Conceptual Frameworks on Socio Economic Analysis by opw15343

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									                           SOE Info
State of the Environment (SOE) reporting initiative is funded under NETCAB                                                      No. 2 1999



                                                     SOE reporting conceptual frameworks
                                                     Introduction                               Institutional and legal framework
                                                     A number of principles can guide the       In all the SADC countries there is an
                                                     development of an SOER programme.          institutional framework in place re-
                                                     These principles cannot, however, be       sponsible for environmental manage-
                                                     equally and rigidly applied to all pro-    ment in general and state of the envi-
                                                     grammes because of the diversity of        ronment to be specific. In some of the
                                                     circumstances in different countries       SADC countries there is also a legal
                                                     and regions.                               framework in place for the production
                                                                                                of the state of the environment reports.
                                                     An important principle is that SOE re-     All conceptual frameworks are mean-
                                                     porting be guided by a conceptual          ingless if there is no legal obligation
                                                     framework that facilitates development     for SOE reporting in the SADC coun-
                                                     of information and makes the linkages      tries. A legal framework is a public
                                                     between the environment and socioe-        commitment that government through
                                                     conomic factors. Such a framework          one of its departments will do SOE re-
                                                     should bring order and convergence         ports as an ongoing activity.
                                                     to the structure of the presentation and
                                                     analysis of SOE information.               Such a law also ensures that govern-
                                                                                                ment allocates resources: human, fi-
                                                     A number of organisational frameworks      nancial and material, to ensure that
Conceptual frameworks fa-                            have been used to prepare SOE re-          SOE reports are produced. In nearly
cilitate a systematic way of                         ports in various countries. These are:     all the SADC countries, departments
                                                                                                under the ministries of environment
putting an SOE report to-                            • Issues Framework.
                                                                                                are responsible for national state of the
gether but a clearly articu-                         • Environmental/Economic Sector            environment reporting.
lated policy backed by a                               Framework.
                                                                                                Conceptual frameworks facilitate a sys-
clear law will ensure that                           • Environmental Media Framework.           tematic way of putting an SOE report
the public get a balance                             • Environmental Process Framework.         together but a clearly articulated poli-
sheet on their environment                           • Pressure-State-Response Frame-           cy backed by a clear law will ensure
on a regular basis.                                    works.                                   that the public get a balance sheet on
                                                                                                their environment on a regular basis.
                                                     • Driving forces-Pressure State-Impact
                                                       and Response Framework                   SOE Frameworks In Sadc
                                                     An SOE reporting process can use one       Lesotho SOE Report 1997
                                                     or more of these depending on the fol-
                                                                                                The main objective of the 1997 Lesot-
                                                     lowing factors:
                                                                                                ho report is to closely examine the con-
                                                     • Scope of the SOER process and SOE        ditions of the country’s ecosystem in
                                                       reporting objectives.                    relation to human activities.
                                                     • Mandate of the agencies, organisa-
                                                                                                It mainly looks at the existing status,
                                                       tions, and institutions involved.
                                                                                                change in state, and the factors re-
                                                     • User needs.                              sponsible (pressures) for these chang-
                                                     • Target audience.                         es. Generally, the pressure-state-re-
                                                                                                sponse model was applied throughout
                                                     • Available data and information (e.g.     the report.
                                                       indicators of ecosystem health).
                                                     • Available funding and time.               For example, the chapter on environ-
                                                                                                ment and economic development or-
                                                     • Spatial and temporal framework(s)        ganised the information looking at the
                                                       used to collect, analyse, and report     relationship between the environment
                                                       on the state or condition of the         and socioeconomic factors. The mod-
                                                       environment.                             el is used to identify causality between
Table 1: Strengths and weakness of different frameworks


ORGANISATIONAL                                                          ADVANTAGES                                                 DISADVANTAGES
FRAMEWORK

Issues                                                                  •   Political relevance                                •   Not comprehensive
 Focuses on significant contemporary or emerging issues, prob-          •   Timeliness
 lems and questions, which have known and potential long-term           •   Can be applied in different spatial                •   Lacks ability to emphasise linkages
 consequences. The array of issues is broad and ranges from the             frameworks                                             between issues or ecosystem
 “traditional” environmental issues such as air and water pollution,    •   Focus on issues that raise public awareness            components
 and soil erosion to cultural, social, and economic issues like pov-    •   Suitable when information
 erty and quality of life.                                                  availability is limited


