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Report on CARE‟s First Regional Conference on “PRIVATE SECTOR PARTNERSHIPS IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN” Quito, 22 to 26 May 2006 I. PRESENTATION This document presents the moderator‟s report of CARE‟s First Regional Conference on Private Sector Partnerships (PSPs) in Latin America and the Caribbean that gathered 36 CARE executives from 10 countries and 6 special guests, 2 from international cooperation agencies and 4 from the private sector, in Quito, Ecuador from 22 to 26 May, 2006. The complete list of participants can be found in Appendix 1. In addition to this Introduction, the report contains the following Sections and Appendices: II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY III. MAIN TOPICS AND JOINT REFLECTIONS IV. CONCLUSIONS Appendix 1: List of Participants Appendix 2: Sequence of presentations Appendix 3: Summaries of presentations on access to markets for producers Appendix 4: Summaries of presentations on access to markets for consumers Appendix 5: Summaries of presentations on other CSR experiences Appendix 6: Summaries of presentations on CSR from the standpoint of the private sector Appendix 7: Results of self-evaluation exercise with regard to Knowledge Management The complete contents of all the presentations were delivered to each participant on a CD before the end of the Conference. II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Conference theme was CARE‟s relatively new strategy, that is being put into practice in several countries around the world, of establishing partnerships with the private sector in order to accomplish CARE‟s strategic objectives by means of: (i) resource mobilization for projects, (ii) reduce the negative impact of corporate activities, (iii) provide market access to poor producers or service providers for their products or services, and obtain access to goods and services markets for poor people as consumers or service users (iv) advocacy for more just international rules and (v) changing attitudes in the world of development and private sector, by obtaining, for instance, private sector support to achieve other goals like fight to HIV&AIDS. The Conference‟s activities centered around a total of XX presentations that are summarized below and joint reflection regarding their content in either break-out groups or plenary sessions: (i) 6 conceptual presentations, 4 made at the start of the Conference by CIUK, 1 made by CARE Ecuador and 1 by CARE Central America, that framed the rest of the proceedings; (ii) 2 presentations by CARE USA related to the critical topic of selection of private sector partners with which it is appropriate to associate and with (iii) 19 presentations, made by CARE executives from all 10 countries represented in the Conference, and 2 presentations made by representatives of international organizations, on specific projects in which private sector alliances were established in order to: (i) provide market access for products and services being offered by poor communities; (ii) provide access for the poor to purchase goods and services they need; and (iii) support the attainment of other social goals (eradication of child labor, the fight against HIV/AIDS and transparency in the private sector). (iv) 3 presentations on various aspects of PSP made from the private sector‟s perspective. (v) 2 presentations and 1 self-evaluation exercise related to learning and to knowledge and information management. The joint reflections that these presentations elicited allowed for identification of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that CARE faces in the realm of PSP and were the basis for establishing short-term action plans. 2 III. MAIN TOPICS AND JOINT REFLECTIONS The topics that were addressed and the reflections thereon are not presented here in strict chronological order but have instead been grouped by subject areas. Appendix 2 presents a summary table of all presentations in chronological order, as they are recorded on the CD that was delivered to each participant that indicates the thematic group to which each has been assigned, as follows: 1. Conceptual framework, general visions and PSP strategies 2. Selection of potential private sector partners 3. Experiences with market access for producers 4. Experiences with market access for consumers 5. Experiences with other kinds of PSP projects 6. CSR and PSP from the private sector‟s perspective 7. Knowledge and information management 1. Conceptual framework and general visions: 6 presentations: Monday 22 May, in the morning: 1.1. Conceptual Framework, CIUK 1.2. Kenya Conference Conclusions, CIUK 1.3. Toolbox, CIUK 1.4. PSP in LAC and PPA-ALC Project, CIUK & DFID Monday 22 May, in the afternoon: 1.5. PSP Strategies, CARE Ecuador Thursday 25 May, in the afternoon: 1.6. Use of Revenue-Generating Enterprises by NGOs, CARE Central America 1.1. Conceptual Framework (CIUK) Monday 22 May, in the morning Hugo Sintes The Conference began with Hugo Sintes of CIUK‟s presentation of a “Conceptual Framework for Private Sector Partnerships”. The presentation started off with an analysis that describes the so-called “magnitude of the tragedy” as evidenced by the worldwide „decent work deficit‟ for the poor, the 3 fact that capital tends not to gravitate towards the poorer nations and the enormous complexities of accomplishing effective social connections among various actors. Studies were then presented that suggest high levels of confidence in NGOs that contrast with low levels of confidence in the private sector, clear potential complementation between the two sectors, and an analysis of relations between the two that shows low current cooperation (12%) but high potential cooperation in the future (61%). The entire analysis, it was suggested, leads to the almost inevitable conclusion that joint work and collaboration with the private sector is almost inevitable in order to move forward in the fight against poverty. Several possible manners of engagement were then identified including receiving donations, relational marketing, receiving volunteers from a company, receiving free assistance and consulting, selling the community‟s products to the company and vice versa, performing social and environmental studies, alliances, joint initiatives or ventures, dialogues, etc. Several possible engagement models were then presented including: (i) the 3-ring model (in the public policy sphere, CARE as a policy proponent; in the corporate sphere, CARE as a partner or as a challenger; in the capital sphere, CARE as investor); the 5 Cs model (Compliance, Control, Community Investment, Creation of New Value and Collaboration); the possible strategies model (Collaboration or Confrontation in the business world or in the field of civil society); the so-called “Sustainability Classifications” that identify four possible strategies: killer whale, shark, Dolphin or Sea Lion; a model that identifies corporations‟ and NGOs‟ main activities (with regard to corporate philanthropy, the NGOs perform funds gathering activities; with regard to the corporations‟ core activities that generate their profits, the NGOs can perform programmatic activities): WWF‟s 4 Cs, pyramid model (Conservation, Challenge, Communication, Cash) that contemplates relationships based on 1, 2, 3 or all 4 Cs. Joint Reflection regarding the proposed conceptual framework Reflection first centered on the “Sustainability” model and on the question “Where do we see CARE?” Answers were proposed on two levels – the descriptive, related to where CARE is, and the normative, related to where CARE should be. On the descriptive level, there appeared to be wide consensus that CARE is on the side of the sea lion or the dolphin, i.e. on the collaborative, more than on the confrontational side, given that CARE typically does not take on an activist, polarizing role and some COs act like sea lions, requesting and receiving funds. On the normative level, the question arose whether we should assume only one role, recognizing that circumstances can indicate which is the appropriate one and that it is difficult to remain constantly in only one quadrant, although the ideal might be to try to be intelligent dolphin. With regard to the model that relates the NGOs‟ activities to a company‟s main activities, it was recognized that: (i) to a high degree, we relatee to companies on the higher level of the pyramid where they act as philanthropists; (ii) the main potential for mobilizing companies‟ actions on behalf of CARE‟s strategic 4 objectives lies rather on the level of their core activities where their profits are generated; (iii) on that level, companies are moved by business criteria, not philanthropic considerations; and (iv) contradictions can arise between relating to companies on one or the other level of the pyramid (the ever more tense relationship between programs and funds-gathering) that pose the interesting challenge of helping companies to reduce those contradictions. 1.2. Kenya Conference Conclusions, CIUK Monday 22 May, in the morning Hugo Sintes In sum, bearing in mind our objective of reducing poverty, there are many ways on which we can relate to the private sector, each of which can be legitimate in given circumstances. Besides, there can be a dynamic between one and another (for example, moving from funds-gathering to alliances), after going through due diligence procedures that are not always performed, or are not performed worldwide. For this, as a leading PSP institution, it is important that CARE remain proactive in selecting sectors with which it is willing to work, assign full value to its intervention capabilities and improve its information and human development systems. To these conclusions was added a long list of concrete priorities that were neither debated nor validated. Joint reflection on conclusions of the Kenya Conference With respect to due diligence and worldwide relationships, tom Caffrey of CIUSA pointed out the existence of two data bases - Donor Direct and CorporateEngagement@care.org - and of the “Corporate Alliances” option on CARE USA‟s web portal, which anyone present can access to request information on existing alliances. Gianluca Nardi emphasized the importance of these sources as tools for establishing a community of practice and expressed the hope that a virtual library of alliances can be established. Several participants underlined the conclusion that establishing new relationships with the private sector means changing the traditional point of view and recognizing that many companies work on social problems not just for reasons of need but also out of conviction. 1.3 Toolbox Monday 22 May, in the morning Hugo Sintes “The purpose of this toolbox is to make a series of general suggestions on what can be done and how to do it available to CARE‟s offices that are interested in private sector matters. The toolbox is currently being developed. A first draft of each chapter has already been written. Publication and translations are expected in June-July. The toolbox will be a “live” document to which new experience 5 and advice can be added.” The Toolbox includes and exploration of the concept of Corporate Social responsibility (CSR) – definition, standards, critiques, lessons; the private sector and reduction of poverty; types of private sector engagements; influence on the private sector through international codes of conduct, dialogue and political influence; and ways of getting markets to function on behalf of the poor through partnerships, social enterprises and programs, access to markets and marketing. Joint reflection on the Toolbox Questions were raised regarding testing and validation of the document. The answers were that it will be internally tested and will be open to continued updating, even with inputs from this Conference. As for validation, the document will be shared with outside experts and could go to one or two countries for more formal validation. The issue was raised regarding whether the toolbox will have the force of a guideline. The answer was that it is intended to provide detailed advice. 