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									     R E SP O NSE T O
I N T ER V EN T I ON (R T I )




    B u r k e Co u n t y
   A l t e r n at i v e S c h o o l
          “FAILURE IS NOT AN OPTION”
                                   Table of Contents
Georgia Student Pyramid of Interventions…………………………………………….................. 3-6
Glossary of Terms………………………………………………………………………………… 7-8
Burke County/BCAS RTI Summary, Tier 1, Academics ……………………………………… 9
        Reading/English/Language Arts…………………………………………………………… 10
        Progress Monitoring for Reading…………………………………………………………. 11
        Mathematics……………………………………………………………………………… 11
        Progress Monitoring for Mathematics…………………………………………………… 12
        Science/Social Studies…………………………………………………………………… 12
        Speech/ Language………………………………………………………………………… 13
        Tier 1 Procedures………………………………………………………………………… 13
        Documents Required……………………………………………………………………… 14
Tier 2……………………………………………………………………………………………… 15
        Tier 2 Interventions for Reading, ELA and Mathematics………………………….……… 15-16
        Tier 2 Procedures…………………………………………………………………………. 16-17
        Documents Required for T2……………………………………………………………… 17
Tier 3, Student Support Team (SST)……………………………………………………………… 18-19
        Tier 3 Procedures…………………………………………………………………………. 18-19
Tiers 1-3 Intervention Flow Charts……………………………………………………………… 20-22
Tiers of Intervention-Behavior…………………………………………………………………… 23-26
Appendices
        Intervention Plan/log form………………………………………………………………. 28
        Invitation to Parents form………………………………………………………………… 29
        Parent’s Guide……………………………………………………………………………. 30-31
        Tier 1 to Tier 2 Referral Form……………………………………………………………. 32-33
        Tier 2 to Tier 3/SST………………………………………………………………………. 34-35
        SST Case Record (Minutes) ……………………………………………………………… 36
        Student Services Referral…………………………………………………………………. 37-38
        Intervention Team Management Summary………………………………………………. 39
        RTI Procedures Checklist………………………………………………………………… 40
        Hierarchy of Reading Acquisition and Instruction……………………………………….. 41
        Active Reading Chart (Example) ………………………………………………………… 42
        Behavior Management, interventions and forms………………………………………… 43-61
        Instructions for creating Excel Charts……………………………………………………. 62
        Web links and other references…………………………………………………………… 63




                                         Page 2 of 63
                                              CSI Georgia




  Collaboratively Developed by the Georgia Department of Education
Departments of Curriculum & Instruction and Teacher & Student Support



                               Page 3 of 63
           Student Achievement Pyramid of Interventions
                         Wanda Creel, Sally Krisel, John O’Connor, Lynne Williams

The Georgia Department of Education is unveiling a conceptual framework that will enable all students in Georgia
to continue to make great gains in school. The Student Achievement Pyramid of Interventions is the result of
teamwork and collaboration throughout the Georgia Department of Education. The catalyst for the development and
implementation of Georgia’s Student Achievement Pyramid of Interventions was the need for Georgia’s
educators to have a common focus and a common language regarding instructional practices and interventions.
The Student Achievement Pyramid of Interventions is a graphic organizer that illustrates layers of instructional
efforts that can be provided to students according to their individual needs. Additionally, the Student
Achievement Pyramid of Intervention can serve as a framework for discussion among collaborative professional
learning communities that are willing to explore and engage in all avenues
available to assist students in their learning process.


While the Student Achievement Pyramid of Intervention may sound like “educational jargon,” it provides a
framework to align practices with the mission of learning for everyone. Richard DuFour says that pyramids of
intervention prod us to ask the following questions: “Are our kids learning? How do we know that they are
learning? And, most importantly, what are we prepared to do when they do not learn?” DuFour
asserts that the final question is the distinguishing characteristic of a professional learning community.


In a professional learning community, DuFour states, there is a commitment to help students learn, but the
commitment goes much deeper than in schools without professional learning communities. “In the
professional learning community, we say that learning is so important that we are going to do whatever it
takes to help you learn, and we are not going to let up on you until you do learn.”


  Research consistently points out that student growth is enhanced when evaluation results are used to guide
continued instruction. This concept of monitoring students’ progress, or “progress monitoring,” enables
educators to determine if students are increasing their skills as expected, or if they need additional
instructional interventions to enable them to maximize academic success. The Student Achievement
Pyramid of Interventions represents the process of continually implementing “progress monitoring” and then
providing layers of more and more intensive interventions so that students can be successful and progress in
their learning. This proactive approach does not wait until students have large gaps in their learning that are
almost too great to overcome. Neither does it allow high-achieving students to languish in a curriculum that is
not challenging to them. This approach focuses on determining when students are struggling and providing
strategic interventions to help them shore up their areas of need; it also documents students’ strength and
provides additional challenge in a variety of ways. Georgia’s Student Achievement Pyramid of Interventions
begins with standards-based classrooms serving as the foundation for teaching and learning.



                                Pages 3-4 explain the tiered levels of
                                                          Page 4 of 63

                   Georgia’s Student Achievement Pyramid of Intervention
             STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT PYRAMID OF INTERVENTIONS
Tier 1: Standards Based Classroom Learning describes effective instruction that should be
happening in all classrooms for all students. As Georgia moves towards phasing in the
implementation of the Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) it is recognized that the curriculum
standards are the foundation for the learning that occurs in each classroom. This type of instruction/ learning
focuses on the GPS and includes evidenced based instruction that is differentiated according to students’
various needs. Teachers utilize progress monitoring results to guide and adjust instruction. Tier 1 is not
limited to instruction in the academic content areas, but also includes all developmental domains such as
behavioral and social development. This tier represents effective, strategic, and expert instruction that is
ideally available in all classrooms. Through standards-based learning and on-going formative assessments we
can answer DuFour’s questions of “are kids learning; and how are they learning?”

Tier 2: Needs Based Instruction/Learning: Standard Intervention Protocols: Tier Two
becomes the answer to the question “what are we prepared to do when they do not learn?” Tier 2
describes pre-planned interventions that should be in place for students who are not being sufficiently
successful or adequately challenged with Tier 1 interventions alone. In many schools in Geo rgia,
students who need additional interventions in the general classroom have been referred to the
Student Support Team and possibly evaluated for special education services. The new conceptual
framework illustrates the potential for having interventions for students before their gap becomes so
large that specialized instruction is needed. Tier 2 interventions are not a substitution for Tier 1
interventions, but are layered in addition to the Tier 1 instruction that is provided. Tier 2
interventions are not solely reliant on the expertise and diligence of individual teachers across the
school. They should include pre-planned interventions developed and supported at the school level,
thereby becoming “standard intervention protocols” that are proactively in place for students who
need them. Working collaboratively, teachers and instructional leaders should determine concepts and
content areas that have traditionally proven difficult for students in their school. Then, they should
develop interventions that are available when specific students show weaknesses in those areas. For
1 st and 2 n d -grade students who struggle with learning to read, for example, Tier 2 interventions
may include structured, diligent, pre-planned tutoring interventions for those specified students.
Similarly, schools should determine concepts and content areas that are likely to have been
mastered by highly able students and, through strategies such as pretesting and curriculum
compacting, be prepared to provide modified curriculum. All students who need a Tier 2 intervention
(in addition to their Tier 1 instruction) should be identified through the progress monitoring evaluation
data.
         Tier 2 interventions can be used at all school levels. Virtually every high school has students
who become disenfranchised and unsuccessful and therefore become high risk for dropping out of
school. High schools, possibly in collaboration with local middle schools, can anticipate this and
identify those students very early in their high school careers who ar e high risk for this type of
difficulty. They can then build systematic mentoring programs that encourage students to become
active and engaged in high school activities. In addition, specific academic interventions can be
established for students who are missing core academic skills (e.g. strong reading skills) that will
                                                   Page 5 of 63
increase the probability that high risk students will have the necessary skills to be successful. To
maintain motivation and improve academic achievement, high schools should use a variety of
strategies to encourage more students to engage in rigorous coursework, e.g., vertical teaming that
leads to AP courses. Tier 2 interventions should not be endless for individual students who are struggling.
Schools must ensure that specific students are not labeled as being “Tier 2 students” and thereby
create lower expectations or tracking for those students. Tier 2 interventions are proactive and
maintain high expectations for all students.