Environmental Economic                                                  •   Human use of natural resources emphasised          •   Lacks ability to recognise
                                                                        •   Data normally readily available                        ecosystem complexity or processes
Employs a classification based on human activities e.g. agricul-
ture, forestry, fisheries, mining, tourism, manufacturing, energy
and transportation. The method takes advantage of established
infrastructure and the supporting data management systems in
place. It also provides information on the benefits and products
derived from the environment and the economic consequences
of environmental trends.

Environmental Media                                                     •   Political relevance
                                                                        •   Identifies trends in environmental quality         •   Lacks ability to analyse effects or linkages
This is a thematic approach, which represents the traditional           •   Ability to complete a comprehensive                    in ecosystems
method of reporting on the SOE. It often reflects the common                analysis within each environmental component       •   Difficult to apply approach within an eco-
divisions of the environment into components – atmosphere,              •   Timeliness                                             logical framework
land, water, biodiversity – and also the structure of the environ-      •   Data normally available
mental inventory and monitoring programmes, legislative man-
dates and national goals.

Environmental Process                                                   •   Encompasses elements of the other less             •   Requires data that identifies and confirms
This approach is based on the assessment of the impact of human             comprehensive frameworks                               cause-and-effect relationships
activities on the physical and biological processes of ecosystems,      •   Facilitates development and evaluation             •   Requires data generated from long-term
(composition, structure, and function) such as the circulation and          of integrated policy responses to                      monitoring programmes which may not
bio-accumulation of contaminants, alteration in community struc-            environmental problems                                 be readily available
ture and instability of systems. This approach provides a systematic    •   Illustrates cause-effect associations              •   More complex to use
and comprehensive coverage which cuts across all the sectors in
an integrative manner.


Pressure-State-Response
The PSR framework virtually incorporates all the other frame-           •   Incorporates virtually all elements of the         •   Data still collected along sectoral and
works and is more comprehensive in its application. The pres-               other frameworks                                       administrative interests
sure-state-response model, which allows SOE reporting to or-            •   Ensures the integration of various sectors,        •   Poor integration of environmental and
ganise and select the themes that best suits the jurisdiction for           stakeholders and expertise                             socioeconomic processes, reflecting their
which the report is being prepared. This model recognises that          •   Takes into account both ecological and social          interconnectedness
human activities exert pressures on the environment, inducing               environment
changes to the state of the environment. Society then responds          •   Facilitates development and evaluation of
with policies and programmes to prevent, mitigate or repair the             integrated policy responses to environmental       •   More complex to use
environmental damage.                                                       problems
                                                                        •   Illustrates cause-effect associations

Driving Forces-Pressure-State-Impact and Response                      • Incorporates all the elements of the other frame- • Like the P-S-R model, data is collected
(DPSIR)                                                                  works.                                                  along sectoral and administrative interests.
The DPSIR framework incorporates all the frameworks which can          • Takes into account driving forces and impacts on • It is a complex framework to use.
be used for SOE reporting. This framework takes into account the         the environment.                                      • Not all the parameters fit, thus it is diffi-
driving forces, pressures, state, impacts and responses. Unlike        • It is holistic. It takes into account the biophysical   cult to integrate environmental and social
the other models like PSR, the DPSIR also includes the impacts           and social environment.                                 economic process.
and it recognises that there are driving forces which are the un-      • Facilitates development and evaluation of integrated
derlying human activities which exert pressure on the environ-           policy responses to environmental problems.
ment with adverse effects.                                             • Illustrates cause-effect associations.


SPATIAL FRAMEWORK                                                       ADVANTAGES                                             DISADVANTAGES


Jurisdication/Administrative
Thematic (Sectoral)
This refers to political or administrative boundaries, for exam-        •   Familiar boundaries easy to relate to          •       Neglects natural boundaries
ple, global, regional, sub-regional, national, provincial or local.     •   Common unit for data collection,               •       Lacks ability to highlight ecosystem
                                                                            especially socioeconomic                               linkages
                                                                        •   Data presented in an environmental perspective

Environmental Component                                                 •   Takes advantage of data from natural               •   Lacks ability to provide a comparison
This represents a compromise between the organisation of avail-             resource agencies                                      between various environmental
able data and the need to interpret a complex environment, for                                                                     components
example, species, protected areas, soil types, topography, and          •   Can lead to a large number of unit boundaries
climate.


