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					Design for Sustainability

                            Dr. A. H. Segars, RBC Centura Distinguished Professor
                                               The Kenan-Flagler Business School
                                      The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Sustainable Enterprise and Design
                     Strategy                          Leadership

                                                                  Eco Efficiency &
                            Social                Financial      Sustainable Design

              Innovation                                  Technology

 Eco Efficiency:
 The reconciliation of financial and environmental impacts in corporate decision
 making regarding products, services, and business operations.
Four Key Aspects of Sustainable Design

                              Methods and Tools

           Design Processes

                                   Philosophy &
                  Knowledge       Decision making
The Designer and the Sphere of Influence

                                         Point of
 Distribution                           Purchase

 Production                                Use

     Acquisition of   Product
     Raw Material     Concept
Approaches to Lessening Environmental Impact

• Design for Recycling

• Increase Energy Efficiency

• Extend Product Life

• Reduce Toxins

• Offer Innovative Service
Design for Recycling
•Specify High-Recycled Content
•Make Products Easy to Disassemble & Recycle

Mirra Work Chair from Herman Miller.
42% recycled aluminum and steel,
minimum number of parts, 96%
recylcable by weight.

              Dawn - An environmentally conscious lamp made from
              recycled miniblinds. The idea came from thinking about
              discarded miniblinds and if reincarnated, what their next
              life would resemble. In their first life they were used to
              block out natural light and could expand and collapse.
              Here, in their new life, they selectively block out and let
              in artificial light.
Design for Energy Efficiency
•New Technology
•Supplemental Power Sources

Whirlpool Duet Front-Loading Washer -
No agitator for more capacity, saves 68%
more water and 67% energy. Saves up
to $150 in utility bills per year.

                            Toyota Prius - instrument panel
                            provides driver with constant
                            feedback on amount and type of
                            energy use.
Design to Reduce Toxicity
• Reduce Chemical Waste over PLC
• Avoid Substances with Bad Properties

Phillips Alto Fluorescent Lamps - Low
mercury content, lead-free solder, passes
EPA TCLP test, relieves customers of
disposing of hazardous waste.

                      Climatex - Uses 16 chemicals screened for
                      environmental and health impacts, water
                      released from factory is cleaner than water
                      coming in, developed a market among
                      high-end furniture manufactures.
Design Durability and Multiple Use
• Design Products that can be Converted
• Design for Durability and Repair

                        Zippo Lighter - Life span of 40 years,
                        durable, refillable, serviceable, smaller
                        footprint over disposable lighters and

              Entrophy Carpets from Interface - Design
              imitates nature, recycle on tiles that get
              worn, carpet reentry program.

Timeless Timber - Reclaim logs from the Great Lakes and create
fine furniture, flooring and woodcrafts from the “mined” timber.
During the 1800’s when most of the old growth timber was ripped
from the North Woods, a lot of the timber was lost overboard, or
sank in the many wrecks that occurred on the notoriously rough
waters of Gitchi Gummi.
Design For Service
• Product as a Service
• Digital Service for Product
                                 Grameen Phone - Selling
                                 phones to poor women and
                                 encouraging them to sell airtime
                                 to farmers, fishermen and other
                                 members of the rural poor.

               Digital Music and Photos - Reduction of
               CDs and environmentally harmful
               chemicals and processes.

Aravind Eye Care - Aravind's innovative eye care delivery
system is recognized as a model for developing countries.
All patients are accorded the same care and high quality
service, regardless of their economic status. As a result of
a unique fee system and effective management, Aravind is
able to provide free eye care to two-thirds of its patients
from the revenue generated from the other third of its
paying patients.
Ideas, Design and Invention:
The Wright Brothers

                               Dr. Albert H. Segars, RBC Centura Distinguished Professor
                                                      The Kenan-Flagler Business School
                                             The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
 Innovation in Action:
 Comparing Innovation Processes of the Wrights and Langley*
 Wright Brothers                                                        Langley
  Bicycle Makers                                                         Renowned Scientist

          Funding:    Personal ($2,000)                                  Government ($70,000)

Time Management:      Worked on Flyer in Spare Time                      Focused on Flyer Full-Time

                      The Problem of flight is one of                    The problem of flight is one of
Problem Definition:                                                      achieving significant lift.
                      properly controlling the aircraft.