1.4. ASP in LAC and the PPA-ALC Project (CIUK & DFID) Monday 22 May, in the morning Gianluca Nardi Starting form the fact that Latin America has gone through radical transformations in the last 20 years that have not taken place without profound internal contradictions, a unique LAC (Latin America and Caribbean) PSP model has emerged under the stimulus of several specific regional realities including the relative weakness of governments, socially responsible practices in several sectors with high environmental impact, a new generation of entrepreneurs and businesspeople with a CSR vision along the entire production chain and high commitment to CSR on the part of small and medium-sized companies that make up 95% of all companies and employ between 40% and 60% of the entire regional labor force. The model is not uniform across the region. On the contrary, there are different levels of progress in CSR in the various countries in the region: for example, there is low commitment to civil society in Ecuador as against the regional leader, Panama with a 70% rating; in several other counties, low corporate governance can be observed, as against a 60% rating in the regional leader, Chile. The challenge for CARE is seen in terms of taking PSP beyond philanthropy, to interventions related to companies‟ core businesses under the hypothesis that market mechanisms can be used to benefit poorer communities, not only in economic terms. 6 The focus is primarily cooperative: it consists in providing services and structuring alliances, without discounting the possibility of exerting influence, although not through aggressive campaigns. There are currently some 14 projects in progress of which 8 are PSP for providing access to markets for producers and for consumers or users. Many of these will be presented in this Conference. In May 2005, PPA LAC, a programmatic agreement between DFID and CIUK was started, with a specific appendix for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) for US$ 2.7 million per annum for 3 years to contribute to poverty reduction through PSP, influence on the IFIs, working with civil society and fighting against HIV/AIDS. In the specific context of PSP, the intention of PPA LAC is to generate greater understanding of the impact of pro-poor business plans and of innovative practices, to engage in networks with civil society, CSR networks and local governments and to develop internal training. In the field of innovative practices, to which US$ 270 thousand p.a. have been assigned, the main focus is on access to markets, with 4 projects (that were presented in this Conference – please see below, Section 3) related to cocoa in Brazil, organic fruit in Ecuador, artichokes in Peru and milk in El Salvador. Internal training will be developed by way of forming a community of practice for systematizing experiences and for learning (please also see below, Section 7), association with British companies and the WSUP global initiative (please also see below, Section 4). The challenge for the future is to progress from (i) the current diverse but isolated experiences towards (ii) integration of Country Offices in the region and (iii) integration with other local and international actors. Joint reflection on PSP in LAC It was pointed out that the LAC experience that was presented reflects a movement from COs towards a greater integration, as opposed to the traditional experience of going from broader and even global levels towards the country level, although it was commented, on the contrary, that the so-called „global‟ experiences are in any case one-country (USA, UK, Brazil). In any case, it was generally agreed that integration on both directions should be more systematic. It was clarified that support intended for training could be internal, within CARE or external, for example for private companies. Reflection also centered on the concept of „innovation‟ with recognition that it is a tremendous challenge that consists of at least two things: (i) product and program innovation and (ii) taking experience from one country to another. The question was asked whether the analyses of CSR in the LAC region that were presented are based on criteria also used for ISO 26000. The answer was 7 that, given the fact that several indicator systems exist, the indicators that were presented are country level indicators, not individual company indicators, and that CARE has not taken a position regarding appropriate indicators because it is not our role to do so. 1.5. PSP Strategies, CARE Ecuador Monday 22 May, in the afternoon Fernando Martínez and Karina Morales This presentation began with the reflection that CARE Ecuador had engaged in several unconnected initiatives in several program areas that led to the thought that a strategy was needed that was coherent with CARE‟s mission and with our worldwide organization. Development of that strategy included internal reflection with all of the areas of the CARE Ecuador CO and with other COs, an aperture towards CIUSA (for example on the subject of Due Diligence) and towards CIUK, and the systematization of cases in which CARE Ecuador had engaged with private companies. The results were (i) the definition of several types of companies, (ii) the definition of several types of relationships, (iii) a set of decision rules for engagement (or not) with companies, (iv) the definition of 5 fields of CSR action and (v) the definition of CARE‟s roles with regard to CSR. The types of companies identified are: those that extract or use natural resources in a non-sustainable manner; those that make use of natural resources and have undertaken sustainable processes; public services; industries or services with negative socio-environmental impacts; CARE‟s donors and partners; and CARE‟s suppliers. The types of relationships identified are: no relation by CARE‟s decision; confrontation; direct influence; indirect influence; provision of services as a remunerated activity (training, Technical Assistance); provision of services without remuneration; social investment for which CARE channels resources; alliance with the private sector for a common objective but with no flow of resources; and interaction as a team or as partners. Partnership decisions must have en incidence on CSR practices of partners, allies and or suppliers, establish rules for working with monopolies or oligopolies and establish joint participation in project design and execution. Said decisions should in addition be based on analysis and knowledge gained in field visits, conversations with shareholders and other local and regional actors, participatory decision-making, the concept of „solidarity in consumption‟, respect for cultural diversity, the quest for mutual benefits, work with local governments to reinforce institutions, shared values, and interest at the higher levels of corporate management. In addition, pressure must be brought to bear on the State that sometimes stimulates improper practices, for it to exercise its control functions. 8 The 5 fields of action for CARE that were identified, that are not indicators, are: quality of workers‟ lives, responsible marketing, environmental responsibility, commitment to the community (for example, compliance with ILO 169), and corporate ethics and transparency. The roles identified for CARE include political influence, education in the law and in rights, participation in CSR networks, promotion of partnerships, increasing CARE‟s internal capabilities, advising private companies and promoting responsible consumption. Joint reflection on Care Ecuador’s PSP strategy The connection between CARE Ecuador‟s analysis and CARE USA‟s Due Diligence forms (please see Presentation 2.1, below) was explored. It is not clear whether or not its use is mandatory. The conclusion was reached that it is worthwhile for each CO to go through an analytic process similar to that carried out by CARE Ecuador, in order to contextualize the subject of Due Diligence and to insure appropriate internalization by all members of CARE personnel of the importance of careful selection of corporate partners. The question was explored of whether CARE‟s and corporations‟ missions and visions need to coincide or need only be complementary: the general conclusion was that they should be complementary. The case of a company with which CARE Ecuador considered the possibility of rejecting a partnership was analyzed. The company is related to the extractive industries and the proposed project represented considerable potential income for CARE. The project was undertaken, and it left important lessons learned regarding the need for careful selection because it generated considerable social resistance, the company opted for “buying” social support and there were strong local political repercussions. The case underscores the difficulty of conciliating possible rejection of a corporate partnership with the potential benefit to communities that can result from engagement, even if confrontational, with companies the practices of which could be improved. In this regard, reflection centered on the potentials of dialogue with private companies, international organizations and national and local governments considered in CARE Ecuador‟s approach. 1.6. Use of Revenue-Generating Enterprises (RGEs) by NGOs Thursday 25 May, in the afternoon Marcos Neto, CARE Centro América 9 The results of work being done jointly by CARE Central America and the William Davidson Institute, at the University of Michigan‟s Business School were presented. The proposal put forth starts out from C.K. Pralahad‟s idea that at the base of the socio-economic pyramid there are 4 billion people whose income is less that US$ 1,500 per annum. Beyond Pralahad‟s original idea that this segment of the pyramid represents a huge potential market opportunity that private companies should not ignore, the idea has arisen that persons in that segment are also potential participants in market economies as producers and as suppliers of multiple services including sales. Building on these ideas, on experience already developed by CARE with SPS and on recognition of the fact that there are three types of companies (those focused only on social issues, those focused only on profits, and those focused on both), this presentation proposed taking CARE beyond merely cooperation with private companies into becoming a promoter and shareholder of its own Revenue-Generating Enterprises (RGEs). Some of the fundamental questions to which this idea leads include: What would the implications be for CARE of entering into the promotion and ownership of these kinds of enterprises? What are the potential benefits and the potential risks? What are the potential perceptions of the public and of donor companies? How would CARE be affected internally? How would the persons and communities that are beneficiaries of our programs be affected? The potential benefits of RGEs include the creation of sustainable opportunities for income generation for the poor; empowerment of poor communities; creation of a model for the private sector through evidencing of the fact that the profit motive and a social focus are not mutually exclusive; and greater financial independence for CARE. Potential disadvantages include a possible loss of „mission focus‟ on CARE‟s part, possible drop in corporate donations, potential internal tensions for philosophic reasons or because CARE‟s current personnel does not have the necessary skills for assuming a business-oriented role and possible endangerment of CARE‟s status as an NGO. Next steps foreseen with regard to this new idea include the creation of a pilot project in CARE Central America through the incorporation of a holding company, the generation of an initial set of RGEs and the formulation of their business plans. Joint reflection on the RGE idea Many people considered the idea extremely interesting and saw that it holds enormous potential. 