Tier 3: Student Support Team Driven Instruction/Learning provides an additional layer of
analysis and interventions. The Student Support Team (-and other small group teams such as the
Gifted Eligibility Team) meet to discuss students who are still not provided the instructional
experiences to meet their needs. During this process, the diagnostic team analyzes the specific needs
of the individual student. In Tier 2, schools establish standard intervention protocols that are
available across the school. Tier 3 becomes much more individualized as the student’s teacher s,
other personnel, and parents systematically determine the issues that need to be addressed for the
student. Instructional interventions are then strategically put in place for the student and progress
monitoring processes, including sensitive instruments that may be formal or informal in nature, are
implemented frequently to determine if the student is responding to the interventions. Effective Tier
3 activities are exemplified by systematic activities to determine a student’s needs, implementation of
scientifically-based interventions that are strategically incorporated with fidelity to meet the student’s
individual needs, and frequent progress monitoring to inform continued instruction.

 Tier 4: Specially Designed Instruction/Learning is developed specifically for students who meet
 the respective eligibility criteria for special program placement. With three effective tiers in place
 prior to specialized services, more struggling students will be successful and will not require this
 degree of interventions. Tier 4 will provide instruction that is targeted and specialized to meet
 students’ needs. Tier 4 instruction would include formal Gifted Education services for students who
 qualify, but it may also include interventions suggested by the Gifted Eligibilit y Team for regular
 classroom curriculum modification for any student with advanced learning needs. It may include
 special education and related services for eligible students, provided in the general education
 classroom, or in some cases, in a resource room. Tier 4 does not represent a location for services,
 but indicates a layer of interventions that may be provided in the general education class or in a
separate setting. Tier 4 is not a substitute for Tier 2, but is layered upon Tier 2 interventions.




                                                 Page 6 of 63
                                                      Glossary of Terms
Accommodation – Changes in instruction that enable children to demonstrate their abilities in the classroom or assessment/test setting.
Accommodations are designed to provide equity, not advantage, for children with disabilities. Accommodations include assistive
technology as well as alterations to presentation, response, scheduling, or settings. When used appropriately, they reduce or even
eliminate the effects of a child’s disability; but do not reduce or lower the standards or expectations for content.

Antecedent: a preceding event; in behavioral research, an antecedent stimulus elicits a learned response from an organism. ―Cause‖
Autism Spectrum Disorder: ASD is characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, as well as
severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior. The three main forms of ASD are autism, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-
NOS.
Baseline: measurement made during a non-intervention phase.

Benchmark Assessments (Scantron/Achievement Series): Periodic assessments (pre-post testing each 9 weeks period for grades 1-8
and some HS classes) based on discrete GPS standards and the Burke County Curriculum Maps that assist in determining whether the
student is making adequate progress toward the end of year goal-meeting standards on the CRCT.

Benchmarks as used with Universal Screening: Under most models of Universal Screening and RTI, these quick, school-wide
assessments are given three times a year and are compared to established cut scores (school, district or national) to determine the need
for intervention. The assessments are skills-based and address the underlying building blocks for academic success (phonological
awareness, phonics, decoding, comprehension, math comprehension, math calculation and writing). Examples are Oral Reading
Fluency, Maze techniques or timed math calculation sheets.

CAI (Computer Aided Instruction): Use of computer technology to introduce, reinforce or drill skills or information to aide and
supplement, but not replace, teacher instruction.

Consequence (As used in behavioral management): This term refers to the ―pay off‖ the person receives as a result of their behavior
or the event immediately following, not the disciplinary consequence imposed by another. Consequences either increase the probability
that the behavior will occur or decrease the probability that it will occur again.

Curriculum Based measurement/ assessment: measurement that uses direct observation and recording of a student's performance in
the local curriculum as a basis to make instructional decisions. Typically, these approaches have emphasized direct, repeated
assessment of academic target behaviors. In each academic area, brief curriculum probes are developed and these probes are used to
collect data on student performance.

Dibels: Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills.

Externalizing vs. Internalizing: The term ―Externalizing‖ refers to behaviors that tend to be overt and visible such as: aggression,
conduct problems, defiance, and hyperactivity. ―Internalizing‖ is often associated with behaviors that are more emotionally or
―internally‖ based such as: depression, withdrawal, poor reality contact, anxiety, etc.

Fidelity Assessment/monitoring: Fidelity is attentiveness to one's duty. In RTI, this concept and the assessment of it refers to the
teacher or tutor’s accurate and consistent adherement to quality instruction and the conponents of interventions. This assessment or
monitoring is usually in the form of observations or data review (lesson plans, teacher notes or checklists of activities, etc) by a
building level administrator.

Formal Data Collection: Duration Recording, Event Recording/ Frequency Counts, Interval Recording, Latency Recording and Time
Sampling are found on page 54 of the manual.

Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) (or analysis)- A systematic process for defining a child’s specific behavior and
determining the reason why (function or purpose) the behavior is occurring. The FBA process includes examination of the contextual
variables (antecedents and consequences) of the behavior, environmental components, and other information related to the behavior.

Frequency, Duration, Intensity: how often, how long it lasts, and how bad-the severity.

Intervention: a researched-based program or formal ―strategy‖ (hopefully that can be tied back to a researched-based program or
theory) that is used to provide instruction and remediation.


                                                               Page 7 of 63
Intervention Team: team of professionals in each school who make the decision to move between tiers and assist in recommending
and monitoring interventions.

Norms: (normative data) this refers to the statistical ―standards‖ to which an individual child is compared on a specific data point. On
nationally ―normed‖ tests, typically a stratified, representative sample of the population is chosen to be tested. An individual student’s
score on this same test is then compared to the distribution of the initial sample in an effort to describe their performance in
quantitative terms.
Operational Definition: A very clear and precise explanation of the items being measured or the terms that are used such that they
can be consistently counted.
Oral Reading Fluency: accuracy and fluency of oral reading with connected text. Student performance is measured by having
students read a passage aloud for one minute. The number of correct words per minute from the passage is the oral reading fluency
rate. This is typically measured via the Dibels tests, but is also measured by other curriculum-based and normative-based instruments.

Percentile Rank: the percentage of scores in its frequency distribution which are lower. For example, a test score which is greater than
85% of the scores of people taking the test is said to be at the 85th percentile.

Phonemes: the smallest structural unit (sound) that distinguishes meaning (44 in the English language). Examples are: /a/, /sh/, /t/.

Phonological Awareness: the ability to auditorily distinguish parts of speech, such as syllables and phonemes. The ability to blend and
segment phonemes is critical to the development of decoding and spelling skills. Phonological awareness is an important and reliable
predictor of later reading ability and has, therefore, been the focus of much research.

Premack Principle: is a special case of reinforcement elaborated by David Premack, which states that a highly preferred activity can
be used effectively as a reinforcer for a less preferred activity.

Progress Monitoring: Progress monitoring is a scientifically based practice that is used to assess students’ academic performance and
evaluate the effectiveness of instruction. It encompasses multiple evaluations that are used to identify needs and thus plan and monitor
instruction/interventions.

Proximal/ Distal: close/far

Reading Fluency: the ability to read connected text rapidly, smoothly, effortlessly, and automatically with little conscious attention to
the mechanics of reading, such as decoding.

