gaps in production chains that constitute long-term,
sustainable market opportunities that can be seized by poor small producers
and/or by young professional entrepreneurs.

The need to measure impacts on small producers by means of determining
whether or not poverty has been reduced was also identified: It was recognized
that such measurement was done in some of the cases presented, but not in all.

The subject was also explored of whether the companies or the small producers

engaged in the various projects always act in a socially responsible manner or
whether, on the contrary, they hire child labor, contaminate the environment, etc.

The difference between a business and a social approach to management was
brought up, that poses difficulties when hiring personnel for projects and in the
relations between CARE and other NGOs, on the one hand, and partner
companies on the other. For some participants, management capacity is the most
critical concept in the context of PSP and we should therefore think of exerting
influence on educational systems in order to develop the proper mix between the
two approaches.

SWOT analysis on access to markets for producers

The following is a summary of the SWOT analysis carried out in the 3 working
groups that met on Tuesday 23 May.

 CARE‟s ability to mobilize social resources
 CARE is open to working with private companies
 CARE has technical competencies
 CARE‟s strong reputation
 Competitive advantage on CARE‟s part for working with end users,
  replacing intermediaries
 Confidence in CARE on the part of small producers
 Confidence in CARE on the part of the private sector and others

 Access to productive resources is low
 Approach to projects is limited to seizing opportunities
 Balance is weak between impact on private companies and social impact
 Basic infrastructure is scant
 Business culture is not well understood inside CARE
 CARE personnel has scant knowledge of markets and their logic
 CARE is global but does not take advantage of that fact
 Intercultural approach is absent form project presentation
 Knowledge Management is weak
 Organizational levels are low
 Private sector interest in investing in rural areas is low
 Resources not available for working on PSP and access to markets
 Responsible business culture is low

 CARE is worldwide organization with market-access contacts
 CSR is growing in importance
 CSR practices as a means of connecting with market access topics
 Markets are opening up, creating opportunities for producers

   Developing a better understanding of Free Trade Agreements
   Emigré markets in the U.S. – creation of national-identity brands
   Integrating CARE‟s work with other organizations
   Interest in engaging CARE is growing in private companies
   Regional integration within CARE
   Regional business connections

 Diminishing funding for international cooperation
 Diverse cultures that do not operate under market dynamics
 Failure of small and medium-sized companies to adhere to CSR
 Global market trends
 Ideological conflicts between civil society and private enterprise
 Legal and social instability
 Loss of confidence in CARE because of unsatisfied expectations
 Micro-enterprise cannot compete under FTAs
 Private companies intend to use CARE
 Risk aversion on the part of small producers

Lessons learned with respect to large and medium-sized companies

The following is a summary of the lessons learned with respect to large and
medium-sized companies shared in the 3 working groups that gathered on
Tuesday 23 May.

Some general principles:

       Approach companies to get to know them reduces intermediation and
        create direct links
       Association must be based on quality
       CARE sometimes has to mediate in conflict situations
       Weakness in communities and in CARE for negotiations
       Competitiveness is necessary to insure sustainability
       Companies are interested in business
       Companies demand quality products
       Importance of:
            o Seizing all the advantages or engagement with companies
            o Connecting small and medium producers with large companies
            o Knowledge of NGOs in companies (not just of them in us)
            o Consolidating producers
            o Studying the sector and developing business plans beyond
                project lifespan
            o Identifying bottlenecks
            o Identifying growth and development factors
            o Negotiating with the decision makers in the companies
            o Remember CARE‟s focus on poverty reduction

               o Medium-sized, not just big cos., to promote micro-enterprise

  Next steps

  The following are the next steps for work in CSR identified by the 3 working
  groups on Tuesday 23 May.

         Attend the Micro-Enterprise Forum organized by the IDB
         Build and disseminate systematized information, experiences, contacts,
          private companies
         Clear strategy for gathering and generating funds
         Events – more of them with more diverse participants
         Political decision within the organization to assume new roles
         Proactive identification of potential regional partners
         Proposal of projects by businesses and producers
         Provide business development services (not forgetting CARE‟s mission)
         Regional, not just local logic (example, AMANCO)
         Strategies for diminishing risks from changing trends in global markets

4. Experiences with market access for consumers:
  3 presentations:

      Thursday 25 May in the morning:
           4.1. Rural Sales Program, Bangladesh, CIUK
           4.2. WSUP

      Thursday 25 May in the morning:
           4.3. Water and sewage, CARE Peru, El Salvador and USA

  Summaries of the contents of the 3 presentations are to be found in Appendix 4,
  and their complete contents are in the CD that was distributed at the end of the
  Conference. There follows a comparative analysis of the presentations and the
  joint reflections that they elicited.

  Comparative analysis of the 3 projects

  A comparison of these 3 projects pints up two things in particular, First, the
  diversity of the scale in which the concept of access to markets for consumers is
  applicable, from the relative small scale of the Bangladesh project to WSUP‟s
  worldwide scale. Second, the wide variety of possible needs that this type of
  project can attempt to satisfy, beyond basic services like water and sewage
  systems, including the need for consumer goods and the need for jobs.

Joint reflection on access to markets for consumers

Satisfaction was expressed for the fact that regional strategies for water and
sewage projects have begun to be developed, and it was suggested that it would
be interesting to develop similar strategies in other fields including HIV/AIDS.

In that last context, the suggestion was made that a methodology could be
developed for sensitizing industrial users of water to potential costs and risks of
possible water shortages and of environmental contamination in manners similar
to those used in Honduras (please see presentation 5.2 below) for sensitizing
companies to the risks and costs of HIV/AIDS.

The importance of exerting an influence not only on companies but also on
governments, especially on the local level, was emphasized given the fact that
they are instrumental in reaching potential users of basic services. Concern was
also expressed as to whether water and sewage projects based on PSP constitute
a substitution of the National Government‟s role and whether that substitution is
appropriate. The answer proposed in the specific case of the water and sewage
project in Peru (4.3) is that responsibility for that type of project has devolved to
the municipal governments and, besides, that the National Government was left
out at the specific behest of the local communities.

Concern was expressed regarding potential sustainability of programs like the
rural sales program in Bangladesh given the fact that entry barriers – for
example for additional women interested in selling shoes – are very low and
given also that market saturation and even collapse could be generated. In reply,
several participants agreed that although sustainability is evidently important,
the impacts that program like that in Bangladesh accomplish are real and are
also important. It was also suggested, in relation to sustainability, that it is
important to share this kind of concern with the persons and the communities
involved in order to empower them in the search of solutions for their problems
and risks.