10 On the other hand, there were expressions of concern regarding the possible loss of CARE‟s social spirit and the potential for inner conflict was recognized, especially with field personnel who work most closely with the poorer human groups and communities that we seek to support. 2. Selection of potential PSP partners 2 presentations: Monday 22 May in the afternoon: 2.1. Due Diligence, CIUSA Thursday 25 May in the afternoon: 2.2. Sector review: Oil and Gas Industry, CIUSA 2.1. Due Diligence, CIUSA Lunes 22 de mayo por la tarde Thomas Caffrey The Due Diligence Guidelines are a set of criteria that reflect CARE‟s ethical values and of processes for approving the selection of companies with which CARE can or cannot work in partnership or from which it can or cannot receive donations. These guidelines are necessary because they help CARE to stimulate companies to act in a socially responsible manner and protect CARE from the image risks that can result from associating with companies that do not behave in that manner. There are three categories in which a company or a given practice can be placed at the end of a Due Diligence process: Green for companies that are widely recognized for their social and environmental responsibility (for example, the renewable energies industry); Yellow for companies or practices that are questionable and that require further analysis to determine CARE‟s level of engagement, in which 8 industry sectors (for example the pharmaceutical industry) and two practices are located; and Red for products, services or practices that do harm to the communities that CARE serves, in which 6 industrial sectors (including tobacco and weapons) and 2 types of practices (including child labor) are located. The responsibility for insuring that Due Diligence procedures are followed corresponds to the unit that will derive principal benefits from the relationship or the pre-existing Manager of a relationship with CARE. For example, for a water project in Tajikistan with support from Procter & Gamble, CARE Chicago and/or CARE Tajikistán. There is an extensive set of procedures for carrying out a Due Diligence investigation that center around 5 main questions: (1) Could the company fall in the red category? (2) Is there an existing relationship with CARE US or CI? (3) 11 Is the company already on conditional red status? (4) Does the company intend to use CARE for its own image benefit or for that of others? Has something negative come up in any one of the 5 different research sites, including: www.corpwatch.org www.globalexchange.org www.multinationalmonitor.org Certain other important criteria include the idea that in the case of large multinational corporations with many subsidiaries, the worst practices in any one of them defines the categorization for all of them. Joint reflection on Due Diligence The tension between seeking donations from companies and, on the other hand, seeking for them to act in a socially responsible manner was recognized. Nonetheless, there was general agreement that these two objectives are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Emphasis was also placed on the fact that the guidelines for categorizing and selecting possible partners do not exclude the possibility of exerting influence on one or more companies through dialogue. The subject was explored of what happens if a company with a pre-existing relationship acquires a subsidiary that is or would be in the yellow or the red category (for example, for abuse of child labor). In general, the recommendation would be to enter into dialogue with that company to attempt to obtain abandonment of the practice and, failing that objective, to establish an orderly exit strategy in order to get out of the relationship without unnecessary confrontation. 2.2. Sector review: Oil and Gas Industry, CIUSA Thursday 25 May, in the afternoon Thomas Caffrey A confidential presentation was made regarding this review that is not yet complete. Without revelation here of any of the review‟s substantive elements or of its conclusions, because they are confidential, it is worth mentioning the fact that the review is being carried out with respect to an industry that has enormous social and environmental impacts all around the world, with a very considerable investment on CARE‟s part in terms both of consultants‟ fees and of the dedication of a number of senior executives‟ time and effort. 12 3. Experiences with market access for producers: 12 presentations: Monday 22 May in the afternoon: 3.1. Proyecto SINERGIA, IADB in El Salvador Tuesday 23 May in the morning: 3.2. VEGCARE, CARE Kenya, CIUK 3.3. Making Markets Work for the Poor, DFID in Bolivia Tuesday 23 May in the afternoon: 3.4. FORESTRADE – Coffee, CARE Guatemala 3.5. PROEXPORT – Coffee CARE Honduras 3.6. PROMESA – Amazonian fruit CARE Ecuador 3.7. Amazonian cocoa project, CARE Brasil 3.8. Alliance among artichoke producers, CARE Perú 3.9. Milk producers, CARE Bolivia 3.10. Milk producers, CARE El Salvador 3.11 Fish and natural dyes, CARE Perú Wednesday 24 May in the morning: 3.12. Several PSP with CARE Brasil Summaries of the contents of all 12 presentations are to be found in Appendix 3, and their complete contents are in the CD that was distributed at the end of the Conference. There follows a comparative analysis of the presentations, the joint reflections that they elicited and the SWOT analysis done with regard to access to markets for producers. Comparative analysis of the 12 projects A comparison of these 12 projects allows for the detection of interesting differences with regard to at least four key variables: (i) the number and types of participating institutions other than the producers that the projects aimed to assist; (ii) the location of the initiative for the project; (iii) the role of the support institution (CARE or other); (iv) the role of the private companies involved. Nº of institutions: The variety of possibilities is illustrated by the following comparative cases, among others: The simplest case, according to this variable, is VEGCARE (3.2) in which only care and VEGPRO participated. In the FORESTRADE project (3.4), a producers‟ association, a private company and CARE Guatemala participated. 13 In the PROEXPORT project (3.5), a government institute, a municipal government, a private company in Honduras, 2 private companies in Canada, CARE Honduras and CARE Canada were involved. In the milk producers project in El Salvador (3.10) the IADB, an association of producers and another of industrial processors, 2 private companies, one Ministry CARE and another NGO intervened. In the milk producers project in Bolivia (3.9), one State entity, a University Institute and a municipal government intervened in addition to CARE Bolivia. This is the only case that was presented in which there was no involvement of a private company to assist small producers. In the SINERGIA project (3.1), 8 private companies and the IADB participated. Where the initiative lay: In most cases, the initiative was CARE‟s or the IADB‟s Nevertheless, there are exceptions: in the Amazonian cocoa case in Brazil (3.7) it was the Cargill Foundation‟s and CARE participated in a bidding contest to determine which NGO would carry out the project. This shows that the initiative does not necessarily have to be CARE‟s. The role of the supporting institution (CARE or other): Here, again, a variety of possibilities was presented. Some of these include: In the SINERGIA project (3.1), the IADB‟s role was financing 50% of the project. In addition, in the absence of an institution that was willing to assume the umbrella role of overseeing the project, the IADB took it on. In the VEGCARE project (3.2), CARE‟s role was that of facilitator and honest broker. Besides, it has made a capital investment in VEGCARE and assumes credit risks with VEGCARE. In several of the projects that were presented, CARE conceived and structured the respective alliances. In the Alliance among artichoke producers (3.8) and the Fish and natural dyes (3.11) projects that CARE Peru carried out, CARE took on a far more entrepreneurial role than in other cases, starting with an analysis of national and international markets and the identification of unsatisfied demand and market opportunities, going on to the formulation of business plans, generating interest in export companies, structuring pilot validations and demonstrations with non-poor producers, etc. The role of the private companies: Differences can also be observed as among a more strictly commercial role in some projects, as in the artichoke producers (3.8) and the fish and natural dyes (3.11) projects carried out by CARE Peru versus a greater degree of support to the smaller producers that 14 can be seen in the SINERGIA project (3.1) or in the milk producers project in El Salvador (3.10). The promotion of another type of role for another type of private enterprise that can be sees in the promotion of new Technical Assistance companies in the Peruvian artichoke project (3.8) is also worth underscoring. Joint reflections on these projects The most common reflection was on the importance of sharing this sort of experience and learning about various different approaches that open participants‟ eyes to other possible ways of carrying out each CO‟s and organization‟s activities. Given that much of the work in this kind of project is with producers in the informal sector, the dilemma arose as to whether to help them become members of the formal sectors because, as members of the informal sector, they are seen by formal, duly registered producers as unfair competition; or whether, on the contrary, CARE should help make markets more flexible in this regard. The importance was underscored of complementation among different kinds of institutions including NGOs, private companies, international cooperation agencies, national and local government agencies, producers‟ organizations, etc. The issue of what happens when CARE leaves was explored. The most generally accepted answer is that the focus must be on promoting enterprises with a social vision that can provide sustainability to projects like those presented. The subject of financing for small producers and funds for prompt payment was explored, and several options were identified. Including CARE‟s extension of credit or of guarantees, action by companies in the private financial sector (frequently not banks but institutions that are closer to the poorer populations like rural savings and loan associations), like that seen in some of the case presented, or action by the IFIs like that seen in others. The importance of promoting further opening towards pro-poor programs in the private financial sectors and in the IFIs was also recognized. Attention also focused on the topic, brought out by several presentations, of the identification by CARE of gaps in production chains that constitute long-term, sustainable market opportunities that can be seized by poor small producers and/or by young professional entrepreneurs. The need to measure impacts on small producers by means of determining whether or not poverty has been reduced was also identified: It was recognized that such measurement was done in some of the cases presented, but not in all. The subject was also explored of whether the companies or the small producers 15 engaged in the various projects always act in a socially responsible manner or whether, on the contrary, they hire child labor, contaminate the environment, etc. The difference between a business and a social approach to management was brought up, that poses difficulties when hiring personnel for projects and in the