Parts of Speech PPT - Parts of Speech by niusheng11

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									Parts of Speech
            Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs,
  Adjectives, Adverbs, Conjunctions,
          Prepositions, Interjections
Nouns
 Person, place, thing, idea
 Concrete nouns – can be perceived with at
  least one of the five senses (rock, salt,
  scream)
 Abstract nouns – cannot be perceived with
  the senses (humor, anger, fear)
 Common nouns – non-specific, just any old
  person, place, thing or idea (boy, house,
  shoe)
 Proper nouns – names a specific person,
  place, thing or idea (Jeff, White House, Nike)
There are 20 nouns in the following paragraph. Then
label each noun as common or proper, concrete or
abstract.

  This summer we went on vacation to
  the beach. Usually we go to Orange
  Beach, but this time we went to Destin.
  We had so much fun playing in the
  sand and waves. We spent a lot of time
  lying in the sun, too. We met some new
  friends from Georgia. We all rode jet
  skis and kayaks together. The condo
  had a huge pool with a waterfall. The
  entire week was pure joy.
Nouns in paragraph…
 This summer we went on vacation to
 the beach. Usually we go to Orange
 Beach, but this time we went to Destin.
 We had so much fun playing in the
 sand and waves. We spent a lot of time
 lying in the sun, too. We met some new
 friends from Georgia. We all rode jet
 skis and kayaks together. The condo
 had a huge pool with a waterfall. The
 entire week was pure joy.
Types of nouns…
1. summer – common, concrete         11. sun – common, concrete
2. vacation – common, concrete       12. friends – common, concrete
3. beach – common, concrete          13. Georgia – proper, concrete
4. Orange Beach – proper, concrete   14. jet skis – common, concrete
5. time – common, concrete           15. kayaks – common, concrete
6. Destin – proper, concrete         16. condo – common, concrete
7. fun – common, abstract            17. pool – common, concrete
8. sand – common, concrete           18. waterfall – common, concrete
9. waves – common, concrete          19. week - common, concrete
10. time – common, concrete          20. joy – common, abstract
Pronouns
Replaces nouns
Instead of using the word boy or Jim, you
 can use he, him, his…
Instead of cat, you can use it

Imagine having to write or speak with no
  pronouns…..
A language with no pronouns…

  Julie forgot Julie’s homework at Julie’s
  house and Julie was late for school. Julie
  had to tell Julie’s teacher that Julie forgot
  Julie’s homework and Julie’s teacher was
  not happy. Julie’s teacher made Julie sit in
  silent lunch and do Julie’s homework all
  over again.
Can you imagine having to speak like this??? This
 is why we have pronouns!!!
The paragraph with pronouns…

  Julie forgot her homework at her house
  and she was late for school. She had to
  tell her teacher that she forgot her
  homework and her teacher was not happy.
  Julie’s teacher made her sit in silent lunch
  and do her homework all over again.

Isn’t that easier???
Antecedents

A pronoun must have an antecedent – that
  is the noun to which the pronoun is
  referring
Example: Austin lost his wallet and he is
  looking for it everywhere.
his & he refer to Austin, it refers to wallet
Identify the pronouns and their
antecedents in the sentences below.
1. The frog ran into the road and a car ran
   over it.
2. Mary caught her hair in the hairdryer and
   scorched it terribly.
3. Scotty talked himself into going out for
   baseball and he is very good at it.
4. Brandon is ready for deer season and he
   bought a new gun with his own money.
Antecedents and pronouns
1. The frog ran into the road and a car ran over it.
   (it = frog)
2. Mary caught her hair in the hairdryer and
   scorched it terribly. (her=Mary; it=hair)
3. Scotty talked himself into going out for
   baseball and he is very good at it. (himself,
   he=Scotty; it=baseball)
4. Brandon is ready for deer season and he
   bought a new gun with his own money. (he,
   his=Brandon)
Different kinds of pronouns