Reinforcement: something that increases the strength or liklihood of a response. Intangible Reinforcement: praise, privileges,
attention, smiles, ―feelings‖, internal responses. Tangible Reinforcement: external-prizes, edibles, money, points on a card, etc.

Scientifically-based research (SBR) - Research that applies rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain valid knowledge
relevant to core academic development, instruction, and difficulties; and includes research that: (a) employs systematic, empirical
methods that draw on observation or experiment; (b) involves rigorous data analyses that are adequate to test the stated hypotheses and
justify the general conclusions drawn; (c) relies on measurements or observational methods that provide valid data across evaluators
and observers and across multiple measurements and observations; and (d) has been accepted by a peer-reviewed journal or approved
by a panel of independent experts through a comparably rigorous, objective, and scientific review.

Section 504: federal law that prohibits the discrimination of a person with a disability and provides for accommodations or
modifications to ensure the accessibility of the curriculum. Students who are not already identified as special education eligible and
who are suspected of having a mental or physical condition should be considered for 504 eligibility.

Slope: is often used to describe the measurement of the steepness, incline, gradient, or grade of a straight line or distance between data
points. The larger the slope, the greater the rate of increase. In progress monitoring, a large slope value may indicates a fast rate of
learning or incomparison to a ―goal‖ may indicate the need for intensive intervention. The Tukey method (see handout) is
recommended to compute the slope for RTI purposes.

Standard Deviation: This is a statistical term that describes how spread-out your data points are and how the data differs from the
mean or average. The larger the standard deviation (in points), the more spread-out the scores are (more scores falling in the extremes).
A small standard deviation suggests that most of the scores are clustered around the average score. Students scoring plus or minus one
standard deviation fall in the average range. The actual Standard Deviation (SD) will vary from one assessment or measurement to
another.
                                                                Page 8 of 63
                                    Response to Intervention (RTI)

                                   Tiers of Intervention- Academics
                     (Reading/English-Language Arts/Math/Science/Social Studies)

TIER 1: STANDARDS BASED CLASSROOM LEARNING

    ► Instruction is (GPS) standards based and includes evidence based instruction that is differentiated
      according to students’ various needs.

    ► Teachers monitor students’ progress frequently via on-going formative assessments and use results to
      guide and adjust instruction.

    ► Instruction is planned to address all developmental domains (i.e., academic and developmental,
      including social and behavioral development).

    ► Approximate Timeline: Duration= at least 6 to 12 weeks; Progress Monitoring= every 2 to 4
      weeks;

    ► Data Points= at least 3

    ► Adequate progress is expected among at least 80 % of the school population

   (DuFour, cited in the narrative of ―Georgia…Pyramid of Interventions‖: Are kids learning?
    How are they learning?)

In Tier 1, classroom teachers at BCAS will use curriculum guides and maps with the designated Georgia
Performance Standards for each nine weeks grading period to drive instruction in English/language arts,
math, science, and social studies.

Note: On rare occasions, a student’s academic delays or risk status may be so severe that an immediate
referral is warranted. If a RTI/SST bypass seems to be appropriate, the principal should contact student
services. In these cases, attempts at intervention and progress monitoring should proceed throughout the
referral/assessment process. Student Services should be contacted when school staff is made aware of
students with significant hearing or vision problems. In the event of a direct parental request for special
education evaluation, the parent should be referred immediately to the Student Services Department.

SECTION 504: Students with medical conditions (including any form of ADHD whether on medication
or not), psychiatric diagnoses, previous special education placement, or students with perceived
disabilities should be referred to the 504 Committee at their school for consideration for eligibility and
possible interventions or accommodations. If the Committee feels that the disability substantially limits
their participation in the school environment and they are deemed eligible, then a plan detailing
accommodations or services should be developed and periodically reviewed. (This plan is in addition to any
RTI intervention plans, but they can be coordinated.) If you have any concerns or suspicions about potential
504 eligibility, you must contact your 504 Coordinator or Building Level Administrator immediately.




                                                   Page 9 of 63
Reading/English/Language Arts

       The Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) will drive instruction to ensure that all students are
       provided with the necessary curriculum as mandated by the State of Georgia. All BCAS teachers
       will utilize the Burke County Curriculum Maps in planning instruction and in the delivery of
       content.

      All teachers of 6-8th grades use the McDougal Litell The Language of Literature with units correlated to
       GPS and the Curriculum Maps. The following components of this textbook will be utilized on a regular
       basis: Assessment Masters, Performance Server, Research Starters, Language Network (ELL students),
       Interactive Workbooks, and Audio CDs.
      Students participate in the Accelerated Reader Program to encourage and enrich reading skills and
       build vocabulary.
      Students regularly engage in ―mock‖ writing exam activities to practice writing skills and prepare them
       for the required writing exams. Middle school students at BCAS also use the Writing to Win
       curriculum.
      Daily journaling and writing across the curriculum will be used a minimum of 4 times weekly
      Daily Oral Language (15 minutes daily)
      CRCT Coach/ Buckle Down units (reinforce GPS standards/middle school students))
      EOCT/ GaHSGT Coach book units (for high school students)


All teachers will include the following Learning Focused Schools' strategies/practices in their classrooms:

   -   GPS Standards/Essential Questions posted
   -   Vocabulary introduced for each new lesson
   -   Guided practice, independent practice, and summarizers and/or assessment provided
   -   Student conferences during self-selected reading and writing times to target specific skills on an
       individual basis

Additional Tier 1 Resources for E/LA Include:
               NetTrekker (items targeted to deficiencies noted on benchmark testing or classroom
                 performance)
               KeyTrain activities/ tutorials
               Links to Learning curriculum sites targeting weaknesses as prescribed by teacher
               United Streaming-black line masters/ mechanics, online tutorials and literature
               Graphic Organizers
               Aaaspell.com: subscription-based internet tutorial program

Curriculum Maps and checklists will be maintained for the all programs to show documentation of lessons/skills
implemented or taught.

Benchmark assessments will be given during the first and seventh week of each nine weeks.

When students do not meet the required level of proficiency on the benchmark assessment or classroom
assessments (within 1 standard deviation of the grade/class mean), teachers will perform a data analysis from
the assessment to determine specific area(s) for remediation. Students who have deficiencies, as noted on the
benchmark assessments, will receive remediation from the classroom teacher, paraprofessional and/or a tutor.
                                                   Page 10 of 63
   Universal Screening for Reading and ELA:
      At risk students at the Tier 1 level will be identified by one or more of the following methods:
      1. Failure on the previous year’s CRCT in ELA or Reading
      2. Scoring below the 1st standard deviation on the Scantron Benchmark post test for ELA in comparison
          to the grade level mean during any 9 week period.
      3. Scoring in the ―at-risk‖ range on an oral reading fluency measure or writing probe.
      4. Class work or mastery test data that is consistently below expectancy based on the teacher’s
          knowledge of Georgia Performance Standards for that grade level.

   Progress Monitoring for Reading/ Writing:
        An oral reading fluency measure (curriculum-based measurement) for basic reading skills and
          fluency should be administered as a baseline upon the student being identified as at-risk and should
          be administered at a minimum every 3 weeks.
        The STAR test can be used as a progress monitoring technique at T1.
        Pre and post benchmark assessments will be administered approximately every nine weeks.
          Comparison of pre-test and post-test data along with group and classroom norms can assist in
          determining whether sufficient growth has been achieved.
        Documentation and scoring of the SRA Reading program may be used to monitor progress when
          this is used as an intervention.
        The Online Assessment System (OAS) may be used as progress monitoring for specific GPS skill
          areas. The Instructional Coordinator at your school can assist with this.
        Printouts from computer aided instruction (CAI) such as PLATO or others as they become
          available.
        Writing probes (writing fluency) scored for total words, correctly spelled words and correct writing
          sequences will be administered every 3-4 weeks for students having significant difficulties with
          writing skills.