relations between CARE and other NGOs, on the one hand, and partner companies on the other. For some participants, management capacity is the most critical concept in the context of PSP and we should therefore think of exerting influence on educational systems in order to develop the proper mix between the two approaches. SWOT analysis on access to markets for producers The following is a summary of the SWOT analysis carried out in the 3 working groups that met on Tuesday 23 May. STRENGTHS CARE‟s ability to mobilize social resources CARE is open to working with private companies CARE has technical competencies CARE‟s strong reputation Competitive advantage on CARE‟s part for working with end users, replacing intermediaries Confidence in CARE on the part of small producers Confidence in CARE on the part of the private sector and others WEAKNESSES Access to productive resources is low Approach to projects is limited to seizing opportunities Balance is weak between impact on private companies and social impact Basic infrastructure is scant Business culture is not well understood inside CARE CARE personnel has scant knowledge of markets and their logic CARE is global but does not take advantage of that fact Intercultural approach is absent form project presentation Knowledge Management is weak Organizational levels are low Private sector interest in investing in rural areas is low Resources not available for working on PSP and access to markets Responsible business culture is low OPPORTUNITIES CARE is worldwide organization with market-access contacts CSR is growing in importance CSR practices as a means of connecting with market access topics Markets are opening up, creating opportunities for producers 16 Developing a better understanding of Free Trade Agreements Emigré markets in the U.S. – creation of national-identity brands Integrating CARE‟s work with other organizations Interest in engaging CARE is growing in private companies Regional integration within CARE Regional business connections THREATS Diminishing funding for international cooperation Diverse cultures that do not operate under market dynamics Failure of small and medium-sized companies to adhere to CSR Global market trends Ideological conflicts between civil society and private enterprise Legal and social instability Loss of confidence in CARE because of unsatisfied expectations Micro-enterprise cannot compete under FTAs Private companies intend to use CARE Risk aversion on the part of small producers Lessons learned with respect to large and medium-sized companies The following is a summary of the lessons learned with respect to large and medium-sized companies shared in the 3 working groups that gathered on Tuesday 23 May. Some general principles: Approach companies to get to know them reduces intermediation and create direct links Association must be based on quality CARE sometimes has to mediate in conflict situations Weakness in communities and in CARE for negotiations Competitiveness is necessary to insure sustainability Companies are interested in business Companies demand quality products Importance of: o Seizing all the advantages or engagement with companies o Connecting small and medium producers with large companies o Knowledge of NGOs in companies (not just of them in us) o Consolidating producers o Studying the sector and developing business plans beyond project lifespan o Identifying bottlenecks o Identifying growth and development factors o Negotiating with the decision makers in the companies o Remember CARE‟s focus on poverty reduction 17 o Medium-sized, not just big cos., to promote micro-enterprise Next steps The following are the next steps for work in CSR identified by the 3 working groups on Tuesday 23 May. Attend the Micro-Enterprise Forum organized by the IDB Build and disseminate systematized information, experiences, contacts, private companies Clear strategy for gathering and generating funds Events – more of them with more diverse participants Political decision within the organization to assume new roles Proactive identification of potential regional partners Proposal of projects by businesses and producers Provide business development services (not forgetting CARE‟s mission) Regional, not just local logic (example, AMANCO) Strategies for diminishing risks from changing trends in global markets 4. Experiences with market access for consumers: 3 presentations: Thursday 25 May in the morning: 4.1. Rural Sales Program, Bangladesh, CIUK 4.2. WSUP Thursday 25 May in the morning: 4.3. Water and sewage, CARE Peru, El Salvador and USA Summaries of the contents of the 3 presentations are to be found in Appendix 4, and their complete contents are in the CD that was distributed at the end of the Conference. There follows a comparative analysis of the presentations and the joint reflections that they elicited. Comparative analysis of the 3 projects A comparison of these 3 projects pints up two things in particular, First, the diversity of the scale in which the concept of access to markets for consumers is applicable, from the relative small scale of the Bangladesh project to WSUP‟s worldwide scale. Second, the wide variety of possible needs that this type of project can attempt to satisfy, beyond basic services like water and sewage systems, including the need for consumer goods and the need for jobs. 18 Joint reflection on access to markets for consumers Satisfaction was expressed for the fact that regional strategies for water and sewage projects have begun to be developed, and it was suggested that it would be interesting to develop similar strategies in other fields including HIV/AIDS. In that last context, the suggestion was made that a methodology could be developed for sensitizing industrial users of water to potential costs and risks of possible water shortages and of environmental contamination in manners similar to those used in Honduras (please see presentation 5.2 below) for sensitizing companies to the risks and costs of HIV/AIDS. The importance of exerting an influence not only on companies but also on governments, especially on the local level, was emphasized given the fact that they are instrumental in reaching potential users of basic services. Concern was also expressed as to whether water and sewage projects based on PSP constitute a substitution of the National Government‟s role and whether that substitution is appropriate. The answer proposed in the specific case of the water and sewage project in Peru (4.3) is that responsibility for that type of project has devolved to the municipal governments and, besides, that the National Government was left out at the specific behest of the local communities. Concern was expressed regarding potential sustainability of programs like the rural sales program in Bangladesh given the fact that entry barriers – for example for additional women interested in selling shoes – are very low and given also that market saturation and even collapse could be generated. In reply, several participants agreed that although sustainability is evidently important, the impacts that program like that in Bangladesh accomplish are real and are also important. It was also suggested, in relation to sustainability, that it is important to share this kind of concern with the persons and the communities involved in order to empower them in the search of solutions for their problems and risks. The question was raised as to whether the products sold under the Bangladesh program are the same as those sold to non-poor market segments. The answer is that they are the same products but in the case of Unilever, as in other cases of consumer goods, the typical product adaptation consists of smaller packages that allow purchases for smaller amounts of money. Another aspect of access to markets for consuming poor that was emphasized is the potential development of specific products that fit their needs: for example, AMANCO in El Salvador has developed plastic latrines and is currently developing a clothes-washing station that stores water. This idea opens up the possibility that CARE field personnel, who are in a position to perceive the needs of the poor, communicate these to companies that might develop appropriate new products. It was proposed that conflicts of interest could arise in situations in which CARE 19 intervenes along with one or more institutions with which CARE is closely related – for example, EDYFICAR in Peru. Recognizing that that potential exists, it was pointed out that in that specific project the possible problem was avoided because roles were clarified and defined in complementary terms. A failed experience in Guatemala was mentioned with a water and sewage project for which credit was to be granted by the Instituto de Saneamiento Municipal, and the importance was therefore suggested of carefully selecting the institutions with which alliances will be formed. Finally, the potential generation of conflicts implicit in CARE‟s actions for promoting access to markets for users and consumers were recognized as was the fact that, as a result, CARE must be prepared to mediate and to help resolve those conflicts. 5. Experience with other CSR projects 4 presentations: Wednesday 24 May in the afternoon: 5.1. SOY, Eradication of child labor, CARE Ecuador 5.2. ALCOMBAT, Fight against HIV/AIDS, CARE Honduras 5.3. Community relations and the mining industry, CARE Perú 5.4. Publish What You Pay Campaign (PWYP), CIUK Summaries of the contents of the 4 presentations are to be found in Appendix 5, and their complete contents are in the CD that was distributed at the end of the Conference. There follows a comparative analysis of the presentations and the joint reflections that they elicited. Analysis of the presentations and Joint reflections on experience with other CSR projects The 4 presentations reported on in this Section provide clear evidence of the fact the PSPs hold a potential far broader than the essentially economic potential related to market access. It is also worth underscoring the lessons learned from CARE Peru‟s community relations and the mining industry project (5.3), the only one in which CARE‟s involvement can be considered inconvenient because of the risk (identified in the SWOT analysis) that a company might try to use CARE to improve its image without changing its socially irresponsible practices. Conclusions of the working groups gathered on Wednesday 23 May 20 CARE’s role in CSR - Generate and capture more resources that can allow greater flexibility and independence for our actions and decisions - Involve the Government so that it exercises controls and places demands (CSR is not only a voluntary matter) - Promote work within local and international CSR networks - Promote and disseminate CSR across all CARE activities, clearly defining rules, concepts and principles - Sensitize and promote incentives for CSR in communication media, consumers and leading companies - Strengthen organizational capabilities regarding the scope of CSR - Support the creation of organizations like the Ethos Institute (not trying to sell the concept but rather invest in it) - Strengthen other local actors and organizations so they can exert an influence in favor of CSR Interaction between CARE and Governments: - Avoid competition and confrontation - Empower local leadership - Facilitate as opposed to directly implementing - Interact with government entities and their key people - Recognize that it is a critical relationship - Support local development agendas (do not take the wheel, just be another passenger) - Support the development of new norms and motivate compliance with existing norms (for example child labor inspections) Interaction between CARE and civil society: - Develop models jointly with the community and take care of them in order to retain influence - Empower neighborhood councils, local and community leaders on matters of political influence at different levels: national, regional, local. - Generate confidence, which is a gradual process. 