The question was raised as to whether the products sold under the Bangladesh
program are the same as those sold to non-poor market segments. The answer is
that they are the same products but in the case of Unilever, as in other cases of
consumer goods, the typical product adaptation consists of smaller packages that
allow purchases for smaller amounts of money.

Another aspect of access to markets for consuming poor that was emphasized is
the potential development of specific products that fit their needs: for example,
AMANCO in El Salvador has developed plastic latrines and is currently
developing a clothes-washing station that stores water. This idea opens up the
possibility that CARE field personnel, who are in a position to perceive the
needs of the poor, communicate these to companies that might develop
appropriate new products.

It was proposed that conflicts of interest could arise in situations in which CARE

  intervenes along with one or more institutions with which CARE is closely
  related – for example, EDYFICAR in Peru. Recognizing that that potential
  exists, it was pointed out that in that specific project the possible problem was
  avoided because roles were clarified and defined in complementary terms.

  A failed experience in Guatemala was mentioned with a water and sewage
  project for which credit was to be granted by the Instituto de Saneamiento
  Municipal, and the importance was therefore suggested of carefully selecting the
  institutions with which alliances will be formed.

  Finally, the potential generation of conflicts implicit in CARE‟s actions for
  promoting access to markets for users and consumers were recognized as was
  the fact that, as a result, CARE must be prepared to mediate and to help resolve
  those conflicts.

5. Experience with other CSR projects
  4 presentations:

      Wednesday 24 May in the afternoon:
      5.1. SOY, Eradication of child labor, CARE Ecuador
      5.2. ALCOMBAT, Fight against HIV/AIDS, CARE Honduras
      5.3. Community relations and the mining industry, CARE Perú
      5.4. Publish What You Pay Campaign (PWYP), CIUK

  Summaries of the contents of the 4 presentations are to be found in Appendix 5,
  and their complete contents are in the CD that was distributed at the end of the
  Conference. There follows a comparative analysis of the presentations and the
  joint reflections that they elicited.

  Analysis of the presentations and
  Joint reflections on experience with other CSR projects

  The 4 presentations reported on in this Section provide clear evidence of the fact
  the PSPs hold a potential far broader than the essentially economic potential
  related to market access.

  It is also worth underscoring the lessons learned from CARE Peru‟s community
  relations and the mining industry project (5.3), the only one in which CARE‟s
  involvement can be considered inconvenient because of the risk (identified in
  the SWOT analysis) that a company might try to use CARE to improve its image
  without changing its socially irresponsible practices.

  Conclusions of the working groups gathered on Wednesday 23 May

CARE’s role in CSR

-   Generate and capture more resources that can allow greater flexibility
    and independence for our actions and decisions
-   Involve the Government so that it exercises controls and places
    demands (CSR is not only a voluntary matter)
-   Promote work within local and international CSR networks
-   Promote and disseminate CSR across all CARE activities, clearly
    defining rules, concepts and principles
-   Sensitize and promote incentives for CSR in communication media,
    consumers and leading companies
-   Strengthen organizational capabilities regarding the scope of CSR
-   Support the creation of organizations like the Ethos Institute (not trying
    to sell the concept but rather invest in it)
-   Strengthen other local actors and organizations so they can exert an
    influence in favor of CSR

Interaction between CARE and Governments:

-   Avoid competition and confrontation
-   Empower local leadership
-   Facilitate as opposed to directly implementing
-   Interact with government entities and their key people
-   Recognize that it is a critical relationship
-   Support local development agendas (do not take the wheel, just be
    another passenger)
-   Support the development of new norms and motivate compliance with
    existing norms (for example child labor inspections)

Interaction between CARE and civil society:

-   Develop models jointly with the community and take care of them in
    order to retain influence
-   Empower neighborhood councils, local and community leaders on
    matters of political influence at different levels: national, regional,
-   Generate confidence, which is a gradual process.

6. ASP from the perspective of the private sector

  4 presentations:

      Tuesday 23 May in the morning:
          6.1. Grupo Terán and Fundación Terán, Nicaragua

      Wednesday 24 May in the morning:
          6.2. Ethos Institute, Brazil
          6.3. Social & Environmental Responsibility,
               AMANCO El Salvador

      Thursday 25 May in the morning
           6.4. Amazonia Gas, Ecuador

  Summaries of the contents of the 4 presentations are to be found in Appendix 6,
  and their complete contents are in the CD that was distributed at the end of the
  Conference. There follows a comparative analysis of the presentations and the
  joint reflections that they elicited.

  Analysis of the presentations

  The first 3 presentations reinforce the evidence that was already clear from the
  experiences analyzed in Sections 3, 4 and 5 that there is a CSR consciousness in
  many private companies in Latin America. In addition, they place in evidence
  the existence of networks and alliances among private companies and of
  (Fundación Terán, Ethos Institute) that with the support of private companies
  promote CSR, disseminate its principles and support its implementation.

  That said, it is also clear, as the presenters themselves pointed out, that there is
  still along way to go before CSR becomes the dominant paradigm in Latin
  America‟s private sector, thus confirming the enormous challenge that lies ahead
  for CARE and all organizations committed to the concept.

  Joint reflections on CSR from the perspective of the private sector

  Another key element in the entire matter of PSPs was recognized, namely the
  bridge between CARE and private companies that private sector associations

The existing skepticism in many societies regarding private enterprise in general
and how sincere its intention of taking on social responsibilities might be were
analyzed; on the other hand, it was again emphasized that not every businessman
is interested only in profits.

It was also recognized that there is a great deal of individualism in business
circles that makes it difficult not only to introduce CSR but also makes difficult
the consolidation of business associations like UNIRSE in Nicaragua, for which
reason the road ahead is generally seen to be long and potentially difficult.

In view of the fact that there are relatively few companies that are fully engaged
in social action, of the already mentioned skepticism in many societies and of
the individualism among businessmen, the Ethos Institute recommends
identifying those individuals who wish to carry out a transformation and
working with them rather than with companies as such. Later, when their
companies take on a CSR role, they can begin to work within their productive

With regard to Ethos Institute‟s CSR indicators, the relationship between self-
evaluation processes and the generation of a Social Balance Sheet was explored
and it was established that there must be a very close association between both

The question was raised whether CSR should be an obligatory norm. It appears
that the more general conclusion was that rather than a norm, it should be
understood as an effective practice and that the grater the levels of knowledge
acquired by society in general and by governments, the greater will be the
growth of social responsibility, in business and more broadly throughout society.