Other data that could be used to assess year to year growth patterns, but not for progress monitoring are:
        -CRCT testing
        -Other pre and post test information.

Mathematics

The Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) will drive all instruction to ensure that all students are provided
with the necessary curriculum as mandated by the State of Georgia.

      All 6th through 8th grade students at BCAS will receive instruction from the Holt math program. T1
       Classroom interventions using the Holt Curriculum include: Are You Ready?, Ready to Go On?, online
       lesson tutorial videos, online homework help, online intervention and enrichment exercises, online study
       tools and online games/ projects.
      Students who have deficiencies, as noted on the benchmark assessments and Holt math chapter tests,
       will receive remediation from the classroom teacher or other available personnel via the Extended
       Learning Time or in the classroom setting.

Benchmark assessments are administered to all students during the first and seventh week of each nine weeks.
Items on the benchmark tests are developed from the GPS that are addressed during the nine weeks.

                                                    Page 11 of 63
All teachers will include the following Learning Focused Schools' strategies/practices in their classrooms:

   -   GPS Standards/Essential Questions posted
   -   Vocabulary introduced for each new lesson
   -   Guided practice, independent practice, and summarizers and/or assessment provided

Additional Tier 1 Resources or interventions include:

               NetTrekker (items targeted to deficiencies noted on benchmark testing or classroom
                performance)
               KeyTrain activities/ tutorials
               Links to Learning curriculum sites targeting weaknesses as prescribed by teacher
               United Streaming-black line masters/ mechanics, online tutorials
               Daily drill in math facts and flexible grouping for differentiated instruction
               aaamath.com : subscription-based internet tutorial program
               CRCT Coach/ Buckle Down units (reinforce GPS standards/middle school students))
               EOCT/ GaHSGT Coach book units (for high school students)

Universal Screening for Mathematics:
   At risk students at the Tier 1 level will be identified by one or more of the following methods:
       1. Failure on the previous year’s CRCT in Mathematics.
       2. Scoring below the 1st standard deviation on the Scantron Benchmark post test for Mathematics in
           comparison to the grade level mean during any 9 week period.
       3. Scoring in the ―at-risk‖ range on a Math CBM.
       4. Class work or mastery test data that is consistently below expectancy based on the teacher’s
           knowledge of Georgia Performance Standards for that grade level.

Progress Monitoring for Mathematics:
     The assessment components utilized in the Holt math series will be administered to students upon the
       completion of each chapter.
     Curriculum-based measurements (CBM’s) for computation and problem-solving. These should be
       administered as a baseline upon the student being identified as at-risk and should be administered at a
       minimum every 3 weeks. Computation probes may be generated from the Intervention Central website
       (http://www.interventioncentral.org) which also contains appropriate scoring instructions for ―digits
       correct.‖
     Grade-level appropriate Saxon Math or similar timed computation sheets may be administered as
       progress monitoring as long as there are alternate forms available for the skills being measured.
     Printouts from CAI’s may be used to document progress monitoring. Data comparing the at-risk
       student’s progress or score on a particular module, sets of modules, or progression in the grade level
       hierarchy can be compared to the class or grade level scores.
     The Online Assessment System (OAS) may be used as progress monitoring for specific GPS skill areas.
       The Instructional Coordinator at your school can assist with this.

Science/Social Studies
The Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) will drive all science instruction to ensure that all students are
provided with the necessary curriculum as mandated by the State of Georgia. The Quality Core Curriculum
(QCC’s) will be implemented for social studies, with the GPS used for Social Studies when available.


                                                   Page 12 of 63
All 6th -8th grade teachers will utilize the curriculum maps and the adopted textbook series as resources in
teaching science and social studies.

Note: difficulties in Science/Social Studies are typically due to issues with reading, attention and/or poor
study skills. Interventions for problems in Science or Social Studies should target these deficits as well as
tutoring in specific content. Helpful resources include: websites, audio tapes/CD’s/ DVD’s of content or
textbooks, graphic organizers or Thinking Maps, etc.

Lesson plans, pacing guides, progress reports, and report cards will be used as documentation for the lessons,
assessment scores, textbook utilization, lesson pacing, etc. mentioned above. If a learning strategy is used that
is connected with a research-based, global intervention such as 4 Blocks, Marzano, or Learning Focused
Schools, please indicate the intervention as well as the specific strategy.

Other general strategies which should be implemented in Tier 1 may include the following:
    Differentiated Instruction
    Graphic organizers
    Computer-assisted software practice
    Weekly parental contact
    Homework/Parent contact logs
    Daily Oral Language/Daily Language Review
    Test-Taking Strategies

Note: Counseling services (i.e., classroom guidance) will be offered to all students to address academic areas as
well as test-taking skills, effective study skills, etc. Additionally, small group—and/or individual—counseling
will be implemented as needed/requested for struggling students in each tier.

Speech/Language

Children with articulation or communication needs are also required to go through the Response to Intervention
and SST process. Teachers who have concerns about a student’s articulation, voice quality, fluency (stuttering),
language development or general ability to communicate will need to contact the Speech/Language Pathologist
working with their grade level and/or school. The SLP’s will assist teachers in determining the nature of the
problem(s), implementing interventions and instruments for progress monitoring that are specific to the delays
or abnormalities noted. Although classroom teachers can work in normalizing articulation and language
development, keep in mind that dialectical differences and developmental sounds that are not age appropriate to
the student are inappropriate for speech/language intervention. Please inform the SLP if the student is having
any academic or behavioral delays or problems as these will need to be addressed in conjunction with the
communication interventions. For students with academic or behavior problems in addition to speech/language
concerns, the SLP may need to be a part of both the Intervention Team and the Student Support Team. Hearing
and vision screening should be done when the teacher first notices articulation difficulties.



Tier 1 Procedures:

At this stage, if the regular education teacher determines that a student is considered “at risk” and is
struggling based on evidence presented through class work, test grades and the benchmark assessments,
the teacher begins to collect more frequent data (every 2 to 4 weeks) using an above mentioned progress
                                                     Page 13 of 63
monitoring technique and implements a change in teaching strategy through in-class tutoring or differentiated
instruction. Tier 1 resources may be expanded by increasing the frequency, intensity or duration of the activity
within the resources of the classroom or the teacher may collaborate with the parents to enhance home study
skills.

The teacher will record evidence-based instructional changes or interventions on the RTI Intervention
Plan/Log and will attach any progress monitoring results (raw data/graph to compare student’s performance in
relation to class/grade performance, grade appropriate goals or their own baseline data if group expectations are
not available). The form and results will be kept in the student’s RTI file which is set up and maintained
at this level by the teacher. The change in instruction might be organizational, motivational, or a modification
of a curricular variable. The type of change(s) made should be documented regarding the date the change was
initiated, the amount of time the intervention was implemented and the results assessed to determine the degree
of effectiveness.

After implementing interventions and progress monitoring for at least six to twelve weeks with fidelity
and consistency, the teacher(s) will evaluate student progress to determine if sufficient advancement toward the
expected goal is being made or if Tier 2 strategies/interventions should be considered.

Intervention Teams:

If the student has not made sufficient progress, an intervention team meeting MUST be held to determine if
Tier 2 placement is warranted. Mandatory participants of this meeting include:
      an administrator and/or instructional coordinator
      the student’s current teacher(s) of deficient academic area(s)
     Other participants may include:
      additional teachers, including connections teachers as appropriate
      the counselor
      the SST Coordinator
      the speech-language pathologist (SLP)
      the parent(s)
      others as appropriate
Please note: The parent/legal guardian must be invited, but is not required to attend. The meeting may proceed
if the parent or guardian is not able to attend or chooses not to attend. The results of the progress monitoring
should be shared with the parent or guardian.

