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Paradigm Shift Teacher Centered to Student Centered Going Short

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Paradigm Shift Teacher Centered to Student Centered Going Short Powered By Docstoc
					    Paradigm Shift:
Teacher Centered to
  Student Centered
Paradigm Shift
   Old – Instruction Paradigm
       An educational institution exists to provide
        instruction.
   New – Learning Paradigm
       An educational institution exists to produce
        learning.
Instruction Paradigm
   Mistakes the means for an end – takes the
    means or method, called “instruction” or
    “teaching”, and makes it the end purpose.
   Most common teaching method used is
    LECTURE
       Does this method promote student learning?
       Think back about your own learning – how did
        you learn?
       What do you remember best?
The Lecture Model
   Economical – Able to cover large amounts of
    information in a short period of time
   Teachers are in the active role and students are in a
    passive, receptive role
       Students are listeners NOT learners
   What research tells us:
       Most people only remember 20% of what they hear.
       The longer the lecture, less of the information ended up in
        the students’ notes.
   Evidence indicates that students learn and retain
    more information when they are actively involved in
    the learning process
Learning Paradigm
   Uses student-centered/active learning
    techniques to get students involved in the
    learning process
   Focuses on the student’s needs, abilities,
    interests, and learning styles
   Acknowledges student voice as central to the
    learning experience for every learner
   Requires students to be active, responsible
    participants in the learning process
Background Research
   Theorists like John Dewey, Jean Piaget, and
    Carl Roger’s whose collective work focused
    on how students learn is primarily responsible
    for the move to student-centered learning.
   Central to their ideas is that students actively
    construct their own learning – known as
    Constructivism
Constructivism
   Theory of learning which supports humans
    construct meaning from current knowledge
    structures.
   Learners construct new knowledge from their
    experiences; they incorporate the new
    information into an already existing
    framework.
   NOTE: Constructivism does not suggest one
    particular pedagogy
       Constructivism is associated with pedagogic
        approaches that promote active learning –
        learning by doing.
What is student-centered/active
learning?
   Any well-structured, teacher-guided, student-
    centered activity that “substantially involves students
    with the course content through talking and
    listening, writing, reading and reflecting.”
   Learning is most meaningful when topics are
    relevant to the students’ lives, needs and interests.
   The students has to be engaged in higher order
    thinking tasks such as analysis, problem-solving,
    synthesis, and evaluation.
   These activities allow students to apply what they
    have learned early on in the academic process
    and/or give them a context/application for new
    material.
   Instructional activities should involve students
    in doing things and thinking about what they
    are doing.
   Students are not just memorizing information,
    but they are allowed to work with and use the
    information alone or with peers.
   Their diverse thoughts and perspectives are
    a necessary input to every class.
   Learners are treated as co-creators in the
    learning process.
Examples of Student-Centered
Teaching Strategies
   Interactive Lecturing
   Group Work
   Discussion Forums
   Role-Playing
   Hands-On Projects
Research on Interactive
Learning
   1997 study compared pre- and post-course
    test results for 6000 high school and college
    science courses.
   Findings showed significantly more
    improvement in students knowledge that
    used interactive-engagement methods than
    those that did not.
Research on Interactive
Learning
   1999 study on the effect of college lectures
    reported:
       The longer the lecture, the less of the material ended up in
        the students’ notes.
       Interactive classes commonly involve breaking up the
        lectures into multiple short lectures with a higher
        percentage of material being retained from each.
       Interactive classes included a short, interactive activity
        between the short lectures
   In interactive lecture formats, students remembered
    more of the lecture material directly after the class
    and 12 days later than the control class that heard
    the same lecture without the interactive breaks.
Role of Faculty