The doubt regarding whether CSR interferes with a company‟s capacity to be
competitive or, put another way, the dilemma between profitability and social
responsibility was again raised. In this context, AMANCO requested assistance
in developing a system for measuring social value that can help demonstrate that
the two types of objectives are not mutually exclusive.

7. Knowledge Management and Learning

  2 presentations:

      Wednesday 24 May in the afternoon:
         7.1 Alliances for knowledge management, El Salvador

      Friday 26 May in the morning:
           7.2 Strategy for knowledge and learning on PSPs in LAC
                (CIUK presents materials produced by ODI)

  7.1. Alliances for knowledge management, El Salvador

  The project consists of organizing and promoting the First “Knowledge for
  Fighting Poverty” Fair that will take place during 3 days in October 2006 in El
  Salvador in order to promote, disseminate and share knowledge of topics related
  to development, overcoming poverty, strategies for the promotion and practice
  of CSR, all of which contribute to accomplishing the Millennium Development

  Principal actors: The Organizing Committee includes UNDP, FUNDEMAS (an
  NGO dedicated to promoting CSR), an El Salvador Government entity, MIT as
  academic advisor and CARE El Salvador. ·0 private companies have responded
  to the initial invitation to participate.

  7.2 Strategy for knowledge and learning on PSPs in LAC

  The proposal is born of the idea that “knowledge and learning” do not mean
  creating an encyclopedia that contains everything known to man, but rather
  means “keeping a register of those who know the recipes” and “nurturing the
  processes and the culture that will make [them] speak.” The intention is that
  every time we do something anew, we should do it better. The point of departure
  is to think, before doing something, that someone has probably already done the
  same thing, and to find out who it was. After acting, we should carry out a
  review based on 4 simple questions: What should have happened? What really
  happened? Why was there were a difference (if there was one)? And What can
  we learn from the experience?

  Different ways of acquiring knowledge are recognized: that which has been
  articulated and is therefore explicit; that which has not been articulated but could
  be, that is implicit; and that which cannot be articulated, that is described as

Different processes related to the acquisition of knowledge are also recognized:
data is gathered and organized; information is summarized and analyzed; and
knowledge is systematized for purposes of decision-making, in the absence of
which the entire process of knowledge development lacks meaning.

Some simple principles of good knowledge management include: common
values and shared beliefs; a predisposition to ask for help; common technology
that connects people; effective cooperation and collegiality; rewards for and
recognition of learning; and identification and reinforcement of the appropriate
behavior on the part of leaders.

There are also limits to good learning that include: the fact that a great deal of
knowledge is so specialized an so lacking in interest across an entire
organization; the fact that not enough time is assigned to the acquisition of
knowledge because of diverse underlying priorities; the fact that internal
processes do not provide appropriate contexts for sharing knowledge; the
absence of a learning culture and related incentives; the fact that organizational
cultures are frequently individualistic and reflect the idea that knowledge is
power; the fact that changes in behavior patterns are gradual and incremental
processes; the fact that knowledge management is a relatively new working idea;
and the fact that many initiatives are overloaded with great expectations and too
many activities that are more properly shopping lists and not strategies.

Self-evaluation by each CO of its Knowledge Management

A self-evaluation exercise was performed in relation to 5 criteria on 5 levels,
from 1 that shows a low level of Knowledge Management to 5 that shows a very
high level. The 5 criteria are: Strategic Alignment, Management Behavior,
Collaboration Mechanisms, Learning and Knowledge-Sharing Processes and
Information Capture and Storage. After performing the self-evaluation, each
country group was asked to state the level in which they expect to be within a

The self-evaluations were then compared among groups.

The results of this exercise are shown in Appendix 7.

Joint reflections, in working groups, on the Community of Practice with
regard to Knowledge Management and Learning

    Factors that favor Knowledge Management
    - Appropriate attitude present in CARE personnel
    - Examples of best practices available from other organizations
    - Formal structures (thematic networks) are available
    - Human resources competent in KM are available
    - Information of great value is available in CARE and in the communities
        in large quantities

-   Information systems exist that can be used to this end
-   Institutional mandate is clear
-   Integration among different thematic areas is possible
-   Need is perceived and the right attitudes are there

Factors that act against Knowledge Management

-   Available information about other organizations and about communities
    is not sufficiently used
-   Communication between “the field” and “management” is deficient
-   Conceptual clarity is lacking
-   Focus is on organizational learning, we are weak in social learning
-   Integration among different fields of knowledge is lacking
-   Knowledge is considered and “additional practice”, not an integrated
    process (cultural problem)
-   Knowledge Management culture is scant “in the field”
-   Selfishness regarding knowledge
-   Systematization is insufficient
-   Time is insufficient for devoting oneself to learning
-   Tools and standardized methods for information gathering are lacking

Next steps, who is responsible, and dates

Strategic alignment

-   Define thematic subgroups (Communities of Practice or CoPs) - all
    Conference participants.
-   Incidence of a knowledge strategy on the CI strategic plan - Marcos
-   Mapping of possible areas of cooperation with the private sector in each
    CO all Conference participants. CIUK will design a format for this
-   PSP in CO strategic plans - all Conference participants.
-   Strategy for knowledge and learning must be defined, adding new
    discoveries in a strategic format. The strategy should contemplate
    management, use and sharing of information: define tools (fairs?
    other?) Gianluca – 30 June.
-   Support the decisions taken during Kenya conference regarding
    information systems, identify key contacts within CI and establish clear
    communication channels (CARE UK brings up the topic in order to
    discuss it with other organization which participated into Kenya
-   Strategy for collaborative work and the related tools (for example,
    Group, forums, technological tools)
-   Technical decision on platforms, technological tools.