If the student’s attendance is affecting academic performance, then the school system attendance officer may be
asked to attend.

Documents needed for completion of referral to Tier 2 include the following:

      Invitation to Parent(s) (RTI Meeting)- intervention team meeting for consideration of referral from Tier
       1 to Tier 2
      A Parent’s Guide to Response to Intervention - Attach to parent letter above
      Hearing/Vision Screening Results- to be secured from school nurse after student is screened. (Note: for
       speech/articulation concerns, this should be done when the teacher first notices difficulties. Parental
       permission is no longer needed for diagnostic screening used to plan instructional interventions.)
      RTI Referral from Tier 1 to Tier 2- to be completed by the intervention team (with
       documentation attached) during the ―Tier 1 to Tier 2‖ meeting for considering the
                                                    Page 14 of 63
        student’s transition to Tier 2
      The student’s RTI file containing RTI Intervention Plan/Log and accompanying results of
       frequent progress monitoring



TIER 2: NEEDS BASED INSTRUCTION/LEARNING

This will include the following components:

    ► Targeted students participate in learning that is in addition to Tier 1 instruction and different by
      including pre-planned, scientifically based interventions (developed and put in place by the school)
      for students who are not progressing satisfactorily with Tier 1 interventions.

    ► Students are identified for Tier 2 instruction (in addition to Tier 1 instruction) through progress
      monitoring evaluation data and their progress is measured more frequently.

    ► Approximate Timeline: Duration= at least 9 to 12 weeks; Progress Monitoring= at least every 2
      weeks; Data Points= at least 4

    ► *Adequate progress is expected for an additional 10 % of the school population

  (DuFour, cited in the narrative of ―Georgia Pyramid…Interventions‖: What are we prepared to
   do when they do not learn?…the pre-planned interventions!)

Note: Tier 2 (and Tier 3) should NOT be a response to an ineffective Tier 1. Additionally, Tier 2
interventions should not be endless for individual students who are struggling, and labeling of students as
“Tier 2” must be avoided due to potentially creating lower expectations or tracking of those students.
Tier 2 interventions are proactive, standard intervention protocols offered by the school and the
interventions must maintain high expectations for students.

In addition to Tier 1 strategies, one or more of the following Tier 2 strategies will be implemented:

Reading/English/Language Arts
Interventions at Tier 2 should consist of small group instruction at least twice weekly at a minimum of 30
minutes per session or as recommended by the program or approach.

      Teachers will use the extension class period to provide interventions in a small group setting or even
       some instruction/remediation on a individual basis.
      For students with difficulties in phonics/decoding and comprehension, the SRA Corrective Reading
       materials may be used. This may be performed as an intervention by any trained personnel.
      Students who may be experiencing difficulties with test-taking skills or ELA GPS items on the CRCT
       may be assigned CRCT practice and remediation through the Links To Learning website. Deficiencies
       may then be targeted by and the various links prescribed by the teacher.
      The Wise Guys mentoring program for male students and Girls, Girls for female students through
       Communities In Schools can provide tutoring on a weekly basis.
      Students can be assigned modules on NetTrekker based on benchmark weaknesses in ELA.
      The KeyTrain website can enhance ELA through building functional vocational skills.
                                                    Page 15 of 63
      PLATO CAI may be available for certain grades and in certain situations for credit recovery or
       remediation. Although considered primarily a T3 intervention, this may be available for a limited
       number of students with significant needs at the T2 level.

Mathematics

        Teachers who teach EIP students and/or students who are considered ―at-risk‖ shall instruct students
using the Holt math program to ensure exposure to on grade level material; however, hands-on math
manipulatives, slower paced instruction, etc. will be utilized to ensure mastery of material for these students. As
benchmark assessments are analyzed, students who are experiencing difficulty in specific area(s) will be
provided tutoring via the teacher or through on-line or CAI resources.


      Teachers can use the enrichment class period to provide interventions in a small group setting or even
       some instruction/remediation on an individual basis.
      The Wise Guys mentoring program (through Communities in Schools) is available for male students
       and can provide tutoring on a weekly basis.
      Students can be assigned standards-correlated modules or materials via NetTrekker based on
       benchmark or classroom weaknesses in Math.
      Students who may be experiencing difficulties with test-taking skills and Math items on the CRCT may
       be assigned CRCT practice and remediation through the Links To Learning website. Deficiencies may
       then be targeted by and the various links prescribed by the teacher.
      The KeyTrain website can enhance Math through building functional vocational skills.
      PLATO CAI may be available for certain grades and in certain situations for credit recovery or
       remediation. Although considered primarily a T3 intervention, this may be available for a limited
       number of students with significant needs at the T2 level.


Lesson plans, progress reports, pacing guides, placement tests, and report cards will be used as a means of
documentation for the lessons, assessment scores, textbook utilization, lesson pacing, etc. mentioned above.


* For High School Students at BCAS a study hall is available for 45 minutes per day that can be used for the
purposes of remediation or interventions.

Tier 2 Procedures:

At this stage (i.e., the need for Tier 2 intervention levels has been determined), the administrator and/or
instructional coordinator, and the classroom teacher determine those resources and interventions available that
can be implemented for the struggling student.

           1. Scientifically proven intervention is implemented to address the student’s deficits.
           2. The selected intervention is delivered with accuracy and consistency (fidelity).
           3. The outcomes of the intervention should be assessed and documented at least every two weeks to
              determine the effectiveness of the intervention and to make any modification, if needed, to the
              intervention. (Note that the length of time of the intervention can vary due to publisher
              recommendations, research data, etc. Interventions that are not implemented for a sufficient
              amount of time will have minimal impact on student learning, while implementing them for too
                                                     Page 16 of 63
              long, without student gains, will delay effective instruction.)
           4. Interventions in Tier 2 may be similar to those noted in Tier 1, but will increase in intensity,
              duration and frequency and must be in addition to regular classroom instruction
           5. The teacher will maintain a cumulative record of instructional changes by recording
              intervention(s) and responses on the RTI Intervention Plan/Log and attaching results (raw
              data/graph to compare student’s performance in relation to class performance or the student’s
              personal baseline); the form and results will be kept in the student’s RTI file.
           6. Fidelity measures should be completed by knowledgeable personnel to determine if the
              selected intervention is implemented as intended and with consistency (fidelity).
           7. If a student’s lack of progress warrants Tier 3 interventions, the classroom teacher will include all
              Tier 1 and Tier 2 documentation as components of the student’s RTI/SST file.

After implementing interventions and progress monitoring for at least nine to twelve weeks with fidelity
and consistency, the intervention team will review student progress to determine if sufficient advancement
toward the expected goal is being made or if Tier 3 interventions should be considered.

If the student has made progress and it appears that the rate of increase will allow the student to reach the end of
year goal, (i.e.: appropriate benchmark scores, oral reading fluency within the ―not at risk‖ range, demonstration
of consistent math or writing skills at grade level expectancy) a decision must be made whether to continue the
intervention at the current level, or to move the student back down to Tier 1 while maintaining the level of
growth. Students who have made progress at Tier 2 should continue to receive progress monitoring until they
have maintained the level/ rate of growth for a minimum of 6 weeks.

If the student has not made sufficient progress, an intervention team (pre-SST referral) meeting MUST be held
to determine the degree of effectiveness of the research-based interventions and to determine if Tier 3/SST
placement is warranted. Mandatory participants of this meeting include:
      an administrator and/or instructional coordinator
      the student’s current teacher(s) of deficient academic area(s)
     Other participants may include:
      additional teachers, including connections teachers as appropriate
      the counselor
      teachers or other persons providing Tier 2 interventions
      the SST Coordinator
      the speech-language pathologist (SLP)
      the parent(s)
      others as appropriate
Please note: The parent/legal guardian must be invited, but is not required to attend. The meeting may proceed
if the parent or guardian is not able to attend or chooses not to attend. The results of the progress monitoring
should be shared with the parent or guardian.