Ecosystem/Ecological                                                    •   Integrates environmental and socioeconomic
This uses geographic units which contain distinctive sets of abi-           data                                         •         Ecosystems not always defined
otic and biotic features that are ecologically interrelated, for ex-    •   Shows linkages between and within ecosystems •         Generally data is not well organised by
ample, small and large ecosystems.                                      •   Environmental reporting consistent based on             ecosystem boundaries
                                                                            common units
human and socioeconomic pressures                  rent state of the biophysical compo-            development needs and perspectives.
and the state of the environment.                  nents of the environment (i.e. air, land,       The ecosystem approach was not wide-
                                                   water and oceans) and on the social,            ly used. However, it maybe used more
Titles of the chapter show that other              economic and political activities that          fully in the next SOE report, since a
frameworks were applied. For exam-                 impact on these resources. For each             new ecosystem classification was de-
ple, the report has chapters on agri-              of these components, the causes of en-          veloped as part of 1998 report to pro-
culture, mining, energy, and forestry,             vironmental change are described and            vide the spatial context for the eco-
indicating the environmental/economic              their impacts are explained in terms of         systems approach.
sector framework.                                  ecosystems.
                                                                                                   Namibia SOE Reporting
Malawi SOE Report 1998                             The NSOER generally provides infor-
                                                   mation on current state of the envi-            Namibia is currently producing SOE
Malawi’s first SOE report (1998) iden-                                                             sectoral reports. It has so far complet-
                                                   ronment and causes of environmental
tified key indicators, which were divid-                                                           ed reports on Industrialisation, Fresh-
                                                   change and responses. The report con-
ed as follows:                                                                                     water Resources, and Socio-Economic
                                                   sists of three main sections:
                                                                                                   Environment. The sectoral approach
• Pressure indicators, arising from so-            • Biophysical environment.                      method of reporting that Namibia is
  cio-economic, political and institu-                                                             undertaking differs significantly from
  tional shortcomings, and their influ-            • Human environment.
                                                                                                   the approaches used by other SADC
  ence or contribution to changes in               • Causes and responses to environ-              countries.
  the state of the environment.                       mental change in South Africa.
• State indicators that describe the bio-          The South African NSOER adapted a               In producing the sectoral reports, Na-
  physical condition of the specific nat-          framework which takes into account              mibia has concentrated on identifying
  ural resource sectors.                           driving forces, pressures, state, impacts       key indicators of each sector.
• Response indicators, which are re-               and responses. The DPSIR framework
                                                                                                   The focus on indicators is in the con-
  actions to the unwanted trends in                is also used in different parts of the
                                                                                                   text of the country’s programme on In-
  the pressure and state indicators.               world.
                                                                                                   formation and Communication Service
  The aim of these indicators is to re-                                                            for Sustainable Development in Na-
                                                   Zimbabwe SOE Reporting
  lieve the pressure and improve the                                                               mibia. Some of the programme aims
  state of the environment by stop-                Zimbabwe produced its first SOE re-             are to:
  ping, slowing down or reversing                  port in 1992 and the more recent one
  these changes.                                   in 1998. The contents explore the main          • Determine the status of resources.
                                                   environmental media (atmosphere,                • Discern changes and trends.
While the report gives a general over-             water, land, biodiversity) as well as the       • Provide an understanding of
view of the issues in Malawi, it has lim-          socio-economic perspectives as they               processes.
ited information on the districts and ec-          relate to the human and environmen-             • Provide early warning of emerging
osystems, for example.                             tal health of the country.                        problems.
Lack of recent data on many issues also            Ecological land classification (ELC) in-        • Measure the effectiveness of envi-
precluded a more comprehensive re-                 troduces a spatial, ecologically-orient-          ronmental and sustainable develop-
port and it lacks comprehensive infor-             ed context, and the chapter on re-                ment policies.
mation on the main socio-economic,                 search, inventory and monitoring (RIM)
political and institutional issues contrib-        provides a summary assessment of
                                                   these activities in the country.                Conclusion
uting to changes in the state of the en-
vironment and natural resources.                   The report is generally based on the            Different SOE conceptual frameworks
                                                   pressure-state-response (PSR) model             exist from which SADC countries can
South Africa SOE Report 1999                                                                       choose to prepare their reports on the
                                                   to characterise themes, sustainable de-
South Africa is the first SADC country             velopment (and sustainable living) re-          state of the environment. Obviously a
to publish its SOE report on the Inter-            quirements of the country. The report           combination of different concepts pro-
net as well as provide a CD-ROM ver-               tries also to tackle the ecosystem ap-          vides for comprehensive assessment
sion for public distribution (Zimbabwe             proach. These approaches were not               and reporting on the environment.
published a CD-ROM version in 1998                 applied in a uniform manner across all          Perhaps what is critical to a compre-
but less than 10 copies were produced).            chapters.                                       hensive reporting is a commitment to
The National State of the Environment              The PSR model was the principal ap-             an integrated approach, which takes
Report (NSOER) for South Africa pro-               proach used in the chapters, with some          into account various issues, institutions,
vides detailed information on the cur-             discussion of the country’s sustainable         sectors as well as other stakeholders
                                                                                                   in society.