Management behavior

-   PSP toolbox – finish, validate and share – CIUK October 2006
-   Define appropriate behaviour, including tacit and implicit (work jointly
    with Atlanta) on two levels: generic and specifically related to PSP
    (Gianluca contacts R. Callejas in June). This activity should be
-   Define functions and management plans for measurement and for
    accountability on learning (LARMU will promote the subject in the
    medium term)
-   Incorporate the results of this Conference in the CoP learning process -

Collaboration mechanisms

-   Organize networks
       Share information that already exists in each country and on a
          regional level so that it can be used
       Organize a national PSP network
               Begin on the inside: contact country knowledge
                 coordinator and share information
               Collaborate with and join national PSP networks
               Contribute to making sure that PSP agenda is on the
               Join and collaborate with partners‟ networks
       Organize a regional PSP network

-   Technology
       Place this subject on each CO‟s web page: imbue it with
         visibility and importance
       Create a space on the web page for displaying documents, begin
         discussions, etc. (a virtual forum)

Learning processes (culture)

-   Gain easy access to information
       Establish means for sharing information
-   Define how information is going to be systematized and divulged and
    makes this explicit in the budget
-   Guarantee in Logical Frameworks, goals and indicators
-   Review existing knowledge
       Define where we are in the process
       Meet with beneficiaries and partners for feedback
       Meetings (forums) with the private sector to see how they see us
          and what they need.

Information gathering (products)

-   Procedures for information capture
-   Strategies for systematizing information
-   Systematization of both good and bad (not just good) experiences
-   Encouragement fund (for example, contests)
-   Support infrastructure for forums
-   Support technicians in each country and between countries
-   Tools:
        Impact indicators: have a regional tool (list of good indicators
           and practices)
        Standard format for defining management information needs


      All participants present in the final Conference session and most of those who had
      left before that expressed their enormous satisfaction with the Conference‟s
      evolution and results and with the fact that it had either satisfied or exceeded their
      expectations, as much because of the excellent design of the agenda as for the quality
      of the presentations and the work that went into them.

      Special mention was accorded to (i) the fact that engagement with the private sector
      has not remained a mere idea but, on the contrary, has become a successful reality in
      several countries; (ii) the fact that many of the Conference participants have picked
      up new challenges and, at the same time, new stimuli for addressing them; (iii) the
      fact that despite diverse opinions regarding what CSR is and what it means and
      regarding other related topics, the process of reflecting jointly has helped us all to
      change; (iv) the idea that the requisite processes are difficult and lengthy, but not

      Several participants expressed a greater identification with CARE and a renewed
      sense of responsibility and of commitment to socializing what was gained in the
      Conference among their colleagues. Against this sentiment, a voice of caution was
      also heard that urged care lest that spiritual renovation fall off easily when people
      return to their day-to-day challenges.

      The need was suggested of going into further depth in analyzing and internally
      debating the strategic choice or dilemma between PSPs and the idea of CARE as
      entrepreneur, as well as the concern that CARE not loose its spirit of solidarity with
      the poor.

      Finally, there were multiple expressions of gratitude, especially to CIUK for having
      put together the Conference, to Gianluca Nardi for his leadership, both in general and
      towards the future with regard to the Community of Practice, and to Karina Morales
      and the entire CARE Ecuador team for their attention and their generous hospitality.

      Quito, 13 June 2006


                     APPENDIX 1 - LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

        NAMES                           EMAIL                  ORGANIZATION        COUNTRY

Bernal García, Elda Gretel         CARE BOLIVIA        Bolivia
Limachi, Isabel            CARE BOLIVIA        Bolivia
Montes de Oca, Marianela       DFID                Bolivia
Caldas, Carmen Roseli            CARE BRASIL         Brasil
Martos, Emilio                  Instituto ETHOS     Brasil
Monteiro Pereira, Renata            CARE BRASIL         Brasil
Nardi, Gianluca         CARE UK             Brasil
Neto, Marcos                      CARE USA            Centro Am.
Carofilis, Rebecca           CARE ECUADOR        Ecuador
Cordovéz, Belén               CARE ECUADOR        Ecuador
Haro, Alberto                     CARE ECUADOR        Ecuador
Martínez, Fernando            CARE ECUADOR        Ecuador
Montenegro, Paulina         CARE ECUADOR        Ecuador
Morales, Karina                CARE ECUADOR        Ecuador
Ruiz, Ariel                 CARE ECUADOR        Ecuador
Solis, Fernando                  CARE ECUADOR        Ecuador
Trávez, José Luis              CARE ECUADOR        Ecuador
Unda, Fernando                    CARE ECUADOR        Ecuador
Zalles, Jorje H.              Univ. San Francisco Ecuador
Zambrano, Nubia               CARE ECUADOR        Ecuador
Zurita, Santiago          CARE ECUADOR        Ecuador
Alvarenga, Ligia        CARE EL SALVADOR El Salvador
Alvarez Basso , Carmen             BID EL SALVADOR El Salvador
Claros, Isai Jonathan     CARE EL SALVADOR El Salvador
Ponce, Hugo                   AMANCO              El Salvador
Salcedo Moore, Diego            CARE EL SALVADOR El Salvador
Gaitán Ruano, Luis David             CARE GUATEMALA Guatemala
Tecú Sarpec, Efraín               CARE GUATEMALA Guatemala
Iglesias, Raul                CARE HONDURAS       Honduras
Pacheco H , Adolfo             CARE HONDURAS       Honduras
Ramírez Martínez, Dacia           CARE HONDURAS       Honduras
Dietrich Matthias          Fundación Terán     Nicaragua
Jiménez Sánchez, Félix            CARE NICARAGUA Nicaragua
Ponce Lanza, Alvaro              CARE NICARAGUA Nicaragua
Alva Villacorta, Milton               CARE PERU           Perú
Andrade Navarro, Ana María            CARE PERU           Perú
Rojas Sarapura, Alejandro              CARE PERU           Perú
Garratt, Charlotte    CARE UK             UK
Sintes, Hugo           CARE UK             UK
Caffrey, Thomas                    CARE USA (Boston) USA

Maurissen, Stéphanie   CARE USA (Atlanta)   USA

                          APPENDIX 2

Monday 22 May
In the morning:
      1.1. Conceptual Framework, CIUK
      1.2 Kenya Conference Conclusions, CIUK
      1.3. Toolbox, CIUK
      1.4. PSP in LAC y PPA-ALC Project, CIUK & DFID
In the afternoon:
      1.5. PSP Strategies, CARE Ecuador
      2.1. Due Diligence, CIUSA
      3.1. SINERGIA Project, IADB in El Salvador