21 6. ASP from the perspective of the private sector 4 presentations: Tuesday 23 May in the morning: 6.1. Grupo Terán and Fundación Terán, Nicaragua Wednesday 24 May in the morning: 6.2. Ethos Institute, Brazil 6.3. Social & Environmental Responsibility, AMANCO El Salvador Thursday 25 May in the morning 6.4. Amazonia Gas, Ecuador Summaries of the contents of the 4 presentations are to be found in Appendix 6, and their complete contents are in the CD that was distributed at the end of the Conference. There follows a comparative analysis of the presentations and the joint reflections that they elicited. Analysis of the presentations The first 3 presentations reinforce the evidence that was already clear from the experiences analyzed in Sections 3, 4 and 5 that there is a CSR consciousness in many private companies in Latin America. In addition, they place in evidence the existence of networks and alliances among private companies and of (Fundación Terán, Ethos Institute) that with the support of private companies promote CSR, disseminate its principles and support its implementation. That said, it is also clear, as the presenters themselves pointed out, that there is still along way to go before CSR becomes the dominant paradigm in Latin America‟s private sector, thus confirming the enormous challenge that lies ahead for CARE and all organizations committed to the concept. Joint reflections on CSR from the perspective of the private sector Another key element in the entire matter of PSPs was recognized, namely the bridge between CARE and private companies that private sector associations represent. 22 The existing skepticism in many societies regarding private enterprise in general and how sincere its intention of taking on social responsibilities might be were analyzed; on the other hand, it was again emphasized that not every businessman is interested only in profits. It was also recognized that there is a great deal of individualism in business circles that makes it difficult not only to introduce CSR but also makes difficult the consolidation of business associations like UNIRSE in Nicaragua, for which reason the road ahead is generally seen to be long and potentially difficult. In view of the fact that there are relatively few companies that are fully engaged in social action, of the already mentioned skepticism in many societies and of the individualism among businessmen, the Ethos Institute recommends identifying those individuals who wish to carry out a transformation and working with them rather than with companies as such. Later, when their companies take on a CSR role, they can begin to work within their productive chains. With regard to Ethos Institute‟s CSR indicators, the relationship between self- evaluation processes and the generation of a Social Balance Sheet was explored and it was established that there must be a very close association between both objectives. The question was raised whether CSR should be an obligatory norm. It appears that the more general conclusion was that rather than a norm, it should be understood as an effective practice and that the grater the levels of knowledge acquired by society in general and by governments, the greater will be the growth of social responsibility, in business and more broadly throughout society. The doubt regarding whether CSR interferes with a company‟s capacity to be competitive or, put another way, the dilemma between profitability and social responsibility was again raised. In this context, AMANCO requested assistance in developing a system for measuring social value that can help demonstrate that the two types of objectives are not mutually exclusive. 23 7. Knowledge Management and Learning 2 presentations: Wednesday 24 May in the afternoon: 7.1 Alliances for knowledge management, El Salvador Friday 26 May in the morning: 7.2 Strategy for knowledge and learning on PSPs in LAC (CIUK presents materials produced by ODI) 7.1. Alliances for knowledge management, El Salvador The project consists of organizing and promoting the First “Knowledge for Fighting Poverty” Fair that will take place during 3 days in October 2006 in El Salvador in order to promote, disseminate and share knowledge of topics related to development, overcoming poverty, strategies for the promotion and practice of CSR, all of which contribute to accomplishing the Millennium Development Goals. Principal actors: The Organizing Committee includes UNDP, FUNDEMAS (an NGO dedicated to promoting CSR), an El Salvador Government entity, MIT as academic advisor and CARE El Salvador. ·0 private companies have responded to the initial invitation to participate. 7.2 Strategy for knowledge and learning on PSPs in LAC The proposal is born of the idea that “knowledge and learning” do not mean creating an encyclopedia that contains everything known to man, but rather means “keeping a register of those who know the recipes” and “nurturing the processes and the culture that will make [them] speak.” The intention is that every time we do something anew, we should do it better. The point of departure is to think, before doing something, that someone has probably already done the same thing, and to find out who it was. After acting, we should carry out a review based on 4 simple questions: What should have happened? What really happened? Why was there were a difference (if there was one)? And What can we learn from the experience? Different ways of acquiring knowledge are recognized: that which has been articulated and is therefore explicit; that which has not been articulated but could be, that is implicit; and that which cannot be articulated, that is described as tacit. 24 Different processes related to the acquisition of knowledge are also recognized: data is gathered and organized; information is summarized and analyzed; and knowledge is systematized for purposes of decision-making, in the absence of which the entire process of knowledge development lacks meaning. Some simple principles of good knowledge management include: common values and shared beliefs; a predisposition to ask for help; common technology that connects people; effective cooperation and collegiality; rewards for and recognition of learning; and identification and reinforcement of the appropriate behavior on the part of leaders. There are also limits to good learning that include: the fact that a great deal of knowledge is so specialized an so lacking in interest across an entire organization; the fact that not enough time is assigned to the acquisition of knowledge because of diverse underlying priorities; the fact that internal processes do not provide appropriate contexts for sharing knowledge; the absence of a learning culture and related incentives; the fact that organizational cultures are frequently individualistic and reflect the idea that knowledge is power; the fact that changes in behavior patterns are gradual and incremental processes; the fact that knowledge management is a relatively new working idea; and the fact that many initiatives are overloaded with great expectations and too many activities that are more properly shopping lists and not strategies. Self-evaluation by each CO of its Knowledge Management A self-evaluation exercise was performed in relation to 5 criteria on 5 levels, from 1 that shows a low level of Knowledge Management to 5 that shows a very high level. The 5 criteria are: Strategic Alignment, Management Behavior, Collaboration Mechanisms, Learning and Knowledge-Sharing Processes and Information Capture and Storage. After performing the self-evaluation, each country group was asked to state the level in which they expect to be within a year. The self-evaluations were then compared among groups. The results of this exercise are shown in Appendix 7. Joint reflections, in working groups, on the Community of Practice with regard to Knowledge Management and Learning Factors that favor Knowledge Management - Appropriate attitude present in CARE personnel - Examples of best practices available from other organizations - Formal structures (thematic networks) are available - Human resources competent in KM are available - Information of great value is available in CARE and in the communities in large quantities 25 - Information systems exist that can be used to this end - Institutional mandate is clear - Integration among different thematic areas is possible - Need is perceived and the right attitudes are there Factors that act against Knowledge Management - Available information about other organizations and about communities is not sufficiently used - Communication between “the field” and “management” is deficient - Conceptual clarity is lacking - Focus is on organizational learning, we are weak in social learning - Integration among different fields of knowledge is lacking - Knowledge is considered and “additional practice”, not an integrated process (cultural problem) - Knowledge Management culture is scant “in the field” - Selfishness regarding knowledge - Systematization is insufficient - Time is insufficient for devoting oneself to learning - Tools and standardized methods for information gathering are lacking Next steps, who is responsible, and dates Strategic alignment - Define thematic subgroups (Communities of Practice or CoPs) - all Conference participants. - Incidence of a knowledge strategy on the CI strategic plan - Marcos Neto - Mapping of possible areas of cooperation with the private sector in each CO all Conference participants. CIUK will design a format for this mapping. - PSP in CO strategic plans - all Conference participants. - Strategy for knowledge and learning must be defined, adding new discoveries in a strategic format. The strategy should contemplate management, use and sharing of information: define tools (fairs? other?) Gianluca – 30 June. - Support the decisions taken during Kenya conference regarding information systems, identify key contacts within CI and establish clear communication channels (CARE UK brings up the topic in order to discuss it with other organization which participated into Kenya Conference). - Strategy for collaborative work and the related tools (for example, Group, forums, technological tools) - Technical decision on platforms, technological tools. 