Personal pronouns – stand for people;
 Bobby = he; Cindy = she; dog = it;
First person – I me my mine we us our
 ours
Second person – you your yours
Third person – he him his she her hers it
 its; they them their theirs
Identify the personal pronouns and tell
if they are first, second or third person.
1. The dentist asked me questions before looking
   at my teeth.
2. You need to find your insurance card before
   you go to the doctor.
3. He washed the car quickly and went on to
   finish the rest of his chores.
4. Dad told the mechanics to call him about his
   bill
5. I really don’t know why we have to go to all this
   trouble just to throw a party.
Reflexive pronouns

Refers back to the subject
Always ends in –self or –selves
Myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves,
 himself, herself, itself, themselves
Example: Buddy fixed himself a sandwich
 and watched t.v. until his mom got home.
Possessive pronouns

Personal pronouns that show ownership
Do not confuse the possessive its with it’s;
 it’s is the contraction for “it is” or “it has”
Example: The cat chased its tail around in
 circles until it fell over into its bowl of
 water.
Demonstrative pronouns…
Points out a particular or specific person,
   place, thing or idea
this, that, these, those
Example:
This is what I want. Or…
These are the right shoes. Or…
I always like to do that. Or…
Gabby likes those, too!
Demonstrative pronouns, cont’d…
Do not confuse a demonstrative pronoun
 with an adjective; this, that, these, and
 those can be an adjective if they have
 something to describe…
Such as this car, that road, these flowers,
 those trees
It’s only a demonstrative pronoun if it is
 taking the place of a noun and works on its
 own
Demonstrative pronoun or adjective?

1.   You can have one of those if you want.
2.   These papers are not graded yet.
3.   I need this done right now.
4.   Do you have one of these?
5.   You could do that if you wanted to.
6.   That cow looks sick.
7.   This is the longest day of my life!
8.   This book is one of the best I’ve ever read.
Answers for Demonstrative or
Adjective?
1.   You can have one of those if you want. (dem)
2.   These papers are not graded yet. (adj)
3.   I need this done right now. (dem)
4.   Do you have one of these? (dem)
5.   You could do that if you wanted to. (dem)
6.   That cow looks sick. (adj)
7.   This is the longest day of my life! (dem)
8.   This book is one of the best I’ve ever read.
     (adj)
Indefinite pronoun…

Refers to a non-specific person, place,
 thing, or idea
Examples: everyone (who exactly is
 everyone?) many (just how many is
 many?) some (how many?) something
 (can you be more specific?) each (each
 what?)
Identify the pronouns in the sentences
below…
1.   Is your puppy losing its baby teeth?
2.   This jacket is mine; that one must be his.
3.   Something is different about your hair.
4.   Your locker is next to hers.
5.   Everyone knows the answer to that.
6.   Shelia reminded herself of her test.
7.   They treated themselves to a movie.
8.   This is good, but her project is better.
Pronouns identified…
1.   Is your puppy losing its baby teeth?
2.   This jacket is mine; that one must be his.
3.   Something is different about your hair.
4.   Your locker is next to hers.
5.   Everyone knows the answer to that.
6.   Shelia reminded herself of her test.
7.   They treated themselves to a movie.
8.   This is good, but her project is better.
Now tell me what kind they are…
1. Is your puppy losing its baby teeth?
2. This jacket is mine; that one must be his.
3. Something is different about your hair.
4. Your locker is next to hers.
5. Everyone knows the answer to that.
6. Shelia reminded herself of her test.
7. They treated themselves to a movie.
8. This is good, but her project is better.
Your choices are: personal, possessive, demonstrative,
    interrogative, indefinite or reflexive
Identifying pronouns…
1.  Is your (pers) puppy losing its (poss) baby teeth?
2.  This jacket is mine (poss); that one (indef) must be his
    (poss).
3. Something (indef) is different about your (poss) hair.
4. Your (poss) locker is next to hers (poss).
5. Everyone (indef) knows the answer to that (demon).
6. Shelia reminded herself (reflex) of her (poss) test.
7. They (person) treated themselves (reflex) to a movie.
8. This (demon) is good, but her (poss) project is better.
Your choices are: personal, possessive, demonstrative,
    indefinite or reflexive
Verbs – action and linking