Tuesday 23 May
In the morning:
      3.2. VEGCARE, CARE Kenya, CIUK
      3.3. Making Markets Work for the Poor, DFID in Bolivia
      6.1. Grupo Terán and Fundación Terán, Nicaragua
In the afternoon:
      3.4. FORESTRADE – Coffee, CARE Guatemala
      3.5. PROEXPORT – Coffee, CARE Honduras
      3.6. PROMESA – Amazonian fruit, CARE Ecuador
      3.7. Amazonian cocoa project, CARE Brazil
      3.8. Alliance among artichoke producers, CARE Peru
      3.9. Milk producers, CARE Bolivia
      3.10. Milk producers, CARE El Salvador
      3.11. Fish and natural dyes, CARE Peru

Wednesday 24 May
In the morning:
      6.2. Ethos Institute, Brazil
      6.3. Social & Environmental Responsibility, AMANCO El Salvador
      3.12. Several PSPs with CARE Brazil
In the afternoon:
      5.1. SOY, Eradication of child labor, CARE Ecuador
      5.2. ALCOMBAT, Fight against HIV/AIDS, CARE Honduras
      5.3. Community relations and the mining industry, CARE Peru
      5.4. “Publish What You Pay (PWYP) Campaign”, CIUK
      7.1. Alliances for knowledge management, El Salvador

Thursday 25 May
In the morning:
      1.6. Revenue-Generating Enterprises (RGEs) for NGOs,
            CARE Central America
      4.1. Rural Sales Program (RSP), Bangladesh, CIUK
      4.2. WSUP
      6.4. Amazonia Gas, Ecuador
In the afternoon:
      4.3. Water and Sewage, CARE Perú, El Salvador y USA
      2.2. Sector review – Oil and Gas Industry, CIUSA

Friday 26 May
In the morning:
     7.2 Strategy for knowledge and learning on PSP in LAC

                    APPENDIX 3

3.1. SINERGIA Project. IADB in El Salvador

The SINERGIA project in El Salvador is aimed at encouraging CSR through
companies‟ support for the development of small producers. It offers incentives
for Co-Financing Entities (CFEs) to participate on a 1:1 basis with IADB funds.
Benefits for these CFEs include publicity, new suppliers, making their CSR
more visible and opening new markets.

The lessons that the IADB has learned from the project include: (i) that it is
mistake to go to very large corporations and not support CSR in medium-sized
and smaller firms; (ii) that private partners do not necessarily have to be
companies: they can, more generally, be private entities of any sort including,
for example, groups of emigrés; (iii) that there is a high demand for this kind of
project; (iv) that corporate support for dissemination, infrastructure design and
other aspects, not just financing, is very important; (v) small producers require
permanent support.

3.2. VEGCARE, CARE Kenya and CIUK

The project promotes access to export markets in the United Kingdom for small
vegetable producers in Kenya. EGCARE is a joint venture owned 70% by
VEGPRO, a private company that exports vegetables to the UK from Kenya,
and 30% by CARE.

CARE‟s role: Facilitator, honest broker assumes credit risks before VEGPRO.

Results: Access to markets has been gained, although VEGCARE has not shown
a profit yet. There have also been difficulties including shortfalls or rejection of
produce, commitments not honored by producers, too many producers and high
personnel rotation.

Principal lessons learned: The company‟s and CARE‟s interests need not be the
same: as in this case, they can be convergent or complementary.

3.3. Making Markets Work for the Poor, DFID in Bolivia

Through this project, DFID seeks to facilitate the insertion of poor producers in
markets. The project was developed among three main components: the Bolivian
System for Productivity and (Sistema Boliviano de Productividad y

Competitividad, SBPC), a Bolivian Government program for developing public-
private alliances for establishment of public policies that, among other things,
can help reduce poverty; the Committee for Small Producer Coordination
(Comité de Enlace de Pequeños Productores, CE), an organization that
represents small-scale economic actors; and PRORURAL, an NGO. 7 small
producers‟ businesses were financed, especially for participation in sales to the
Government. The main results have been making small producers more visible
and positioning better for exerting an influence on the formulation of political
programs. The main question now being faced is whether the project will be able
to continue without DFID acting as facilitator.

The presentation also put forth the Latin American Markets & International
Trade (LAMIT) strategy to which DFID has assigned US$ 12 million for 4 years
with the challenge of influencing the IFIs and improve the World Bank‟s and the
IADB‟s capacity to design projects that will allow greater market access for poor

3.4. FORESTRADE, CARE Guatemala

This project is aimed at eliminating so-called „coyote‟ intermediaries and
improving the quality of coffee, in both cases in order to improve values
received by the producers.

Main actors: 310 producers of organic coffee in 7 peasant communities in
Guatemala, joined together in an association called APROCODE;
FORESTRADE, Inc., a private exporter of organic agricultural products; and
CARE Guatemala.

CARE‟s role: Financed technical assistance and training for the producers aimed
at improving quality and increasing production volumes.

Role of the private company: Financed the cost of organic certification and of
technical assistance for certification and harvesting.

Main results: Better-quality product, higher volumes, producers now sell a
processed good, not coffee beans, no longer incur the losses that „coyote‟
intermediaries caused and are receiving a premium of about 20% over local
market prices.

3.5. PROEXPORT, CARE Honduras with CARE Canada

The project aims to facilitate access to the Canadian market for coffee produced
by poor communities in Western Honduras, shrinking the intermediation chain
and strengthening the producers‟ capacities in order to improve their income.

Main actors: peasant production companies, Santa Barbara Municipal

Government, private coffee exporting company, Honduras Coffee Institute,
Canadian coffee importers, Canadian coffee distributor, banks that financed
coffee purchases and sales, CARE Honduras and CARE Canada.

CARE‟s role: Community organization, training peasants in business
procedures, technical assistance, arranging funding for acquisition of machinery
and equipment for coffee processing, facilitation of relationships between the
producers and the private companies, search for new markets.

Results: 50 containers (1.9 million pounds) of high quality coffee exported to the
Canadian market; price to producers improved by 32%; generation of 60 new
jobs in the communities; the peasant company manages the entire business; Café
San Luis registered as a trademark in Canada.

Principal lessons learned: It is important to understand the complexity of the
business, to design and implement business plans and administrative systems,
structure the community organization and socialize results of all business deals
at every level of the community.

3.6. PROMESA, CARE Ecuador

PROMESA means Promotion of Equitable and Associative Markets with
Solidarity. The project promotes access to markets for Amazonian native fruits
cultivated by 3 different indigenous ethnic groups in the Upano River Valley in
Ecuador‟s Amazonia.