Documents needed for completion of referral to Tier 3 (SST) include the following:
    Invitation to Parent(s) (RTI Meeting- intervention team meeting for consideration of referral from Tier 2
     to Tier 3/ SST
    Burke County Schools SST (Student Support Team) Referral form
    Other cumulative data as requested on the Burke County Schools SST Referral form
    The Student’s RTI file containing all RTI Intervention Plans/Logs with all documentation of
     interventions and results

                                                     Page 17 of 63
TIER 3: STUDENT SUPPORT TEAM DRIVEN INSTRUCTION/LEARNING

This will include the following components:

    ► Targeted students participate in learning that is in addition to Tier 1 and Tier 2 and different by
      including:
         1. Individualized assessments
         2. Scientifically based Interventions tailored to individual needs
         3. Referral for specially designed individual instruction if needed

    ► Frequent (weekly) progress monitoring is done for determining continued, effective
      instruction/interventions

    ► Approximate Timeline: Duration= at least 9-12 weeks; Progress Monitoring= at least weekly;
      Data Points= at least 9

    ► Adequate progress is expected for an additional 5 % of the school population

Interventions at the SST/Tier 3 level should significantly increase in intensity and frequency and they should be
targeted specifically for the student’s individual needs. They are presented in addition to Tier 1 and Tier 2
supports. Examples could include:

      Tier 1 or Tier 2 interventions increased in frequency and intensity and/or presented on an individual
       basis.
      Individual or small group tutoring 3-4 times weekly either during or in an after school setting.
      Intensive reading instruction via the SRA Corrective Reading program.
      PLATO CAI may be available for certain grades and in certain situations for credit recovery or
       remediation.
      Kerzweil 3000 (software that reads materials for students-available through special education teachers.
       For students in the RTI process, this should be used primarily for content instruction and to enhance
       comprehension skills. To be used with discretion and only with the more severe cases.)

Procedures

At this stage, a referral to the school/grade level student support team (SST) is made by the intervention team
using the appropriate referral form. The parent must be invited to all SST meetings as per the Georgia DOE SST
Rule. If the parent cannot attend, the meeting may proceed, but the results must be communicated to them.

      During the initial meeting, the SST (including parent(s) and appropriate school personnel as needed) will
       review the struggling student’s cumulative record and further document the effectiveness of the research-
       based interventions.
      All available data to date regarding the student’s response to interventions should be compiled and
       should be ready to present to the SST.
      Additional individual screening may be recommended following the initial SST meeting. The screening
       will be completed by appropriate personnel. Note: assessments used for diagnostic purposes to plan
       instruction do not require parental permission.
      Following the screening results, the SST will reconvene to assess the results of the screening and
       determine the additional interventions needed by the student.
                                                    Page 18 of 63
      Interventions will be more focused, individualized and based on a problem-solving model. They may be
       similar to those attempted in Tier 1 and 2, but will increase in intensity, duration and frequency.
      The Student Support Team will then meet periodically to review the response to the individualized
       interventions (implementation, fidelity and progress monitoring) and to determine whether the student’s
       rate of progress/ slope is acceptable.
      Documentation of the team’s decision-making and relevant decisions will be kept on the SST minutes
       form (Appendix, pg.33).

If the student support team determines that the more intensive interventions have been effective, a decision
should be made regarding whether to continue Tier 3 interventions or refer the student back to Tier 2 or Tier 1
level supports.

If the SST determines, through the progress monitoring data, that there has been no significant response to
intervention (i.e., improvement in student performance in relation to end-of-year goals), a referral to Student
Services for additional assessment may be initiated by consultation with school administration and completion
of the Burke County Schools Referral to Student Services. Copies of all relevant information and
documentation of RTI must accompany the referral. For a list of required documents, please see the second page
of the Student Services Referral.




                                                    Page 19 of 63
                                           Standard Intervention Flow Chart
    (Please take note that these are a sampling of suggested interventions and are not inclusive. If you have found other methods or
 intervention programs effective and wish to use them with your students, please provide documentation of their effectiveness and/or
                                           contact your Instructional Coordinator for review.)

                                                              Tier 1
Reading Decoding              Reading                   Mathematics               Writing                   Behavior
                              Comprehension
McDougal-Litell Curriculum    McDougal-Litell           Holt Curriculum 6-8       McDougal-Litell           Terry Alderman/ Positive
w/ associated supports 6-8    Curriculum w/                                       Curriculum w/             Behavioral Support
                              associated supports                                 associated supports
                              6-8                                                 6-9

NetTrekker resources as       Using graphic             Daily drill in math       Use of Graphics to        Conference with student/
prescribed by Benchmark       organizers to             facts.                    structure writing         parent to review rules and
and CRCT weaknesses           summarize content of                                                          expectations/ rewards and
1x per week                   reading passage.                                                              consequences

Flexible grouping for         Flexible grouping for     Math fluency practice:    Flexible grouping for     Parent contact (s)
differentiated instruction    differentiated            1 minute timed            differentiated
                              instruction               practice on math facts    instruction               Daily or weekly behavior
                                                                                                            report cards

Preview vocabulary words      Key Train                 NetTrekker resources      Writing to Win 1 x        Referral to Counselor for
prior to reading passages                               as prescribed by          weekly                    guidance
                                                        Benchmark and CRCT
                                                        weaknesses in
                                                        mathematics concepts      Individual writing
                                                        1x per week               conferences with
United Streaming              Links to Learning                                   teacher weekly (across
                              prescribed curriculum                               content areas: 4 x        Character Education
aaaspell.com (enrichment 1-   support sites             Links to Learning         weekly)                   weekly
2x weekly                                               prescribed curriculum
                                                        support sites
                              CRCT Coach skills                                                             Wise Guys/ Girls-Girls
                                                                                  United Streaming          30 minutes weekly
                                                        aaamath.com 1-2x
                                                        weekly
                              EOCT/GHGT Coach                                                               BCAS Parent/Student
                              skills books                                                                  Agreement
                                                                                  Key Train                 Use tangible
                              Accelerated Reader        Flexible grouping for                               reinforcement or Premack
Daily Oral Language 15min.                              differentiated                                      Principal for behavior
                                                                                  Links to Learning
                                                        instruction
                                                                                  prescribed curriculum
                              United Streaming                                    support sites


   Other supports that may be provided at any Tier:
   Audio cassettes for Social Studies
   Extended Learning/ Enrichment during lunch
   After school tutorial for math and reading




                                                             Page 20 of 63
                                                            Tier 2

Reading Decoding              Reading                 Mathematics               Writing                   Behavior
                              Comprehension

SRA Corrective Reading        Small group tutorial    Tutoring in Math          Content Area Writing/     Contract for behavior
Program 2-3 x weekly                                  concepts 2-3 x weekly     Daily practice


                                                      aaamath.com 2-3x
                                                      weekly                    Individual writing
                                                                                conferences with
                                                                                feedback and
                                                                                instruction, 2 x weekly


NetTrekker resources as       NetTrekker resources    Holt On-line tutorials,   NetTrekker resources      Decrease interval needed
prescribed by Benchmark       as prescribed by        intervention and          as prescribed by          for reinforcement
and CRCT weaknesses           Benchmark and CRCT      enrichment activities     Benchmark and CRCT
2 x per week                  weaknesses              6-8                       weaknesses
                              2 x per week                                      2 x per week


aaaspell.com (enrichment 2-   Use of graphic          NetTrekker resources      Key Train 2 x weekly      Increase reinforcement
3x weekly                     organizers (Learning    as prescribed by                                    Payoff
                              Focused Schools or      Benchmark and CRCT
                              Thinking Maps)          weaknesses
                                                      2 x per week