26 Management behavior - PSP toolbox – finish, validate and share – CIUK October 2006 - Define appropriate behaviour, including tacit and implicit (work jointly with Atlanta) on two levels: generic and specifically related to PSP (Gianluca contacts R. Callejas in June). This activity should be participatory. - Define functions and management plans for measurement and for accountability on learning (LARMU will promote the subject in the medium term) - Incorporate the results of this Conference in the CoP learning process - Gianluca Collaboration mechanisms - Organize networks Share information that already exists in each country and on a regional level so that it can be used Organize a national PSP network Begin on the inside: contact country knowledge coordinator and share information Collaborate with and join national PSP networks Contribute to making sure that PSP agenda is on the networks Join and collaborate with partners‟ networks Organize a regional PSP network - Technology Place this subject on each CO‟s web page: imbue it with visibility and importance Create a space on the web page for displaying documents, begin discussions, etc. (a virtual forum) Learning processes (culture) - Gain easy access to information Establish means for sharing information - Define how information is going to be systematized and divulged and makes this explicit in the budget - Guarantee in Logical Frameworks, goals and indicators - Review existing knowledge Define where we are in the process Meet with beneficiaries and partners for feedback Meetings (forums) with the private sector to see how they see us and what they need. 27 Information gathering (products) - Procedures for information capture - Strategies for systematizing information - Systematization of both good and bad (not just good) experiences - Encouragement fund (for example, contests) - Support infrastructure for forums - Support technicians in each country and between countries - Tools: Impact indicators: have a regional tool (list of good indicators and practices) Standard format for defining management information needs 28 IV. CONCLUSIONS All participants present in the final Conference session and most of those who had left before that expressed their enormous satisfaction with the Conference‟s evolution and results and with the fact that it had either satisfied or exceeded their expectations, as much because of the excellent design of the agenda as for the quality of the presentations and the work that went into them. Special mention was accorded to (i) the fact that engagement with the private sector has not remained a mere idea but, on the contrary, has become a successful reality in several countries; (ii) the fact that many of the Conference participants have picked up new challenges and, at the same time, new stimuli for addressing them; (iii) the fact that despite diverse opinions regarding what CSR is and what it means and regarding other related topics, the process of reflecting jointly has helped us all to change; (iv) the idea that the requisite processes are difficult and lengthy, but not impossible. Several participants expressed a greater identification with CARE and a renewed sense of responsibility and of commitment to socializing what was gained in the Conference among their colleagues. Against this sentiment, a voice of caution was also heard that urged care lest that spiritual renovation fall off easily when people return to their day-to-day challenges. The need was suggested of going into further depth in analyzing and internally debating the strategic choice or dilemma between PSPs and the idea of CARE as entrepreneur, as well as the concern that CARE not loose its spirit of solidarity with the poor. Finally, there were multiple expressions of gratitude, especially to CIUK for having put together the Conference, to Gianluca Nardi for his leadership, both in general and towards the future with regard to the Community of Practice, and to Karina Morales and the entire CARE Ecuador team for their attention and their generous hospitality. Quito, 13 June 2006 29 APPENDICES 30 APPENDIX 1 - LIST OF PARTICIPANTS BY COUNTRY OF RESIDENCE AND BY LAST NAMES SURNAME AND GIVEN NAMES EMAIL ORGANIZATION COUNTRY Bernal García, Elda Gretel firstname.lastname@example.org CARE BOLIVIA Bolivia Limachi, Isabel email@example.com CARE BOLIVIA Bolivia Montes de Oca, Marianela firstname.lastname@example.org DFID Bolivia Caldas, Carmen Roseli email@example.com CARE BRASIL Brasil Martos, Emilio firstname.lastname@example.org Instituto ETHOS Brasil Monteiro Pereira, Renata email@example.com CARE BRASIL Brasil Nardi, Gianluca firstname.lastname@example.org CARE UK Brasil Neto, Marcos email@example.com CARE USA Centro Am. Carofilis, Rebecca firstname.lastname@example.org CARE ECUADOR Ecuador Cordovéz, Belén email@example.com CARE ECUADOR Ecuador Haro, Alberto firstname.lastname@example.org CARE ECUADOR Ecuador Martínez, Fernando email@example.com CARE ECUADOR Ecuador Montenegro, Paulina firstname.lastname@example.org CARE ECUADOR Ecuador Morales, Karina email@example.com CARE ECUADOR Ecuador Ruiz, Ariel firstname.lastname@example.org CARE ECUADOR Ecuador Solis, Fernando email@example.com CARE ECUADOR Ecuador Trávez, José Luis firstname.lastname@example.org CARE ECUADOR Ecuador Unda, Fernando email@example.com CARE ECUADOR Ecuador Zalles, Jorje H. firstname.lastname@example.org Univ. San Francisco Ecuador Zambrano, Nubia email@example.com CARE ECUADOR Ecuador Zurita, Santiago firstname.lastname@example.org CARE ECUADOR Ecuador Alvarenga, Ligia email@example.com CARE EL SALVADOR El Salvador Alvarez Basso , Carmen CARMENALVA@iadb.org BID EL SALVADOR El Salvador Claros, Isai Jonathan firstname.lastname@example.org CARE EL SALVADOR El Salvador Ponce, Hugo email@example.com AMANCO El Salvador Salcedo Moore, Diego firstname.lastname@example.org CARE EL SALVADOR El Salvador Gaitán Ruano, Luis David email@example.com CARE GUATEMALA Guatemala Tecú Sarpec, Efraín firstname.lastname@example.org CARE GUATEMALA Guatemala Iglesias, Raul email@example.com CARE HONDURAS Honduras Pacheco H , Adolfo firstname.lastname@example.org CARE HONDURAS Honduras Ramírez Martínez, Dacia email@example.com CARE HONDURAS Honduras Dietrich Matthias firstname.lastname@example.org Fundación Terán Nicaragua Jiménez Sánchez, Félix email@example.com CARE NICARAGUA Nicaragua Ponce Lanza, Alvaro firstname.lastname@example.org CARE NICARAGUA Nicaragua Alva Villacorta, Milton email@example.com CARE PERU Perú Andrade Navarro, Ana María firstname.lastname@example.org CARE PERU Perú Rojas Sarapura, Alejandro email@example.com CARE PERU Perú Garratt, Charlotte firstname.lastname@example.org CARE UK UK Sintes, Hugo email@example.com CARE UK UK Caffrey, Thomas firstname.lastname@example.org CARE USA (Boston) USA 31 Maurissen, Stéphanie email@example.com CARE USA (Atlanta) USA 32 APPENDIX 2 SEQUENCE OF PRESENTATIONS Monday 22 May In the morning: 1.1. Conceptual Framework, CIUK 1.2 Kenya Conference Conclusions, CIUK 1.3. Toolbox, CIUK 1.4. PSP in LAC y PPA-ALC Project, CIUK & DFID In the afternoon: 1.5. PSP Strategies, CARE Ecuador 2.1. Due Diligence, CIUSA 3.1. SINERGIA Project, IADB in El Salvador Tuesday 23 May In the morning: 3.2. VEGCARE, CARE Kenya, CIUK 3.3. Making Markets Work for the Poor, DFID in Bolivia 6.1. Grupo Terán and Fundación Terán, Nicaragua In the afternoon: 3.4. FORESTRADE – Coffee, CARE Guatemala 3.5. PROEXPORT – Coffee, CARE Honduras 3.6. PROMESA – Amazonian fruit, CARE Ecuador 3.7. Amazonian cocoa project, CARE Brazil 3.8. Alliance among artichoke producers, CARE Peru 3.9. Milk producers, CARE Bolivia 3.10. Milk producers, CARE El Salvador 3.11. Fish and natural dyes, CARE Peru Wednesday 24 May In the morning: 6.2. Ethos Institute, Brazil 6.3. Social & Environmental Responsibility, AMANCO El Salvador 3.12. Several PSPs with CARE Brazil In the afternoon: 5.1. SOY, Eradication of child labor, CARE Ecuador 5.2. ALCOMBAT, Fight against HIV/AIDS, CARE Honduras 5.3. Community relations and the mining industry, CARE Peru 5.4. “Publish What You Pay (PWYP) Campaign”, CIUK 7.1. Alliances for knowledge management, El Salvador 33 Thursday 25 May In the morning: 1.6. Revenue-Generating Enterprises (RGEs) for NGOs, CARE Central America 4.1. Rural Sales Program (RSP), Bangladesh, CIUK 4.2. WSUP 6.4. Amazonia Gas, Ecuador In the afternoon: 4.3. Water and Sewage, CARE Perú, El Salvador y USA 2.2. Sector review – Oil and Gas Industry, CIUSA Friday 26 May In the morning: 7.2 Strategy for knowledge and learning on PSP in LAC 34 APPENDIX 3 SUMMARIES OF SECTION 3 PRESENTATIONS - EXPERIENCES WITH ACCESS TO MARKETS FOR PRODUCERS 3.1. SINERGIA Project. IADB in El Salvador The SINERGIA project in El Salvador is aimed at encouraging CSR through companies‟ support for the development of small producers. It offers incentives for Co-Financing Entities (CFEs) to participate on a 1:1 basis with IADB funds. Benefits for these CFEs include publicity, new suppliers, making their CSR more visible and opening new markets. The lessons that the IADB has learned from the project include: (i) that it is mistake to go to very large corporations and not support CSR in medium-sized and smaller firms; (ii) that private partners do not necessarily have to be companies: they can, more generally, be private entities of any sort including, for example, groups of emigrés; (iii) that there is a high demand for this kind of project; (iv) that corporate support for dissemination, infrastructure design and other aspects, not just financing, is very important; (v) small producers require permanent support. 3.2. VEGCARE, CARE Kenya and CIUK The project promotes access to export markets in the United Kingdom for small vegetable producers in Kenya. EGCARE is a joint venture owned 70% by VEGPRO, a private company that exports vegetables to the UK from Kenya, and 30% by CARE. CARE‟s role: Facilitator, honest broker assumes credit risks before VEGPRO. Results: Access to markets has been gained, although VEGCARE has not shown a profit yet. There have also been difficulties including shortfalls or rejection of produce, commitments not honored by producers, too many producers and high personnel rotation. Principal lessons learned: The company‟s and CARE‟s interests need not be the same: as in this case, they can be convergent or complementary. 3.3. Making Markets Work for the Poor, DFID in Bolivia Through this project, DFID seeks to facilitate the insertion of poor producers in markets. The project was developed among three main components: the Bolivian System for Productivity and (Sistema Boliviano de Productividad y 35 Competitividad, SBPC), a Bolivian Government program for developing public- private alliances for establishment of public policies that, among other things, can help reduce poverty; the Committee for Small Producer Coordination (Comité de Enlace de Pequeños Productores, CE), an organization that represents small-scale economic actors; and PRORURAL, an NGO. 7 small producers‟ businesses were financed, especially for participation in sales to the Government. The main results have been making small producers more visible and positioning better for exerting an influence on the formulation of political programs. The main question now being faced is whether the project will be able to continue without DFID acting as facilitator. The presentation also put forth the Latin American Markets & International Trade (LAMIT) strategy to which DFID has assigned US$ 12 million for 4 years with the challenge of influencing the IFIs and improve the World Bank‟s and the IADB‟s capacity to design projects that will allow greater market access for poor producers. 3.4. FORESTRADE, CARE Guatemala This project is aimed at eliminating so-called „coyote‟ intermediaries and improving the quality of coffee, in both cases in order to improve values received by the producers. Main actors: 310 producers of organic coffee in 7 peasant communities in Guatemala, joined together in an association called APROCODE; FORESTRADE, Inc., a private exporter of organic agricultural products; and CARE Guatemala. CARE‟s role: Financed technical assistance and training for the producers aimed at improving quality and increasing production volumes. Role of the private company: Financed the cost of organic certification and of technical assistance for certification and harvesting. Main results: Better-quality product, higher volumes, producers now sell a processed good, not coffee beans, no longer incur the losses that „coyote‟ intermediaries caused and are receiving a premium of about 20% over local market prices. 3.5. PROEXPORT, CARE Honduras with CARE Canada The project aims to facilitate access to the Canadian market for coffee produced by poor communities in Western Honduras, shrinking the intermediation chain and strengthening the producers‟ capacities in order to improve their income. Main actors: peasant production companies, Santa Barbara Municipal 36 Government, private coffee exporting company, Honduras Coffee Institute, Canadian coffee importers, Canadian coffee distributor, banks that financed coffee purchases and sales, CARE Honduras and CARE Canada. CARE‟s role: Community organization, training peasants in business procedures, technical assistance, arranging funding for acquisition of machinery and equipment for coffee processing, facilitation of relationships between the producers and the private companies, search for new markets. Results: 50 containers (1.9 million pounds) of high quality coffee exported to the Canadian market; price to producers improved by 32%; generation of 60 new jobs in the communities; the peasant company manages the entire business; Café San Luis registered as a trademark in Canada. Principal lessons learned: It is important to understand the complexity of the business, to design and implement business plans and administrative systems, structure the community organization and socialize results of all business deals at every level of the community. 