Main actors: the community, CARE, a private company called CAMARI that
operates a chain of so-called „peasant stores‟ in several cities in Ecuador, the
Fair Trade Labeling Organization (FLO) and as a source of financing, the
Innocent Foundation with which contact was made through CIUK.

CARE‟s role: Facilitation of relations among the project actors and training of

Main lessons learned: The dynamics and rhythms of the communities and of
private companies are fundamentally different: Appropriation of new ideas is
slow and difficult.

3.7. Amazonian cocoa project, CARE Brazil

Promotes access to permanent markets in Brazil for marginal cocoa producers
on the banks of the Amazon River. Project objectives in addition include
training the production chain, organizing production, marketing and sales,
defending the rights of poor producers, sensitizing corporate employees to
CARE‟s causes and involving corporate experts.

Main actors: Producer families, community organizations, producer associations,
Cargill Foundation that donated US$ 250 thousand to develop the project over 3
years, Cargill do Brazil that will acquire the producers‟ cocoa at better prices
than those offered by intermediaries and has offered to create a new brand of
river-bank coffee that is of better quality than other varieties.

CARE‟s role: Project coordination, in response to an invitation from Cargill
Foundation to participate in it.

Main lessons learned: It is too soon to be able to derive these, as the project‟s
potential is only now being assessed.

3.8. Alliance among artichoke producers, CARE Peru:

The project has promoted the introduction of a new crop, artichokes, into the
mountains of the Department of Ancash in Peru, that has reached very
substantial volumes of exportable production and the location in the region of a
processing plant by the private company with which the PSP was set up. The
project was born of CARE‟s initiative originating from concern for food
security. CARE analyzed a number of options and chose artichokes on the basis
of a systematic analysis of unsatisfied demands on the world market, production
possibilities in Peru and seasonality of supply that generates a particularly
interesting market opportunity. It then worked with non-poor families to perform
initial validation and demonstrations.

Main actors: The producers, the local government, CARE, DANPER, a private
company that is a major Peruvian exporter of agricultural products, new
enterprises formed by young professionals to provide technical assistance and
are providing the project with sustainability in the longer term.

The incentives for DANPER include a good product that broadens its business
base. The processing plant it has established in Ancash reduces costs for
DANPER and has improved the price it is paying the producers.

Initial results: Important improvement in the producers‟ economies, both in
terms of increased income and in terms of revaluation of their land, and
enormous increase in artichoke exports from Peru.

Main lesson s learned: The importance of local government for purposes of
convoking the community, of identifying the specific interests of the private
company, of working with the non-poor for validation and demonstrations, and
of training young professional entrepreneurs who can take on technical
assistance roles.
Main difficulties: Access to credit, for which reason the next step in the project
is to seek ways of providing risk capital.

3.9. Milk producers, CARE Bolivia:

Coherent with CARE Bolivia‟s strategic objective of contributing to a 33%
reduction of poverty in the country by 2015, the project seeks to improve access
to markets for the production chain of milk and its derivatives, especially cheese
produced by artisans, by encouraging a vision of production oriented towards
markets and not just for purposes of subsistence.

Main actors: Bolivia‟s National Agricultural Sanitation and Healthy Food
Service (SENASAG); San Francisco Xavier University‟s Institute for Food
Technology (ITA), the Azurduy Municipal Government and CARE Bolivia. No
PSP is currently involved.

CARE‟s role: Implement a systematic training and Technical Assistance process
for improving production processes, strengthen the business organizations in
administration, accounting, finance and marketing and support the establishment
of distribution systems.

3.10. Milk producers, CARE El Salvador:

This project aims to facilitate market access for sustainable dairy farming in El

Main actors: The IADB through its SINERGIA project (please see presentation
3.1 above); milk producers‟ and milk processors‟ associations (PROLECHE-
ASILECHE); two private companies Sucesores Luís Torres & Co. (Petacones),
and AGROSANIA SA de CV (San Julian); el Salvador‟s Ministry of
Agriculture, including its Centers for Agribusiness administered by CARE; the
NGO FUNDEMAS; and CARE El Salvador.

Main impacts: Access to formal markets for small dairy producers in the region;
technical training and strengthening of the managerial capabilities of those small
producers; strengthening of the sector‟s social organizations; improvement of
family incomes and increased employment.

3.11. Fish and natural dyes, CARE Peru

The project seeks to contribute to reducing poverty through the generation of
new income and sustainable employment with an approach that starts from
identifying demand and then, with the support of private companies, develop an
entrepreneurial vision that generates value added along the production chain.
CARE‟s role: Through its Centers for Economic Services or Business Promotion
Offices, CARE seeks to identify market demands within or outside the country,
inform the economic agents in the region about these, help generate mutual
confidence so they decide to do business with one another, channel Technical
Assistance to improve product quality, process and business competitiveness and

support the start-up of business for small producers and suppliers.

Two such projects presented in the Conference were (i) the articulation between
small trout producers and Piscifactoría Los Andes, an exporting company and
(ii) the articulation between 450 small producers and gatherers of natural dyes
and AICACOLOR, another exporting company.

Results: US$ 1.5 million in trout exports of trout to Europe and the US and US$
2.7 million in natural dyes exports to the US, Japan and Brazil.

Lessons learned: Think more in terms of market incentives that in resource
programming; the point of entry is business opportunities, not sectors or
products; large and small companies are potential allies, not rivals.

3.12. Several PSPs with CARE Brazil

CARE Brazil is a Brazilian since 2001 that seeks to play a catalytic role with a
territorial focus that sees that private companies are essential for the construction
of sustainable poverty-reduction practices because, in addition to material
resources, they have the necessary knowledge, experience and human resources.

CARE Brazil seeks to enter into partnerships with companies that are publicly
committed to CSR as promoted by the Ethos Institute, Gife and other similar
institutions, recognized as models, the business activities of which allow for
significant impacts and that are located in the areas in which CARE works.

Institutional partnerships have been established with companies that contribute
to developing work strategies (3 companies) marketing (4 companies), media
(73 companies), events (3 companies) operations (3 companies) and programs
that include support for market access for small producers (Carrefour, J.P.
Morgan Bank, O Dia newspaper, Cisco Systems).

In general, the experience demonstrates a wide variety of partnership
possibilities with a variety of specific purposes, all within the general framework
of supporting the fight against poverty in Brazil.