Shows action or a state of being
Action verbs – expresses physical or
 mental action
Linking – connects the subject of a
 sentence with a word in the predicate that
 explains or describes the subject
Action verb

Find the action verbs in each of these
   sentences:
1. I like it when we use computers in math
   class.
2. Please clear the table, Jesse, and wash
   the dishes.
3. I understand science much better than I
   comprehend math.
Linking verbs
Linking verbs list: forms of the verb “be”
am is are was were has been
have been had been will be        shall be
may be     might be can be        should be
would have been
Other linking verbs:
appear     grow        seem       stay
become     look        smell      taste
feel       remain      sound      turn
Linking or Action???

Some verbs can be action or linking…
Mark suddenly appeared from behind the
  bush.
Mark appeared lonely at the dance.
Lora smelled the flowers.
The flowers smelled sweet.
Action or Linking???
 Here’s a trick:
If you aren’t sure if the verb is linking or not, try
   substituting a linking “be” verb in its place
Lora smelled the flowers.
Lora is the flowers. (doesn’t work, so it must be an
   action verb)
The flowers smelled sweet.
The flowers are sweet. (it works! So this is a
   linking verb)
Linking or action? Use the trick and
identify each verb as action or linking?
1.    The pie tasted so good after dinner.
2.    The flowers grow well in my yard.
3.    He grew tired as the speech went on.
4.    Kiah looked everywhere for her jacket.
5.    Tony sounded the alarm as the fire spread.
6.    Shirah looked surprised at the party.
7.    The speakers sounded broken.
8.    She seemed worried all afternoon.
9.    The weather turned nasty at dark.
10.   He turned the light off.
Helping verbs
Some verbs that look like linking verbs, are
   actually helping verbs. They “help” the
   main action verb.
The flowers have attracted many butterflies.
You may find the answers in this book.
It could have been broken before now.
I do not like that flavor ice cream.
***The helping verb and main verb = verb
   phrase.
Verbs practice: identify the verbs in the
following sentences. Don’t forget the helping
verbs.
1.    This packet of information will help you.
2.    Perhaps you and a friend can practice together.
3.    At first, it may be a challenge.
4.    You run fast and jump really high.
5.    He looked very angry last night.
6.    A cloud appeared out of the sky.
7.    He grew three inches over the summer.
8.    Josy learned how to dance the new salsa dance.
9.    Those berries are called blueberries.
10.   You can make the world a better place.
Verbs: Now, identify the verbs as linking
or action.
1.    This packet of information will help you.
2.    Perhaps you and a friend can practice together.
3.    At first, it may be a challenge.
4.    You run fast and jump really high.
5.    He looked very angry last night.
6.    A cloud appeared out of the sky.
7.    He grew three inches over the summer.
8.    Josy learned the new salsa dance.
9.    Those berries are called blueberries.
10.   You can make the world a better place.
Adjectives

Modify (describe) nouns & pronouns
Answer these four questions:
 Which one?
 What kind?
 How many?
 How much?
Memorize these questions!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Adjectives

Which one? The blue coat, sixth grade
What kind? Nike shoes, the gentle dog
How many? Two tickets, most players
How much? A full glass, no work

Articles are the adjectives a, an & the
Adjectives: identify the adjectives in the
sentences. Do not include a, an & the

1. A silvery moon rode down the western sky.
2. It shed a pale light on the countryside.
3. Long meadows spread out between two hills.
4. The smell of wild grass was strong.
5. The only sound we heard was the sharp
   crackle of the fire.
6. Suddenly, several stars came out.
7. I watched until the entire sky was glowing with
   bright stars.
8. I was lonely and happy at the same time.
Proper adjectives

