Bone Fractures Worksheet - Excel

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Bone Fractures Worksheet - Excel Powered By Docstoc
					          Sodium                        (Natremia)
          hyper                                      hypo
s/sx      >145 mEg / L                               <135
          decreased urine Na                         decreased urine Na
          increased specific gravity                 decreased urine spec gravity
          increased osmolality                       decreased osmolality
          thirst                                     anorexia
          elevated temp                              nausea
          dry tongue                                 vomiting
          sticky mucous mem                          headache
          hallucinations                             lethary
          lethargy                                   confusion
          restlessness                               muscle cramps
          irritability                               weakness
          seizures                                   muscular twitching
          pulmonary edema                            seizures
          hyperreflexia                              papilledema
          twitching                                  dry skin
          nausea                                     increased pule
          vomiting                                   decreased BP
          increased pulse
          increased BP

seen with water deprivation                          diuretic use
          hypertonic tube feedings                   loss of GI fluids
          DI                                         renal disease
          heatstroke                                 adrenal insufficiency
          hyperventilation                           water gain
          watery diarrhea                            SIADH
          salt water near drownings                  hyperglycemia
          excess corticosteroid admin                heart failure
          excess NaHCO3 admin                        oxytocin
          excess NaCl admin
          Potassium                    (Kalemia)
          hyper                                    hypo
s/sx      >5.0 mEq/L                               < 3.5 mEq/L
          muscle weakness                          fatigue
          tachycardia leading to brady             anorexia
          dysrhythmias                             n/v
          flaccid paralysis                        muscle weakness
          paresthesias                             polyuria
          intestinal colic                         decreased bowel motility
          cramps                                   ventricular asystole
          irritability                             ventricular fibrillation
          anxiety                                  paresthesias
          tall, tented T waves                     leg cramps
                                                   decreased BP
                                                   abd distention
                                                   hypoactive reflexes
                                                   flat T waves of EKG

seen with pseudo hyperkalemia                      diarrhea
          oliguric renal failure                   vomiting
          K conserving diuretics                   gastric suction
          metabolic acidosis                       corticosteroid admin
          Addison's dx                             hyperaldosteronism
          crush injuries                           carbenicillin
          burns                                    amphB
          stored blood bank infusions              bulimia
          rapid IV admin of K                      osmotic diuresis
                                                   dig toxicity
          Magnesium          (magnesemia)
          hyper                             hypo
s/sx      >2.7 mg / dl                      <1.8 mg / dl
          flushing                          neuromuscular irritability
          hypotension                       + Trousseau's
          drowsiness                        + Chvostek
          hypoactive reflexes               insomnia
          depressed respirations            mood changes
          cardiac arrest                    anorexia
          coma                              vomiting
          diaphoresis                       increased tendon reflexes
          tachycardia to bradycardia        increased BP
          prolonged PR interval             PVCs
          prolonged QRS                     flat or inverted T waves
                                            depressed ST segment

seen with oliguric phase of ARF             chronic ETOH abuse
          adrenal insufficiency             hyperparathyroidism
          excessive IV Mg                   hyperaldosteronism
          DKA                               diuretic phase of ARF
                                            malabsorptive disorders
                                            refeeding after starvation
                                            chronic laxative use
                                            acute MI
                                            heart failure
                                            decreased K
                                            decreased Ca
          Phosphorus                                       (phospatemia)
          hyper                                                            hypo
s/sx      > 4.5 mg / dl                                                    < 2.5 mg / dl
          tetany                                                           paresthesias
          tachycardia                                                      muscle weakness
          anorexia                                                         bone pain
          n/v                                                              bone tenderness
          muscle weakness                                                  chest pain
          s/sx of hypocalcemia                                             confusion
                                                                           respiratory failure
                                                                           tissue hypoxia
                                                                           increased susceptibility to infections

seen with ARF                                                              refeeding
          CKD                                                              ETOH withdrawal
          excessive intake of PO4                                          DKA
          vitamin D excess                                                 resp alkalosis
          resp acidosis                                                    hypoMg
          hypoparathyroidism                                               hypoK
          volume depletion                                                 hyperparathyroidism
          leukemia / lymphoma treated c cytotoxic agents                   vomiting
          increased tissue breakdown                                       diarrhea
          rhabdomylosis                                                    hyperventilation
                                                                           vit D deficiency
                                                                           acid base disorders
                                                                           diuretic use
ty to infections
                      Calcium (Calcemia)
          hyper                          hypo
s/sx      > 10.5 mg / dl                 < 8.5 mg / dl
          muscle weakness                numbness
          constipation                   tingling of extremities
          anorexia                        + Trousseau / Chvostek
          n/v                            seizures
          polyuria                       carpopedal spasms
          polydipsia                     hyperactive DTR
          hypoactive DTR                 irritability
          lethargy                       bronchospasm
          deep bone pain                 anxiety
          pathologic fractures           imparied clotting time
          flank pain                     decreaed PT
          Ca stones                      prolonged QY interval
          shortened QT interval          lengthened ST
          heart blocks

seen with hyperparathyroidism            hypoparathyroidism
          malignant neoplastic dx        malabsorption
          prolonged immobilization       pancreatitis
          overuse of Ca supplements      alkalosis
          vit D excess                   vit D deficiency
          oliguric phase of ARF          SQ infection
          acidosis                       generalized peritonitis
          corticosteroid therapy         transfusion of stored blood
          thiazide diuretic use          chronic diarrhea
          increased PTH                  decreased PTH
          digoxin toxicity               diuretic phase of ARF

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