"Crime Prevention History and Theory"
Crime Prevention History and Theory National Crime Prevention Council 2006 1 Goal To provide community leaders, local government officials, private sector partners, faith-based organizations, and others with information on crime prevention that will enable them to create safer, more secure, and more vibrant communities. 2 Objectives Review the different types of crime prevention Define crime prevention Examine the principles of crime prevention Review the history of crime prevention Identify the crime prevention strategies you can use to reduce the opportunities for crime in your community 3 Types of Crime Prevention • Punitive • • Corrective Protective 4 Crime Prevention - Punitive • criminal laws • law enforcement • Crime Stoppers • courts • jails and prisons 5 Crime Prevention - Corrective • employment • education • counseling • mentoring • Head Start • D.A.R.E. 6 Crime Prevention - Protective • Neighborhood Watch • Community Policing • Public Education • CPTED • Homeland Security 7 Crime Prevention Defined 1972 Crime prevention is the anticipation, recognition and appraisal of a crime risk and the initiation of some action to remove or reduce it. Source National Crime Prevention Institute - 1972 8 Crime Prevention Triangle (from a Criminal’s View) Desire Ability Opportunity 9 Crime Prevention • Crime prevention is proactive, rather than reactive. • Proactive policing attempts to prevent the crime from occurring in the first place. • Reactive policing responds to crime after it has occurred. 10 Crime Prevention is Proactive It stops crime from happening in the first place. 11 Crime Prevention is Proactive (Continued) To view the criminal justice flowchart and to see the full explanation go to: www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/flowchart.htm 12 Crime Prevention Defined 1990 Crime prevention is a pattern of attitudes and behaviors directed at reducing the threat of crime and enhancing the sense of safety and security, to positively influence the quality of life in our society, and to develop environments where crime cannot flourish Source National Crime Prevention Council - 1990 13 Principles of Crime Prevention Crime Prevention Is: • • • • • everyone’s business; more than security; a responsibility of all levels of government; linked with solving social problems; and cost-effective Source: National Crime Prevention Council 14 Principles of Crime Prevention (Continued) Crime Prevention Requires: • a central position in law enforcement; • cooperation among all elements of the community; • education; • tailoring to local needs and conditions; and • continual testing and improvement Source: National Crime Prevention Council 15 Crime Prevention Improves the quality of life for every community. Source: National Crime Prevention Council 16 Techniques of Situational Prevention Increase the Effort Increase the Risks Reduce the Rewards Reduce Provocations Remove Excuses Source: Ronald V. Clarke and John Eck (2003) View the complete resource at www.popcenter.org 17 Community Policing Defined Community Policing is an organization-wide philosophy and management approach that promotes partnerships, proactive problem solving, and community engagement to address the causes of crime, fear of crime, and other community issues. Source: Community Policing Initiative - 1990s 18 Sir Robert Peel Considered a “father” of law enforcement Are his principles of policing still applicable today? Absolutely! 19 Sir Robert Peel’s Nine Principles of Policing 1. The basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder. 2. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police actions. 3. Police must secure the willing cooperation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public. 20 Sir Robert Peel’s Nine Principles of Policing (Continued) 4. The degree of cooperation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionally to the necessity of the use of force. 5. Police seek and preserve public favor not by catering to public opinion but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law. 6. Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only when the expertise of persuasion, advice and warning is found to be insufficient. 21 Sir Robert Peel’s Nine Principles of Policing (Continued) 7. Police at all time should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition; the police are public and the public are the police. The police being only full-time individuals charged with the duties that are incumbent on all of the citizens. 8. Police should always direct their actions strictly towards their functions and never appear to usurp the powers of the judiciary. 9. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with it. 22 Opportunities to Commit Crime I can reduce the major crime rate in Hopetown, U.S.A. by 10 percent by implementing a crime prevention policy that does not involve any law enforcement participation? What crime is it? 23 Opportunities to Commit Crime (Continued) What type of crime prevention is this? How do we reduce the opportunity? 