                              APPENDIX 4

4.1. Rural Sales Programme (RSP), Bangladesh (CIUK)

Framed in Prahalad‟s “base of the pyramid” concept, the Rural Sales Programme or RSP
seeks to act as a catalyst for partnerships between private companies and women in rural
sectors who are interested in participating, who become salespersons in their communities,
in order to improve the women‟s incomes and expand the companies‟ markets. The
companies give the women 30 days‟ credit and they earn a 17% commission on sales
(which is the same as that earned by its other sales personnel) and have a 5% discount on
retail prices. In addition, CARE receives a 4.75% commission.

Main actors in the project besides the poor women involved: Bata Shoe, multinational shoe
manufacturer, Unilever, multinational manufacturer of hygiene and beauty products and
CARE Bangladesh.


Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor, WSUP was born as a new NGO that is a multi-
sector pro-poor partnership committed to promoting and water and sewage services and to
making them available to poor urban areas in sustainable, equitable and inexpensive
advising governments and jointly implementing water and sewage projects.

Main actors: 4 NGOs, CARE International, Water Aid, World Wide Fund (WWF) and
Water for People; 3 companies, Halcrow (engineering firm), RWE Thames Water and
Unilever (hygiene y other products); Cranfield University and the UNPD as an official

The project provides the private sector with a learning opportunity that allows
complementing its capabilities with those of NGOs that know how to work with
communities on social and environmental problems. Besides, it can improve its reputation,
motivate its personnel and develop new business.

WSUP is particularly important in Latin America because 77.8% of the region‟s
population (429 million people) live in urban areas, 58 cities in the region have over 750
thousand inhabitants and 50 have over 1 million.

4.3. Water and sewage, CARE Peru, El Salvador and USA

This joint project developed by CARE in 3 countries was born of the idea of formulating
strategies on the regional, not just the country level to improve the quality of the lives of

the poor by making water available on an equitable, sustainable and integral basis through
partnership with AMANCO, a private company, and expanding on experience already had
in Peru and El Salvador with trusts for administration of funding.

Main actors in 28 projects under REHASER, a rural waterworks rehabilitation project in
Peru: community civil associations that administer water ad sewage systems in rural areas;
EDYFICAR, a private financial institution that grants credit to micro- and small enterprise;
private contractors, independent builders, the municipal governments CARE Peru.

CARE‟s role: Facilitation, technical advisory services, promotion, supervision, provision
of materials and training.
Accomplishments: Validation of an innovative model for provision of basic services in
rural areas; development of a credit-using culture for access to these services;
strengthening of communal capacity to organize and manage water services.

                               APPENDIX 5

5.1. SOY, CARE Ecuador

The project aims to eradicate child labor through the generation of educational
propositions and models in strategic alliance with various private sector actors and local

Main project activities consist of (i) continuing to strengthen school improvement plans
through teacher training, equipping schools, education through the arts and school
governance that provides incentives for students to remain in school; (ii) a market study for
identification of professional opportunities within the local production chains; (iii)
establishment of technical training centers for adolescents in the communities.

Main actors: Catholic Relief Services (USA), Ecuador‟s Catholic Episcopal Conference,
Save the Children (UK), the Wong Foundation (created by one of Ecuador‟s main business
groups) y CARE Ecuador.

5.2 ALCOMBAT, Fight against HIV/AIDS, CARE Honduras

The project attempts to apply the ILO‟s 2001 “Repertoire of Recommendations regarding
HIV/AIDS in the Workplace” in the specific context of assembly companies located in the
tax-exempt Industrial Processing Zones in Northern Honduras. Actions include (i) general
sensitizing campaigns regarding HIV/AIDS aimed at generating responsible behaviour that
can reduce risks and improve access to advisory services, and (ii) campaigns with the
companies‟ managers to alert them to HIV/AIDs‟s consequences for their production, costs
and productivity.

Main actors: 9 private companies in the Buena Vista Industrial Processing Zone and CARE
Honduras, in coordination with the Honduran Labor Ministry and Spain‟s Médicos del

Results: 7 day-long Sensitizing Seminars were carried out in each of the 9 companies
through different media; informational materials were developed; and training was done in
other companies.

Lessons learned: The subject of HIV/AIDS can easily be addressed within the general
framework of health and occupational safety; corporate management display the necessary
perception and commitment when they recognize the HIV/AIDS is a threat to their
production processes in the medium and longer terms.

5.3. Community relations and the mining industry, CARE Peru:

The project originates in recognition of the fact that although mining contributes 51% of
Peru‟s exports and 6% of GDP, it has not been able to reduce poverty indices and instead
brings with it a series of social and environmental problems.

The project was the initiative of two mining companies, Empresa Minera Yanacocha and
Antamina that asked CARE to help them solve several problems that had been caused by a
poor strategy of engagement with local actors and the local population at the start of their
operations and by the funding of “development projects” for the population to be restful
and for them not to interfere with the mining operations.

Evaluation of the project experience shows (i) interference by the mining companies in
CARE‟s interventions, (ii) that the companies were little more than „donating agencies‟
while CARE Peru was in charge of program execution, (iii) the absence of an institutional
strategy that laid down guidelines for engagement and action with the private sector.

Lessons learned: The need to generate institutional policies for PSPs; that neutrality allows
for wider action margins; that mutual dependence should be avoided; the need to work
with transparency in contexts that are susceptible to conflicts between the community and
the companies.

5.4.   “Publish What You Pay (PWYP)” campaign, CARE UK

Publish What You Pay or PWYP is a coalition of more that 300 organizations worldwide
including CARE in US, UK, France and Angola. Its intermediate objective is to increase
transparency in the extractive industries that includes publication of all payments to
governments related to petroleum, gas and mining. Its ultimate objective is to improve the
management of those resources for poverty reduction.

Related to PWYP is the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) launched by
the Government of the United Kingdom that includes the PWYP NGOs, 15 national
Governments, several companies including BP, Shell, Chevron, Rio Tinto and the IFIs that
gather together in each country in which there is the wish to implement the initiative to set
up a calendar for publications.

PWYP‟s successes include the mobilization of 300 development NGOs, commitments
contained in the World Bank‟s Extractive Industries report, the fact that many companies
are already publishing their payments in each country in which they operate, the creation
of EITI and significant advances in countries Nigeria y Azerbaijan.

Difficulties include the exclusion of civil society from certain meetings and conferences,
arrest and intimidation of come members, lack of financial and technical support.