                              Key Train 2 x weekly    Key Train 2 x weekly      Links to Learning         More frequent parent
                                                                                prescribed curriculum     contacts
                                                                                support sites
                                                      Links to Learning
                                                      prescribed curriculum     aaaspell.com
                                                      support sites             (enrichment 2-3x
                                                                                weekly

                              Links to Learning       PLATO                     Writing to Win 2-3 x      Problem focused small
                              prescribed curriculum                             weekly                    group guidance sessions 1-
                              support sites                                                               2x per week




                                                           Page 21 of 63
                                             Tier 3/ SST
Reading            Reading                Mathematics               Writing                  Behavior
Decoding           Comprehension

SRA Corrective     SRA Corrective         One-to-one assistance     Provide tape recorder    Mentor Program/
Reading Program    Reading Program        as needed                 for student to dictate   Wise Guys
Daily (decoding)   Daily                                            writing/use playback
                   (Comprehension)                                  to prompt writing


                   Use of graphic         Holt on-line tutorials,   Writing to Win           Request consultation
                   organizers or active   intervention and          daily                    with psychological
                   reading charts         enrichment activities,                             services and FBA
                                          daily

                   PLATO                  PLATO                     KeyTrain 3-4 x           More frequent
                                                                    weekly                   individual or small
                                                                                             group problem-
                                                                                             focused guidance


                   KeyTrain daily         KeyTrain 3-4 x                                     Involve parent in
                                          weekly                                             reinforcement system

                   Kerzweil (content
                   areas)




                                               Page 22 of 63
                                        Tiers of Intervention-Behavior

        The basic RTI process for behavior and/or emotional problems is similar to that noted for academic
issues, but specific interventions will vary depending upon the nature, frequency and intensity of the problems.
The focus is also more preventative in nature and assumes a well defined, fully implemented school-wide
behavior management system that emphasizes positive behavioral support. The management system and
expectations must be consistent not only in the classroom, but other areas such as the playground, hallways,
offices and assemblies. Burke County endorses the Terry Alderman approach to school-wide behavior
management and regularly provides training and support at the school level. Students in the elementary and
middle schools are also provided with regular instruction through the guidance programs and from teachers
which emphasizes appropriate social skills, communication skills, conflict resolution, violence/bullying
prevention and character education. When a student begins experiencing difficulties adjusting to the classroom
or school structure, teachers should take a careful look at their implementation of the program, making certain
that they and the students are all familiar with the rules, rewards and consequences associated with behavior.

   Please be aware that students having possible difficulty with anxiety, depression, thought disorder, autism
   spectrum disorder or withdrawal, frequently do not manifest with overtly expressed behavior or behavior
   that results in significant classroom management problems. These students will require other interventions
   that may not necessary fit into the behavioral intervention model. Consultations with the school counselor or
   with other personnel such as the school psychologists may be needed to implement interventions targeting
   these issues.

* Behavioral logs should be maintained at all levels to assist in documenting any time/location/event triggers of
the behavioral or emotional responses.
                                       BEHAVIORAL SCREENING
                                           Data Sources for Tier I

Records of behavior provide important decision-making data. Identification of students at risk for and/or
experiencing social, behavioral and/or emotional problems can be facilitated through a review of basic data
available within the school system. The sources cited below are not inclusive and thus should be seen as a basic
starting point for data collection. Remember:

       Consider that there may be many explanations for high frequency counts in any given domain
       Actively seek alternative explanations for any given behavior
       Consult with parents when there is apparent risk or active problems
       Consult with appropriate school personnel working with the student

A school-wide review of available data on behavior patterns:

       Identifies at-risk students
       Enables early identification/intervention before potential problems escalate
       Identifies effective/ineffective classroom, school-wide and/or administratively-derived intervention
        strategies/programs
            o What works and what does not
       Suggests curricular needs – interface of academic and behavioral domains

The identification of students at risk for and/or experiencing social, emotional and/or behavior problems
necessitates a review of both academic and behavioral data, as these domains are typically highly interactive and
                                                    Page 23 of 63
mutually dependent. Examples of data categories include:

         Formal data sources:
             o Report cards
             o Prior standardized test results
             o Formal academic assessments
             o Attendance records
             o Number of grade retentions
             o Office referrals
             o In-house suspensions
             o Out of school suspensions
             o Formal administrative and/or teacher initiated parent conferences
             o Juvenile justice records
             o Other agency records
             o Other
         Other sources of data:
             o Teacher behavior logs reflecting frequency, duration, intensity
             o In-class frequency counts of operationally defined behaviors
             o Parent conferences for information and home-school coordination
             o Other
         Observable documented behaviors of concern:
             o Significantly elevated activity level, distractibility, poorly sustained concentration
             o Persistent externalizing/acting-out behavior
             o Persistent internalizing/withdrawing behavior, social isolation
             o Persistent sensitivity to perceived criticism, frustration, anxiety…
             o Other

Tier 1:
        Unlike students at risk of having academic problems which are identified by benchmark assessments,
students requiring more intensive behavioral support are identified through risk assessment. This risk
assessment takes into consideration data such as in-class frequency counts, office referrals, suspensions,
frequency of parent contacts and formal/informal assessments. Other factors that may place a student at-risk of
having behavioral or emotional problems are: significantly elevated activity level with distractibility, poorly
sustained concentration, persistent acting out behavior, persistent isolation/withdrawal, depression, abnormal
social interaction, family disruptions or death, and extreme academic frustration. Interventions typically occur
within the general education classroom and build upon the school-wide behavioral objectives while focusing
more specifically upon the student’s needs. Students who continue to experience behavioral disruptions even
with a consistent and appropriate implementation of the classroom behavior management system may be
provided with the following interventions or procedures:

         Parent-teacher and/or parent-teacher-student conference should be held.
         The reinforcement system may need to be modified to increase intensity, change reinforcers, decrease
          time between payoff’s and/or add other settings.
         Although not an intervention, if consequences for inappropriate behavior are warranted, they should be
          consistently applied and should be communicated to the student and parent prior to the behavior’s
          occurrence. Whenever possible within the framework of the school and system discipline policies,
          alternatives to removal from the classroom and or school should be made available if appropriate.


                                                       Page 24 of 63
         Consultation with the RTI Intervention team members may provide teachers with both added perspective
          and resources.
         Remember that students who have behavioral needs may also have academic needs as well. Academic
          interventions may need to be implemented in conjunction with behavioral RTI.

       Approximately 80% of students should be able to experience success at this level. Students who do not
make progress behaviorally in Tier 1 and are starting to experience academic problems as a result of their
inappropriate behavioral or emotional responses should be referred to Tier 2.


Progress Monitoring:
        At this level, progress monitoring may include specific, objective data collection such as checklists,
rating scales, in-class rule infraction frequency counts, daily/weekly report cards, discipline reports and time-
sampling techniques. Data sources can come from teachers, administrators, parents and from the students.
Sending a student interest inventory home at the beginning of the school year for the parent and/or child to
complete may give the teacher information about potential positive reinforcement options.

* On rare occasions, a student’s behavior or risk status may be so severe that an immediate referral is
warranted. The principal should contact student services if a RTI/SST bypass is felt to be appropriate. In these
cases, attempts at intervention and progress monitoring should proceed throughout the referral/ assessment
process.