DPSIR framework use in South Africa                                                                The strength of an SOE process lies in
Driving forces are the underlying human activities that lead to environmental change. They
                                                                                                   an open system which is ongoing, fo-
may be governmental activities, such as agricultural policies, or energy subsidies, corporate      cuses on strengthening the process
activities, such as irresponsible disposal of waste or inefficient use of raw materials, or they   rather than just the final report, and
may be consumer activities, such as private vehicle use, or recreational activities.               accommodates input from various
Pressures exerted on the environment and natural resources include increased pollution of          sectors.
air, water, and soil; or depletion of natural resources such as fish stocks and woody biomass.
State describes the current state, and where data are available, shows trends in environ-
                                                                                                   An ongoing process looks beyond the
mental quality over time.                                                                          production of the SOE report, but at
Impacts are the consequences of the pressures on natural resources, such as reductions in
                                                                                                   raising awareness in and outside gov-
biodiversity, soil degradation and desertification, or sea level rise.                             ernment on the need to assess and
Responses include the current policies and management strategies to combat environmental
                                                                                                   comment on the environmental bal-
degradation, the effectiveness of these policies, and recommendations for additional activities    ance sheet.1
to alleviate environmental problems.
                                                         Sources for Further Information
  ANGOLA                                               BOTSWANA                                              LESOTHO
  The Secretary                                        Botswana National Conservation                        The SOE National coordinator
  Ministry of Environment                              Strategy (Coordinating) Agency                        National Environmental Secretariat (NES)
  CP 3788                                              P. Bag 0068                                           P.O. Box 10993,
  LUANDA                                               GABORONE                                              MASERU 100,
  Tel: 244-2-334709                                    Tel: 267-302050 or 309952                             Tel: 266-311767
  Fax:244-2-23394                                       Fax: 267-302051                                      Fax; 266-310506
                                                                                                             Email: natenv@lesoff.co.za

  MALAWI                                               MAURITIUS                                             MOZAMBIQUE
  The Director                                         The Divisional Environment Officer                    The Head of Research Department
  Dept of Environmental Affairs                        Department of Environment                             Ministry for Coordination of
  P. Bag 394                                           Ken Lee Tower                                         Environmental Affairs
  LILONGWE                                             2nd Floor, Barracks St                                Av. Acordos de Lusaka, no. 2115
  Tel: 265-781111                                      PORT LOUIS                                            MAPUTO
  Fax: 265-783379                                      Tel: 230-2067866                                      Tel:258-65843/51
  Email: eadfinance@malawi.net                         Fax: 230-2126671                                      Fax: 258-465849
                                                       Email: denvmr@bon.intnet.mu                           Email: micoa@ambinet.vem.mz