  OLD                       NEW
  Faculty as disciplinary   Faculty as Designers of
  experts who impart        learning environments
  knowledge through         applying best teaching
  lecture                   methods
  Actor on stage            Coach interacting with a
                            team
  Delivering a lecture      Designing and playing a
                            team game
Role of the Student
   Moves from the role of note taker to active
    participant in the learning process
   Allows students to take control over their
    learning and, therefore, forces them to take
    more responsibility in the classroom
Benefits of Student-Centered
Learning
1.   Permits opportunities to connect the content to real life
2.   Provides opportunities for higher order thinking as opposed to
     passive listening
3.   Promotes greater student-faculty and student-student
     interaction
4.   Increases student retention
5.   Provides for improvement of social interaction skills, greater
     acceptance of others, and a greater sense of “community” in
     the class
6.   Encourages alternative forms of assessment
7.   Encourages innovation in both teaching and student
     involvement
Challenges to Implementing a
Paradigm Shift
1.   Lack of confidence in trying new methods
2.   Fear loss of content coverage
3.   Loss of control over the class
4.   Lack of prepared materials for use in the
     class
5.   The ego of the professor
6.   Lack of background or training in the use of
     active learning approaches
Examples of Student-
  Centered Learning
           Activities
THINK – PAIR – SHARE
   Begin by saying: “It’s your turn. Look at your
    neighbor – the person sitting to the left or
    right of you. Make sure no one is left out.
    Nudge your neighbor and tell him/her the
    most important fact you’ve just heard in the
    last 10 – 20 minutes. Find out what your
    neighbor thinks is the most important fact.
    You have 1 minute to talk to each other.”
   When the minute is up, resume your lecture.
Variations of Pair Share
   Share one thing you just learned;
   Share one question you still have;
   State three things you now know that you
    didn’t now before;
   Ask your neighbor a question about the topic
    and see if he/she can answer it;
   Tell your neighbor how you can use the
    information you just learned.
PASS THAT QUESTION
   Get ALL your learners involved in creating
    and answering questions.
   Before beginning, give each learner a blank
    index card. Tell them you will give them
    direction at some point during your
    presentation of what to do with it.
   At the ten minute mark, stop talking and say:
    “You are now going to test the knowledge of the
    person on your right (or left). On your index card (or
    a scratch sheet of paper), write down a question that
    pertains to the information you’ve just heard. You
    must know the answer to your own question. Pass
    the card to the person on your right (folks sitting at
    the end of a row, pass the card all the way down to
    the other end of his/her own row).”

    “Take a minute to read the question you’ve been
    passed and to write your own answer to it. Then
    pass the card back to its original owner. Check the
    answer and let your neighbor know if he or she got it
    it right.”
Bonus Tip: Pass That
Question
   Pass That Answer:
       Instead of writing a question, learners write an
        answer to a question and the person on the right
        guesses what the question is and writes it on the
        card.
                                OR
       Students write an answer to a question you give
        them and then they compare their answers. You
        ask a few volunteers to state their answers and
        then you tell them if they were correct.
JIGSAW
   Each member of the jigsaw assumes
    responsibility for learning a specific part of
    the content. Each student/group must master
    the content to teach that content to other in
    group/class.
   NOTE: This could be done with an entire
    class with small groups teaching content to
    the rest of the class.
Steps for Jigsaw Activity
   Task Division
     Subject Matter is divided into its requisite parts. (Best done by
      teacher)
   Home Groups
     Each team consists of several team members who are assigned
      different requisite parts of the subject matter
   Expert or Focus Groups
     Students assigned the same topic meet in the Expert Group to
      discuss information, master the topic and plan how to teach the
      information to his/her Home Group.
   Return to Home Groups
     -Students return to home groups to teacher the information to
      their own group members.
   Summary Activity
     All of the parts must be put together in the form of a report, a
      quiz, presentation, or completion of questions.
Getting Started
   Early steps in a paradigm shift is an attempt
    to use the tools and ideas of a new paradigm
    within the framework of the old – Faculty
    should make gradual tweaks to their current
    learning plans
       Example: Teachers incorporating Think-Pair-
        Share activities into current lectures
   Begin to speak within the new paradigm.
    Make your understanding of this new
    paradigm public and speak the language
In Conclusion…
   “Only as you begin to experiment with
    the new language will you realize just
how entrenched and invisible the old paradigm
    is. But, as you and your faculty begin to
           speak the new language, you
      will then also begin to think and act
            out of the new paradigm.”
References
   Barr, R. and Tagg, J. (1995). “From Teaching
    to Learning: A New Paradigm for
    Undergraduate Education,” Change.
    November/December, pp. 13-25
   McCombs, B. and Whistler, J.S. (1997). The
    Learner-Centered Classroom and School:
    Strategies for Increasing Student motivation
    and Achievement. San Francisco: Josey-
    Bass Publishers

				
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