3.6. PROMESA, CARE Ecuador PROMESA means Promotion of Equitable and Associative Markets with Solidarity. The project promotes access to markets for Amazonian native fruits cultivated by 3 different indigenous ethnic groups in the Upano River Valley in Ecuador‟s Amazonia. Main actors: the community, CARE, a private company called CAMARI that operates a chain of so-called „peasant stores‟ in several cities in Ecuador, the Fair Trade Labeling Organization (FLO) and as a source of financing, the Innocent Foundation with which contact was made through CIUK. CARE‟s role: Facilitation of relations among the project actors and training of producers. Main lessons learned: The dynamics and rhythms of the communities and of private companies are fundamentally different: Appropriation of new ideas is slow and difficult. 3.7. Amazonian cocoa project, CARE Brazil Promotes access to permanent markets in Brazil for marginal cocoa producers on the banks of the Amazon River. Project objectives in addition include training the production chain, organizing production, marketing and sales, defending the rights of poor producers, sensitizing corporate employees to CARE‟s causes and involving corporate experts. 37 Main actors: Producer families, community organizations, producer associations, Cargill Foundation that donated US$ 250 thousand to develop the project over 3 years, Cargill do Brazil that will acquire the producers‟ cocoa at better prices than those offered by intermediaries and has offered to create a new brand of river-bank coffee that is of better quality than other varieties. CARE‟s role: Project coordination, in response to an invitation from Cargill Foundation to participate in it. Main lessons learned: It is too soon to be able to derive these, as the project‟s potential is only now being assessed. 3.8. Alliance among artichoke producers, CARE Peru: The project has promoted the introduction of a new crop, artichokes, into the mountains of the Department of Ancash in Peru, that has reached very substantial volumes of exportable production and the location in the region of a processing plant by the private company with which the PSP was set up. The project was born of CARE‟s initiative originating from concern for food security. CARE analyzed a number of options and chose artichokes on the basis of a systematic analysis of unsatisfied demands on the world market, production possibilities in Peru and seasonality of supply that generates a particularly interesting market opportunity. It then worked with non-poor families to perform initial validation and demonstrations. Main actors: The producers, the local government, CARE, DANPER, a private company that is a major Peruvian exporter of agricultural products, new enterprises formed by young professionals to provide technical assistance and are providing the project with sustainability in the longer term. The incentives for DANPER include a good product that broadens its business base. The processing plant it has established in Ancash reduces costs for DANPER and has improved the price it is paying the producers. Initial results: Important improvement in the producers‟ economies, both in terms of increased income and in terms of revaluation of their land, and enormous increase in artichoke exports from Peru. Main lesson s learned: The importance of local government for purposes of convoking the community, of identifying the specific interests of the private company, of working with the non-poor for validation and demonstrations, and of training young professional entrepreneurs who can take on technical assistance roles. Main difficulties: Access to credit, for which reason the next step in the project is to seek ways of providing risk capital. 38 3.9. Milk producers, CARE Bolivia: Coherent with CARE Bolivia‟s strategic objective of contributing to a 33% reduction of poverty in the country by 2015, the project seeks to improve access to markets for the production chain of milk and its derivatives, especially cheese produced by artisans, by encouraging a vision of production oriented towards markets and not just for purposes of subsistence. Main actors: Bolivia‟s National Agricultural Sanitation and Healthy Food Service (SENASAG); San Francisco Xavier University‟s Institute for Food Technology (ITA), the Azurduy Municipal Government and CARE Bolivia. No PSP is currently involved. CARE‟s role: Implement a systematic training and Technical Assistance process for improving production processes, strengthen the business organizations in administration, accounting, finance and marketing and support the establishment of distribution systems. 3.10. Milk producers, CARE El Salvador: This project aims to facilitate market access for sustainable dairy farming in El Salvador. Main actors: The IADB through its SINERGIA project (please see presentation 3.1 above); milk producers‟ and milk processors‟ associations (PROLECHE- ASILECHE); two private companies Sucesores Luís Torres & Co. (Petacones), and AGROSANIA SA de CV (San Julian); el Salvador‟s Ministry of Agriculture, including its Centers for Agribusiness administered by CARE; the NGO FUNDEMAS; and CARE El Salvador. Main impacts: Access to formal markets for small dairy producers in the region; technical training and strengthening of the managerial capabilities of those small producers; strengthening of the sector‟s social organizations; improvement of family incomes and increased employment. 3.11. Fish and natural dyes, CARE Peru The project seeks to contribute to reducing poverty through the generation of new income and sustainable employment with an approach that starts from identifying demand and then, with the support of private companies, develop an entrepreneurial vision that generates value added along the production chain. CARE‟s role: Through its Centers for Economic Services or Business Promotion Offices, CARE seeks to identify market demands within or outside the country, inform the economic agents in the region about these, help generate mutual confidence so they decide to do business with one another, channel Technical Assistance to improve product quality, process and business competitiveness and 39 support the start-up of business for small producers and suppliers. Two such projects presented in the Conference were (i) the articulation between small trout producers and Piscifactoría Los Andes, an exporting company and (ii) the articulation between 450 small producers and gatherers of natural dyes and AICACOLOR, another exporting company. Results: US$ 1.5 million in trout exports of trout to Europe and the US and US$ 2.7 million in natural dyes exports to the US, Japan and Brazil. Lessons learned: Think more in terms of market incentives that in resource programming; the point of entry is business opportunities, not sectors or products; large and small companies are potential allies, not rivals. 3.12. Several PSPs with CARE Brazil CARE Brazil is a Brazilian since 2001 that seeks to play a catalytic role with a territorial focus that sees that private companies are essential for the construction of sustainable poverty-reduction practices because, in addition to material resources, they have the necessary knowledge, experience and human resources. CARE Brazil seeks to enter into partnerships with companies that are publicly committed to CSR as promoted by the Ethos Institute, Gife and other similar institutions, recognized as models, the business activities of which allow for significant impacts and that are located in the areas in which CARE works. Institutional partnerships have been established with companies that contribute to developing work strategies (3 companies) marketing (4 companies), media (73 companies), events (3 companies) operations (3 companies) and programs that include support for market access for small producers (Carrefour, J.P. Morgan Bank, O Dia newspaper, Cisco Systems). In general, the experience demonstrates a wide variety of partnership possibilities with a variety of specific purposes, all within the general framework of supporting the fight against poverty in Brazil. 40 APPENDIX 4 SUMMARIES OF SECTION 4 PRESENTATIONS - EXPERIENCES WITH ACCESS TO MARKETS FOR PRODUCERS 4.1. Rural Sales Programme (RSP), Bangladesh (CIUK) Framed in Prahalad‟s “base of the pyramid” concept, the Rural Sales Programme or RSP seeks to act as a catalyst for partnerships between private companies and women in rural sectors who are interested in participating, who become salespersons in their communities, in order to improve the women‟s incomes and expand the companies‟ markets. The companies give the women 30 days‟ credit and they earn a 17% commission on sales (which is the same as that earned by its other sales personnel) and have a 5% discount on retail prices. In addition, CARE receives a 4.75% commission. Main actors in the project besides the poor women involved: Bata Shoe, multinational shoe manufacturer, Unilever, multinational manufacturer of hygiene and beauty products and CARE Bangladesh. 4.2. WSUP, CIUK Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor, WSUP was born as a new NGO that is a multi- sector pro-poor partnership committed to promoting and water and sewage services and to making them available to poor urban areas in sustainable, equitable and inexpensive advising governments and jointly implementing water and sewage projects. Main actors: 4 NGOs, CARE International, Water Aid, World Wide Fund (WWF) and Water for People; 3 companies, Halcrow (engineering firm), RWE Thames Water and Unilever (hygiene y other products); Cranfield University and the UNPD as an official observer. The project provides the private sector with a learning opportunity that allows complementing its capabilities with those of NGOs that know how to work with communities on social and environmental problems. Besides, it can improve its reputation, motivate its personnel and develop new business. WSUP is particularly important in Latin America because 77.8% of the region‟s population (429 million people) live in urban areas, 58 cities in the region have over 750 thousand inhabitants and 50 have over 1 million. 4.3. Water and sewage, CARE Peru, El Salvador and USA This joint project developed by CARE in 3 countries was born of the idea of formulating strategies on the regional, not just the country level to improve the quality of the lives of 41 the poor by making water available on an equitable, sustainable and integral basis through partnership with AMANCO, a private company, and expanding on experience already had in Peru and El Salvador with trusts for administration of funding. Main actors in 28 projects under REHASER, a rural waterworks rehabilitation project in Peru: community civil associations that administer water ad sewage systems in rural areas; EDYFICAR, a private financial institution that grants credit to micro- and small enterprise; private contractors, independent builders, the municipal governments CARE Peru. CARE‟s role: Facilitation, technical advisory services, promotion, supervision, provision of materials and training. Accomplishments: Validation of an innovative model for provision of basic services in rural areas; development of a credit-using culture for access to these services; strengthening of communal capacity to organize and manage water services. 