                                       APPENDIX 6


6.1. CSR Strategy of Grupo Terán and Fundación Terán, Nicaragua

The presentation suggests that a fundamental paradigm shift is taking place in Nicaragua‟s
private sector, moving from Milton Friedman‟s view that a company‟s only objective must
be the generation of profit to a vision oriented towards CSR, not as a fad but as a new
policy culture based on companies‟ wish to assume responsibility not only for what they
do but also for what they fail to do. This new way of thinking has borne fruit in the
creation of UNIRSE, the Nicaraguan Union for CSR that seeks to convince large and
medium-sized companies that tend to see CSR as a cost, not as an investment.

6.2. Ethos Institute, Brazil

The mission of the Ethos Institute is to mobilize, sensitize and help companies carry out
their businesses in a socially responsible manner by becoming partners in the construction
of a more prosperous and just society. The Institute works with over 1,100 companies of
all sizes – micro, small, medium and large.

The Institute‟s actions are based on an analysis of social sustainability that shows the
following essential problems: unsustainable and predatory use of natural resources; high
rates of income transfers towards greater concentration and lesser distribution of wealth;
lower participation of labor in productive processes; growing social exclusion; and
inefficient and inappropriate management of public resources.

The Ethos Institute seeks to help companies act in a socially responsible manner through
implementation of its CSR Charter; implementation of good corporate governance;
improvement of dialogue with those affected by company activities; improvement of
participatory management; systematic fight against public and private corruption; and
planning and implementation of improved management processes. In addition, the Institute
publishes and promotes the use of various management tools including a Guide to
Preparation of a Social Balance Sheet, the Ethos 2005 CSR Indicators, the Ethos Indicators
and the Global Pact and its Practice Bank.

The Institute also works with a variety of incentives including the Ethos Prizes for Value,
for Social Balance Sheets and for Journalists; it participates in a number of sustainable
networks amongst institutions dedicated to similar ends including the Enterprise Forum,
the Capoava Alliance, Combating Inequality and Poverty, the Social Technology Network,
the National Pact for Eradication of Slave Labor, Corporate Forum for Support of
Municipal Governments, the 1 Million Water Tanks Project, the Interethos Program and
the Corporate Pact for Integrity and Against Corruption.

6.3. Social and Environmental Responsibility, AMANCO Group, El Salvador

The AMANCO-NUEVA group of companies headquartered in Brazil operates in 17
countries in the American Continent, employs 13,000 people, invoices US$ 1 billion per
annum, has US$ 2.4 billion in assets and is therefore one of Latin America‟s major
corporate groups. The group has 3 major strategic objectives that are pursued
simultaneously: economic success, responsible use of natural resources and CSR. Its so-
called “integral concept” consists of (1) being a profitable enterprise (2) business ethics
and compliance with competition, property, intellectual and other legal frameworks, (3)
adequate compensation of its workers, non discrimination, no child labor, freedom of
association and safe workplaces; (4) responsibility towards the natural environment; (5)
philanthropic support of the community; (6) social responsibility in its business dealings
with its clients, suppliers and contractors; (7) respectful, mutually beneficial relations with
neighboring communities and other social actors.

The ways in which AMANCO manifests its CSR include: leadership in the water sector,
promoting innovative solutions; promotion of transparency in the water sector and
inclusive business practices in quest of what it describes as “Social License to Operate”
and the attainment of the so-called “Triple Bottom Line – Economic Values, Social Value
and Environmental Value.

In order to objectify its social and environmental actions, and in addition to its financial
reports, AMANCO publishes an annual Sustainability Report that seeks to provide
transparency and accountability to its interested public.

The lessons that AMANCO has learned from its involvement with CSR include: the fact
that there is no universal recipe, that CSR must be an integral part of corporate
management, that dialogue with interested parties (clients, suppliers, neighbors, etc) is
essential, that all members of a company‟s personnel are the protagonists of CSR, that top
management support and commitment are essential, that CSR‟s economic importance must
be recognized by way of generating brand loyalty, and that measurement and reporting of
sustainability indicators a (“Sustainability Scorecard”) are critical.

6.4. Amazonia Gas, Ecuador

Amazonia Gas is a company wholly owner by the Confederation of Indigenous Peoples in
Ecuadorian Amazonia (CONFENIAE) incorporated to recover gas produced in the Sacha
oilfields in Orellana Province in Ecuador‟s Amazonia, that is currently burned off and
wasted. After incorporation of Amazonia Gas, alliances were formed with Keyano Pimee,
a corporation owned by Native American communities in Canada and with the Canadian
Commercial Corporation, CCC. Later on, ENCANA, a private corporation became a
potential partner and investor that, in addition, was expected to lend CONFENIAE the
funds that it needed to participate in Amazonia Gas.

The project has not come to fruition because the various ethnic groups that make up
CONFENIAE have been unable to reach an agreement regarding the eventual distribution
of the project‟s expected profits.

Appendix 7: Results of self-evaluation exercise with regard to Knowledge Management

                                     DONDE ESTAMOS
                                                                                  CAPTURA Y
 ECUADOR                  2                     3               3            2              2
 SALVADOR                 3                     3               3            3              3
 PERU                     2                     3               1            3              3
 HONDURAS                 3                     3               4            4              3
 GUATEMALA                2                     3               2            2              2
 NICARAGUA                2                     3               2            3              3
 BOLIVIA                  2                     2               2            2              3
 BRASIL                   3                     4               2            2              2
 CENAM                    2                     3               3            2              2
 LARMU                    4                     3               3            2              2

                                DONDE QUEREMOS ESTAR
                                                                                  CAPTURA Y
 ECUADOR                  3                     3               3            3              3
 SALVADOR                 4                     4               4            4              4
 PERU                     4                     5               4            4              4
 HONDURAS                 4                     4               4            4              4
 GUATEMALA                4                     4               4            4              4
 NICARAGUA                4                     4               4            4              4
 BOLIVIA                  3                     3               2            2              3
 BRASIL                   4                     5               5            4              4
 CENAM                    5                     5               4            3              3
 LARMU                    5                     4               4            3              4

                                                                                  CAPTURA Y
 ECUADOR            X
 SALVADOR           X
 PERU                                                                   X
 HONDURAS                                                               X
 GUATEMALA                                                              X
 NICARAGUA          X
 BOLIVIA                                                                X
 BRASIL             X
 CENAM                               X
 LARMU                                                                  X

                                        WHERE WE WISH TO BE



5                                                                                        SALVADOR

4                                                                                        HONDURAS
2                                                                                        CENAM


                                                                         INFORM ACION


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