Innovation Process:   Scientific:                                        Bureaucratic:
                                                                         • Prove our theory of flight.
                      • Research how things fly.
                                                                         • Experiment with Scale Models
                      • Test Theories (Wind tunnels, gliders)
                      • Informal network of knowledge, shared data.      • Top Down, Commander in charge, hands off.
                      • Simplicity of design. Control.                   • Stifle creativity of subordinates.
                      • Develop test pilot skills.                       • Complexity of Design.
                                                                         • Limited network of knowledge. Unshared data.
                      • Develop propulsion systems.

                                                                      *Segars, A.H., Innovation and Invention: Lessons From the Wright
                                                                      Brothers, 2004, UNC Chapel Hill Working Paper Series.
Comparing Innovation Processes of the Wrights and Langley

                                     The Wright Brothers
                                              Heavier than Air Flight…..

          An unceremonious plunge
          into the Potomac…..

          ….our efforts were
          undermined by inadequate
          federal funding
          (Dr. S. Langley)
Keystones of Design
Beware of “Conventional Wisdom”….some of the best
designs defy prevailing logic.

Observe the way things work….experience is worth a million
data points.
Design for Simplicity….drive out complexity!!

Draw from Nature (Biomimicry)….some of the best designs
are all around us, in nature.

Search for Design Analogies….chances are it has been designed

Enlightened Trial and Error….succeeds over the plan of the lone

Be systematic….good design is a structured process.

Be open….some of the best designs are accidents and are not in the
form we first intended.
Eco-Efficiency: BASF

                       Dr. Albert H. Segars, RBC Centura Distinguished Professor
                                              The Kenan-Flagler Business School
                                     The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Developing the Ecological Fingerprint

Central Questions of the Analysis:
• How much of our product does the customer need as input into the production of their product?
• How much energy is required for this process?
• What emissions and wastes arise from this process?
• How long does the effect last before the customer requires more of our product?
• What are the economic costs of the process “cradle to grave”?
Weighting of Criteria
Values are weighted by relevance factors. These state how strongly individual
criteria flow into overall pollution.

• Ozone destruction is weighted relative to the greenhouse warming potential.
• Importance society places on different types of pollution.
• Availability and natural occurrence of raw materials.
Scenario Analysis: The Second Step of Eco Analysis

              Environmental Impact (Normalized)

                      Low    Reduce                                  Bring to
                             Costs                                   Market

Depending on the
position of the
analyzed product,
different strategic   1.0
are developed.

                             Develop                               Environmental
                             Alternatives                          Impact

                             High                 1.0                    Low
                                              Costs (Normalized)
Eco Analysis: Dyeing Denim for Blue Jeans (BASF)

Demand Specific       Select BASF
   Benefit              Product

                                           Indigo powder
                                             from plants.

  Dyeing of Blue     Synthetic
  Denim for the      Indigo
                     Granules               indigo granules
Production of 1000

                                       Synthetic indigo solution

                                       Synthetic indigo solution
                                      and electrochemical dyeing
  Eco Analysis: Dyeing Denim for Blue Jeans (BASF)
                    Energy Consumption

Material                                       Emissions
Consumption                                                    Solution,
                           0.5                              Electrochemical


                           0.0                               Synthetically


  Risk                                                       Powder from
  Potential                                 Toxicity           Plants
Scenario Analysis: BASF

             Environmental Impact (Normalized)
                                                                    High Eco-Efficiency

Benefit to the
customer, 1,0000                                                          Solution
jeans dyed with                          Biotechnological
indigo.                1.0

                      High    Eco-Efficiency

                                High                       1.0                  Low
                                                     Costs (Normalized)
• Construct a plant for the production of solution based dyeing.
• Increase R&D spending for electrochemical process (pilot plant)
• Exit plant technology from product portfolio.

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