42 APPENDIX 5 SUMMARY OF SECTION 5 PRESENTATIONS - EXPERIENCE WITH OTHER KINDS OF CSR PROJECTS 5.1. SOY, CARE Ecuador The project aims to eradicate child labor through the generation of educational propositions and models in strategic alliance with various private sector actors and local governments. Main project activities consist of (i) continuing to strengthen school improvement plans through teacher training, equipping schools, education through the arts and school governance that provides incentives for students to remain in school; (ii) a market study for identification of professional opportunities within the local production chains; (iii) establishment of technical training centers for adolescents in the communities. Main actors: Catholic Relief Services (USA), Ecuador‟s Catholic Episcopal Conference, Save the Children (UK), the Wong Foundation (created by one of Ecuador‟s main business groups) y CARE Ecuador. 5.2 ALCOMBAT, Fight against HIV/AIDS, CARE Honduras The project attempts to apply the ILO‟s 2001 “Repertoire of Recommendations regarding HIV/AIDS in the Workplace” in the specific context of assembly companies located in the tax-exempt Industrial Processing Zones in Northern Honduras. Actions include (i) general sensitizing campaigns regarding HIV/AIDS aimed at generating responsible behaviour that can reduce risks and improve access to advisory services, and (ii) campaigns with the companies‟ managers to alert them to HIV/AIDs‟s consequences for their production, costs and productivity. Main actors: 9 private companies in the Buena Vista Industrial Processing Zone and CARE Honduras, in coordination with the Honduran Labor Ministry and Spain‟s Médicos del Mundo Results: 7 day-long Sensitizing Seminars were carried out in each of the 9 companies through different media; informational materials were developed; and training was done in other companies. Lessons learned: The subject of HIV/AIDS can easily be addressed within the general framework of health and occupational safety; corporate management display the necessary perception and commitment when they recognize the HIV/AIDS is a threat to their production processes in the medium and longer terms. 43 5.3. Community relations and the mining industry, CARE Peru: The project originates in recognition of the fact that although mining contributes 51% of Peru‟s exports and 6% of GDP, it has not been able to reduce poverty indices and instead brings with it a series of social and environmental problems. The project was the initiative of two mining companies, Empresa Minera Yanacocha and Antamina that asked CARE to help them solve several problems that had been caused by a poor strategy of engagement with local actors and the local population at the start of their operations and by the funding of “development projects” for the population to be restful and for them not to interfere with the mining operations. Evaluation of the project experience shows (i) interference by the mining companies in CARE‟s interventions, (ii) that the companies were little more than „donating agencies‟ while CARE Peru was in charge of program execution, (iii) the absence of an institutional strategy that laid down guidelines for engagement and action with the private sector. Lessons learned: The need to generate institutional policies for PSPs; that neutrality allows for wider action margins; that mutual dependence should be avoided; the need to work with transparency in contexts that are susceptible to conflicts between the community and the companies. 5.4. “Publish What You Pay (PWYP)” campaign, CARE UK Publish What You Pay or PWYP is a coalition of more that 300 organizations worldwide including CARE in US, UK, France and Angola. Its intermediate objective is to increase transparency in the extractive industries that includes publication of all payments to governments related to petroleum, gas and mining. Its ultimate objective is to improve the management of those resources for poverty reduction. Related to PWYP is the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) launched by the Government of the United Kingdom that includes the PWYP NGOs, 15 national Governments, several companies including BP, Shell, Chevron, Rio Tinto and the IFIs that gather together in each country in which there is the wish to implement the initiative to set up a calendar for publications. PWYP‟s successes include the mobilization of 300 development NGOs, commitments contained in the World Bank‟s Extractive Industries report, the fact that many companies are already publishing their payments in each country in which they operate, the creation of EITI and significant advances in countries Nigeria y Azerbaijan. Difficulties include the exclusion of civil society from certain meetings and conferences, arrest and intimidation of come members, lack of financial and technical support. APPENDIX 6 44 SUMMARIES OF SECTION 6 PRESENTATIONS - CSR FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR 6.1. CSR Strategy of Grupo Terán and Fundación Terán, Nicaragua The presentation suggests that a fundamental paradigm shift is taking place in Nicaragua‟s private sector, moving from Milton Friedman‟s view that a company‟s only objective must be the generation of profit to a vision oriented towards CSR, not as a fad but as a new policy culture based on companies‟ wish to assume responsibility not only for what they do but also for what they fail to do. This new way of thinking has borne fruit in the creation of UNIRSE, the Nicaraguan Union for CSR that seeks to convince large and medium-sized companies that tend to see CSR as a cost, not as an investment. 6.2. Ethos Institute, Brazil The mission of the Ethos Institute is to mobilize, sensitize and help companies carry out their businesses in a socially responsible manner by becoming partners in the construction of a more prosperous and just society. The Institute works with over 1,100 companies of all sizes – micro, small, medium and large. The Institute‟s actions are based on an analysis of social sustainability that shows the following essential problems: unsustainable and predatory use of natural resources; high rates of income transfers towards greater concentration and lesser distribution of wealth; lower participation of labor in productive processes; growing social exclusion; and inefficient and inappropriate management of public resources. The Ethos Institute seeks to help companies act in a socially responsible manner through implementation of its CSR Charter; implementation of good corporate governance; improvement of dialogue with those affected by company activities; improvement of participatory management; systematic fight against public and private corruption; and planning and implementation of improved management processes. In addition, the Institute publishes and promotes the use of various management tools including a Guide to Preparation of a Social Balance Sheet, the Ethos 2005 CSR Indicators, the Ethos Indicators and the Global Pact and its Practice Bank. The Institute also works with a variety of incentives including the Ethos Prizes for Value, for Social Balance Sheets and for Journalists; it participates in a number of sustainable networks amongst institutions dedicated to similar ends including the Enterprise Forum, the Capoava Alliance, Combating Inequality and Poverty, the Social Technology Network, the National Pact for Eradication of Slave Labor, Corporate Forum for Support of Municipal Governments, the 1 Million Water Tanks Project, the Interethos Program and the Corporate Pact for Integrity and Against Corruption. 6.3. Social and Environmental Responsibility, AMANCO Group, El Salvador 45 The AMANCO-NUEVA group of companies headquartered in Brazil operates in 17 countries in the American Continent, employs 13,000 people, invoices US$ 1 billion per annum, has US$ 2.4 billion in assets and is therefore one of Latin America‟s major corporate groups. The group has 3 major strategic objectives that are pursued simultaneously: economic success, responsible use of natural resources and CSR. Its so- called “integral concept” consists of (1) being a profitable enterprise (2) business ethics and compliance with competition, property, intellectual and other legal frameworks, (3) adequate compensation of its workers, non discrimination, no child labor, freedom of association and safe workplaces; (4) responsibility towards the natural environment; (5) philanthropic support of the community; (6) social responsibility in its business dealings with its clients, suppliers and contractors; (7) respectful, mutually beneficial relations with neighboring communities and other social actors. The ways in which AMANCO manifests its CSR include: leadership in the water sector, promoting innovative solutions; promotion of transparency in the water sector and inclusive business practices in quest of what it describes as “Social License to Operate” and the attainment of the so-called “Triple Bottom Line – Economic Values, Social Value and Environmental Value. In order to objectify its social and environmental actions, and in addition to its financial reports, AMANCO publishes an annual Sustainability Report that seeks to provide transparency and accountability to its interested public. The lessons that AMANCO has learned from its involvement with CSR include: the fact that there is no universal recipe, that CSR must be an integral part of corporate management, that dialogue with interested parties (clients, suppliers, neighbors, etc) is essential, that all members of a company‟s personnel are the protagonists of CSR, that top management support and commitment are essential, that CSR‟s economic importance must be recognized by way of generating brand loyalty, and that measurement and reporting of sustainability indicators a (“Sustainability Scorecard”) are critical. 6.4. Amazonia Gas, Ecuador Amazonia Gas is a company wholly owner by the Confederation of Indigenous Peoples in Ecuadorian Amazonia (CONFENIAE) incorporated to recover gas produced in the Sacha oilfields in Orellana Province in Ecuador‟s Amazonia, that is currently burned off and wasted. After incorporation of Amazonia Gas, alliances were formed with Keyano Pimee, a corporation owned by Native American communities in Canada and with the Canadian Commercial Corporation, CCC. Later on, ENCANA, a private corporation became a potential partner and investor that, in addition, was expected to lend CONFENIAE the funds that it needed to participate in Amazonia Gas. The project has not come to fruition because the various ethnic groups that make up CONFENIAE have been unable to reach an agreement regarding the eventual distribution of the project‟s expected profits. 46 Appendix 7: Results of self-evaluation exercise with regard to Knowledge Management DONDE ESTAMOS CAPTURA Y ALINEAMIENTO COMPORTAMIENTOS MECANISMOS DE PROCESOS DE ALMACENAJE ESTRATEGICO ADMINISTRATIVOS COLABORACION APRENDIZAJE DE INFORMACION ECUADOR 2 3 3 2 2 SALVADOR 3 3 3 3 3 PERU 2 3 1 3 3 HONDURAS 3 3 4 4 3 GUATEMALA 2 3 2 2 2 NICARAGUA 2 3 2 3 3 BOLIVIA 2 2 2 2 3 BRASIL 3 4 2 2 2 CENAM 2 3 3 2 2 LARMU 4 3 3 2 2 DONDE QUEREMOS ESTAR CAPTURA Y ALINEAMIENTO COMPORTAMIENTOS MECANISMOS DE PROCESOS DE ALMACENAJE ESTRATEGICO ADMINISTRATIVOS COLABORACION APRENDIZAJE DE INFORMACION ECUADOR 3 3 3 3 3 SALVADOR 4 4 4 4 4 PERU 4 5 4 4 4 HONDURAS 4 4 4 4 4 GUATEMALA 4 4 4 4 4 NICARAGUA 4 4 4 4 4 BOLIVIA 3 3 2 2 3 BRASIL 4 5 5 4 4 CENAM 5 5 4 3 3 LARMU 5 4 4 3 4 PRIORIDADES CAPTURA Y ALINEAMIENTO COMPORTAMIENTOS MECANISMOS DE PROCESOS DE ALMACENAJE ESTRATEGICO ADMINISTRATIVOS COLABORACION APRENDIZAJE DE INFORMACION ECUADOR X SALVADOR X PERU X HONDURAS X GUATEMALA X NICARAGUA X BOLIVIA X BRASIL X CENAM X LARMU X 47 WHERE WE WISH TO BE 7 6 ECUADOR 5 SALVADOR PERU 4 HONDURAS GUATEMALA NICARAGUA 3 BOLIVIA BRASIL 2 CENAM LARMU 1 0 ALINEAM IENTO COM PORTAM IENTOS M ECANISM OS DE PROCESOS DE CAPTURA Y ESTRATEGICO ADM INISTRATIVOS COLABORACION APRENDIZAJE ALM ACENAJE DE INFORM ACION 48