24 Crime Prevention Strategies 25 Crime Prevention Programs Personal safety Robbery prevention School safety Workplace safety Auto theft prevention •CPTED •Neighborhood Watch •McGruff House •Operation Identification •And many others 26 Communities 27 Communities Start a Neighborhood Watch program. Institute community beautification projects. Organize voluntary resident patrols. Demonstrate against landlords who rent property to drug dealers. Make young people part of your neighborhood improvement activities. Organize annual community events. Make sure the local newspaper covers good news about your neighborhood. Start a McGruff House program for children and youth. 28 Apartments and Condos 29 Apartment/Condo Safety Start an Apartment Watch program. Organize citizen patrols. Publish newsletters that update residents on news about crime and community activities, and that recognize residents. Start a McGruff House program. Organize annual events. 30 Schools 31 Safer Schools – Parents Take an active role in your children's school. Act as role models. Set clear limits on behaviors in advance. Communicate clearly on violence issues. Help your children learn how to find solutions to problems. Insist on knowing your children’s friends. Work with other parents to develop standards for school-related events. Support school policies and rules that help create and sustain safety. Join with other parents to talk about violence and to discuss prevention. 32 Safer Schools – Principals Reward good behavior. Establish “zero tolerance” policies for weapons and violence. Establish a faculty-student committee to develop a safety plan. Work with juvenile justice authorities, community groups, and law enforcement on a safety plan. Offer training in anger management and other violence prevention skills. Involve every group within the school community in crafting solutions to violence. Involve parents. Develop and sustain a network with health care, mental health, and social work resources in the community. 33 Safer Schools – Students Refuse to bring weapons to school. Report any crime or suspicious behavior immediately. Learn how to manage your anger. Help others settle disputes peaceably. Set up a teen court. Become a peer counselor. Mentor a younger student. Start a school crime watch. Ask each student activity or club to adopt an anti-violence theme. Start a “peace pledge” campaign. Welcome new students and help them feel at home in your school. 34 Safer Schools – Teachers Set norms for behavior in your classroom. Invite parents to talk with you about their children. Learn how to recognize warning signs that a child may be headed for violence. Encourage and sponsor student-led antiviolence activities. Offer to serve on a team to develop and implement a safety plan. Enforce school polices that seek to reduce violence. Learn and teach conflict resolution and anger management skills. Incorporate discussions on violence and prevention in the curriculum. 35 Workplace 36 Workplace Safety Post evacuation plans in highly visible locations. Train employees in evacuation procedures. Include revocation of security privileges in termination procedures. Make fire extinguishers, first aid kits, and emergency preparedness kits readily available. Place keys and other personal items in a secure location. Protect computer equipment from surges. Protect fixed and portable computers from theft. Make sure smoke detectors, fire alarms, and sprinkler systems are installed and working. 37 Identity Theft and Cyber Safety 38 Identity Theft Don’t give out personal information over the phone. Shred all documents. Don’t use your mother’s maiden name as a password. Minimize the identification information and the number of cards you carry. Don’t carry your Social Security card, birth certificate, or passport with you, unless absolutely necessary. Don’t put your telephone number or Social Security number on checks. Be careful when using ATM and phone cards. Pay attention to your billing cycles. 39 Cyber Safety Never give out your name and personal information to others online. Don’t send personal information over the Internet, by email, or over cellular phones. Don’t use passwords that are obvious. Avoid break-ins by changing your password regularly and memorizing it. Never agree to meet face-to-face with someone you’ve met online. Never respond to messages from unfamiliar persons. Look for web pages that have a proper title, additional resources, or a person that you are able to contact. Know who are the authors or sponsors of the site. 40 Questions and Answers 41 Portions of this presentation are provided by Patrick D. Harris Executive Director Virginia Crime Prevention Association 1405 Westover Hills Blvd., Suite 6 Richmond, VA 23225 804-231-3800 FAX: 804-231-3900 email: email@example.com website: vcpa.org 42 The National Crime Prevention Council 1000 Connecticut Avenue, NW Thirteenth Floor Washington, DC 20036-5325 202-466-6272 202-296-1356 fax www.ncpc.org 43 Presenter Contact Information 44