Formed from proper nouns
Begin with capital letter
Examples: Japanese islands, Mexican
 food, Chinese alphabet, Mayan art,
 Christian beliefs
Adverbs
 Modify (describe) verbs, adjectives, and other
  adverbs
 Many times end in –ly
 Can be in almost any position in the sentence
 Answer these four questions:
  When?
  Where?
  How?
  To what extent?
Memorize these four questions for adverbs!!!
Adverbs
Examples:
  When? Now, then, yesterday, soon
  Where? Here, away, down, outside
  How? Slowly, easily, quietly, clearly
  To what extent? Very, really, too, almost
***Note: NOT is always an adverb! Even in a
  contraction, such as can’t
(n’t is the adverb not)
Adverb practice: identify the adverbs in the
sentences. Remember: When? Where? How?
To what extent?
1. Please carefully put the package there.
2. She always makes me so mad!
3. Would you briefly explain the plan?
4. Very early in her career, she made millions.
5. You will not find any answers here.
6. Soon we will hear the results of the eagerly
   awaited race.
7. I shut my door softly and tiptoed quietly away.
8. We seldom see this almost ridiculous behavior.
Adverbs
1. Please, carefully put the package there.
2. She always makes me so mad!
3. Now, would you briefly explain the plan?
4. Very early in her career, she made millions.
5. You will not find any answers here.
6. Soon we will hear the results of the eagerly
   awaited race.
7. I shut my door softly and tiptoed quietly away.
8. We seldom see this almost ridiculous behavior.
Prepositions

Shows the relationship between a noun or
 pronoun and some other word in the
 sentence
Always used in a prepositional phrase
Prepositional phrase consists of a
 preposition and the object of the
 preposition
Example: under the table, behind the car
Prepositions: Commonly used list
aboard   about     from         in     into
above    across    like         of     off
after    against   on           over past
along    among     since        through
around   at        throughout   to     toward
before   behind    under        underneath
below    beneath   until        up     upon
beside   between   with         within
beyond   by        without
down     during
except   for
Prepositions: compound prepositions

According to
Aside from
Because of
In addition to
In place of
In spite of
Next to
On account of
Out of
Prepositions: identify the prepositional
phrases in these sentences
1. During the summer I spend a lot of time in the
   pool.
2. I bought a new outfit for the party at the mall.
3. Before you start, I think you might need some
   help with that project.
4. You won’t have any tests in this class until next
   week.
5. They live near the airport and behind the
   stadium.
Prepositions
1. During the summer I spend a lot of time in the
   pool.
2. I bought a new outfit for the party at the mall.
3. Before you start, I think you might need some
   help with that project.
4. You won’t have any tests in this class until next
   week.
5. They live near the airport and behind the
   stadium.
Conjunctions

Joins words or groups of words
Two kinds of conjunctions:
     Coordinating – and, or, for, nor, but, so,
 yet
     Correlative – works in pairs;
 neither…nor, either…or, and so…but yet,
 both…and, not only…but also
Conjunctions- find the conjunctions in
the sentences below
1. Both Andrew and Brett like to turkey hunt.
2. You love music, yet you don’t play any
   instrument.
3. Neither Shelia nor Kerri have their homework,
   and I can’t find mine.
4. Bugs Bunny is funny, but Elmer Fudd is
   funnier!
5. You must come with us or go with Mom.
6. Lee not only excels at football, but he also
   plays baseball well.
7. Mitch can either go to the beach or play all-
   stars.
8. Jen likes to dance, so she is taking lessons.
Interjections
Only shows emotion or adds emphasis
Does not change the meaning of the
 sentence
Usually set off with commas
Examples:
 Wow! You really did get a haircut!
 Well, maybe Mom will let me go.
 I kind of like, you know, that new guy.
Hallelujah!!! You are through with the
Parts of Speech!!!
 You have now covered all eight of them:
Nouns
Pronouns
Verbs
Adjectives
Adverbs
Prepositions
Conjunctions
Interjections
Label every word in each sentence:
1. The little blue dog jumped very high in the air
   for the frisbee.
2. Butterflies fluttered gracefully among the pink
   and purple blooms.
3. Goldfish are good pets for people who don’t
   have much time.
4. The big, brown truck backed slowly down the
   long, concrete driveway.
5. Yeah, I really want pizza, but I don’t feel like
   going to get one, so you can go for it.

								
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