  NAMIBIA                                              SOUTH AFRICA                                          SWAZILAND
  The Secretary                                        The Director                                          The Director
  Ministry of Environment and Tourism                  Department of Environmental                           Swaziland Environment Authority (SEA)
  P. Bag 13306                                          Affairs & Tourism (DEA&T)                            P.O. Box 57
  WINDHOEK                                             P. Bag X 447                                          MBABANE
  Tel: 264-61-249015                                   PRETORIA 0001                                         Tel: 268-46244
  Fax: 264-61-240339                                   Tel: 27-12-3103580                                    Fax: 268-42436
  Email: cbj@deal_dea.met.gov.n                        Fax: 27-12-3226287
                                                       Email: opv_ck@ozone.pwv.gov.za

  TANZANIA                                             ZAMBIA                                                ZIMBABWE
  The Director, Research, EE and Documentation         The Director                                          The Director
  National Environment Management Council              Environmental Council of Zambia (ECZ)                 Department of Natural Resources
  P.O. Box 63154                                       Box 35131                                             Box CY 385
  DAR ES SALAAM                                        LUSAKA                                                Causeway
  Tel: 255-51-150982 or 153148 or 34603                Tel: 260-1-254130/1                                   HARARE
  Fax: 255-51-34603                                    Fax: 260-1-254164                                     Tel: 263-4-705661/71
                                                       Email: necz@zamnet.zm                                 Fax: 263-4-793123
                                                                                                             E-mail: dnrnatr@cst.co.zw

                                                                         Bibliography
Chakela Q.K. (eds.), State of the Environment in Lesotho, 1997 National Environment Secretariat, Ministry of Environment, Gender and Youth
Affairs, Lesotho, 1999
Chenje M., Sola L., Paleczny D. (eds.), The State of Zimbabwe’s Environment 1998, Government of the Republic of Zimbabwe, Ministry of Mines,
Environment and Tourism, Harare, 1998
Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, State of the Environment South Africa, CD-ROM. http://www.enviroment.gov.za, 1999
Directorate of Environmental Affairs/EMCON Consulting Engineers, State of the Environment Report On Namibia’s Industrialisation Environment.
Volume 1: Indicators, Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Windhoek, 1999
Directorate of Environmental Affairs/EMCON Consulting Engineers, State of the Environment Report On Namibia’s Industrialisation Environment.
Volume 2: State of the Enviroment, Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Windhoek, 1999
Directorate of Environmental Affairs/Windhoek Consulting Engineers/Interconsult/Desert Research Foundation of Namibia, State of the Environ-
ment Report on Water in Namibia. Volume 1 & 2, Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Windhoek, 1999
Directorate of Environmental Affairs/Urban Dynamics Africa/Trend Line, State of the Environment Report on the Socio-Economic Environment in
Namibia, Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Windhoek, 1999
Environmental Affairs Department, State of Environment Report for Malawi 1998. Montfort Press, Limbe, 1998
Rump P.C., State of the Environment Reporting: Source Book of Methods and Approaches, Environment Canada/NIPHE, Netherlands DEIA,UNEP,
1996
Sola L., Paleczny D. (eds), Proceedings of the First National Workshop on State of the Environment Reporting in Zimbabwe: SOER Occasional Paper
No.1, Ministry of Environment and Tourism-Department of Natural Resources, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources-Zimbabwe Natural Resources
Management Programme, Kadoma, Zimbabwe, 1997

                                                                  Netcab Programme
 The SOE Info is produced as part of the Southern African Research and Documentation Centre’s Musokotwane Environment
 Resource Centre (SARDC-IMERCSA) participation in the regional Networking and Capacity Building Programme (NETCAB),
 which is managed by the World Conservation Union Regional Office for Southern Africa (IUCN-ROSA).
 This publication was made possible through the support provided by the United States Agency for International Development
 (USAID) Regional Centre for Southern Africa (RCSA), Gaborone, Botswana, under the terms of the Grant no. 690-A-00-95-
 00950-00. The opinions expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the USAID.


 For further information contact:
 The Director, SARDC-IMERCSA, P.O. Box 5690, Harare, Zimbabwe, Tel: (263-4) 720814/737301, Fax: (263-4) 738693,
 Email: cep@imercsa.sardc.net



                                                                                               Southern African Research                             USAID
                                          The World Conservation Union                         and Documentation Centre

								
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