Tier 2:
         Best practices suggest that the time a student reaches this level, more than one parent conference should
have been held. Increasing parent-teacher communications about appropriate as well as inappropriate behaviors
is often a very effective technique in fostering positive behaviors in the classroom. Continuing the interventions
and behavior management techniques inherent in the Terry Alderman management plan is expected. At this
level, it is essential that the problem behavior(s) be carefully analyzed, operationally defined and targeted
specifically with more intensive management techniques. Other interventions or procedures to be considered
may be, but are not limited to:
     Additional social skills training through the guidance curriculum may need to be provided either through
         small group or individual sessions.
     Behavioral Contracts which specify the roles of the parent, student and teacher along with positive
         interventions and support and consequences of inappropriate behaviors are often helpful. Factors such as
         the age of the child, maturity level, severity of the behaviors and the child’s control over the behaviors
         will need to be taken into account when developing such a contract.
     Any available mentoring programs may be useful in providing support and reinforcement for the student.
     Small group-problem focused counseling with the school counselor may be appropriate. (Topics may
         center on social skills, anger control, self-monitoring strategies, divorce, death, etc.)
     Strategies aimed at re-focusing attention and controlling off-task behaviors are often helpful.
     The behavior management plan and reinforcement system used in the classroom may need to be
         expanded into the home/ community setting.
     Consultation with special services personnel at the local school level and/or central office level for
         additional intervention techniques.
     Functional Behavioral Analysis

         Depending on the severity and nature of the behavioral/emotional issue, the parent(s) may be encouraged
          to seek other agency referrals.
                                                     Page 25 of 63
A formal Social History with the parents should be obtained during Tier 2. Often insights into
behavioral/emotional responses can be obtained from a structured interview with parents and medical issues
possibly impacting behavior may be revealed. Family and environmental stressors need to be identified (such as
divorce/separation, deaths, family disruptions, and community problems). It is important that the teacher obtain
the parent’s perspective on the behavior in question. The student may only be exhibiting the behavior in the
school setting or it may not be perceived as problematic in the home setting.

Progress Monitoring:
        Progress monitoring may include specific, objective data collection such a checklist, rating scales,
daily/weekly report cards, frequency counts, discipline reports and time-sampling techniques. Changes or
alterations in the interventions should be carefully noted on any graphic representation of the data and the
parent(s) must be kept informed of the student’s progress.

If the student shows progress at this level, effective interventions should be continued until the student is able to
be gradually moved back to the Tier 1 level. Progress should be monitored carefully during this process in order
to maintain positive effects during this transition.

If the student does not show progress in Tier 2, a referral to Tier 3/ SST by the intervention team should be
made. (See forms and procedures required in the academic sections.)

Tier 3/ Student Support Team:

        By this stage in the process, the behaviors should be well defined and should have been targeted
specifically by the previous interventions. Tier 3 interventions may build on those presented previously and be
similar to interventions attempted in earlier tiers, but may differ in intensity and frequency. They may also differ
significantly as earlier data is analyzed for effectiveness and as the antecedents (triggers) and reinforcers which
keep the behaviors occurring are further identified. The SST carefully reviews the previous intervention
documentation and data and develops an individualized intervention plan, refining it as needed based on
progress monitoring. The SST should carefully document the educational impact, if any, by the behavior(s)
exhibited. Remember, state policy requires that parents be invited to all scheduled SST meetings. Examples of
interventions or procedures may be all of those noted in earlier Tiers in addition to the following possibilities:
     Individual sessions with the school counselor (individually problem focused).
     Observations/consultation/ Functional Behavioral Analysis by psychological services or other designated
        personnel.
     Collaboration with other agencies (with parent permission).

If the data analysis does not indicate an appropriate positive change in the problem behaviors, the behaviors
appear to be more than conduct-based or volitional actions, and academic performance has been documented to
have been significantly impacted, a referral to special education for a comprehensive psychological may be
initiated. Please see the current referral form to Student Services for the appropriate documentation and
attachments needed.




                                                      Page 26 of 63
Please note: the following forms are for information and

 reference purposes. Please obtain originals from your

           RTI Contact Person at the school.




                         Page 27 of 63
                                                         RTI Intervention Plan/ Log
                                 School:    __BCAS __BCHS __BCMS __BES __WPS __ SGA ___ Other: _________
T1 Plan: _________ T2 Plan: _________ T3/SST Plan: _________ Teacher(s): _______________________________________________________________

Student:_________________________________________      Date (s): _________________________________________Parent Contact(s): ____________________________
                                                 Person                                 Time per        Weeks
                Intervention                                  Date Initiated                                          PM Procedures           Results
                                               Responsible                              day/week       Duration
 Concern:




 Concern:



 Concern:



 Concern:



 Concern:



 Concern:



Resources needed to implement intervention: __________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Additional Accommodations: _______________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                                        Page 28 of 63
                                  Invitation to Parent(s) (RTI Meeting)
                                   _____________________School
                                                                               RTI parent letter Tier 1-2-3




Re: Student Name _______________________________ Grade/HR: _______________

Dear Parent/Guardian:

An intervention team meeting has been scheduled to discuss the current performance of your child at
(time)____________ on (date)_______________ in Room_____________.
This meeting will be held to discuss your child’s academic, social, and /or behavioral performance. You are
encouraged to attend this meeting. The following individuals have also been invited to this meeting:

Reading/LA teacher ____________________________

Math teacher        ____________________________

Science teacher     ____________________________

Soc. Studies teacher ____________________________

Other(s)           ____________________________ __________________________

Counselor           ____________________________

Instructional Coordinator _______________________

Administrator      ____________________________

Sincerely,


Teacher


_____ YES, I plan to attend.

_____ NO, I cannot attend; please send
      me information/results of meeting.

 ________________________________
         Signature of Parent




                                                   Page 29 of 63
                                             Burke County Schools

                            A Parent’s Guide to Response to Intervention and
                       the Georgia Student Achievement Pyramid of Interventions
         The Georgia Department of Education has recently implemented a new process for addressing the needs of
children who do not make progress at the expected rate. It is called Response to Intervention (RTI) and is achieved by using
the concepts and strategies reflected in the Georgia Student Achievement Pyramid of Interventions (page 2). All public
school systems in Georgia are charged with developing a plan to implement RTI and the Pyramid of Interventions in order
to help children before they fall too far behind. This RTI process is researched-based and has been shown to decrease
failure rates and improve students’ achievement. Burke County is committed to implementing a high quality RTI plan not
only to address state and federal requirements, but to improve the performance of all of our students. While the actual
interventions may vary from school to school, the process and steps that must be taken are consistent through out the school
system. If your student is involved in interventions at any level, you will be invited to meetings and will be provided with
information about the results of the interventions. Your input is essential in determining the most effective ways of working
with your child, and we welcome your support. The basic RTI process is outlined below and is further illustrated by the
Pyramid on page 2.

Tier 1
        In Tier 1 all children are provided with a quality curriculum that is based on the Georgia Performance Standards
(GPS). The classroom teacher uses research-based practices, has high expectations for all students, changes instruction as
needed and monitors the students’ progress frequently. Students who are at risk for falling behind are identified early in the
school year and the teacher attempts classroom level interventions to assist them in making progress. Teachers,
administrators or specialists monitor the student’s progress in academics, behavior and speech/language on a frequent,
regular basis to determine whether the intervention is working. If the teacher does not see the student’s progress increasing
with the classroom interventions, then the student may be referred for Tier 2 level interventions. At this point a meeting is
held with the intervention team to make this determination. You will be invited to attend this meeting.

Tier 2
          In Tier 2, the interventions become more intense, may be in a smaller group setting, may be presented with greater
frequency, may be different from what is seen in the classroom and are in addition to what the teacher is already doing. The
student’s progress is monitored more often and the results are closely analyzed to determine whether it has been effective.
If it has, then the intervention is continued or is gradually reduced as long as progress is being maintained. In this case a
child receiving help at Tier 2 may cycle back down into the Tier 1 level and remain successful with only minimal support.
If the student does not make progress at Tier 2, then the intervention is modified, additional ones are added or a referral
may be made to Tier 3 which is also the Student Support Team (SST). Again, if this is proposed for your child, you will be
invited to attend a meeting to discuss the move to the Tier 3/ SST level.

Tier 3/ Student Support Team (SST)
          The Tier 3 team or SST is made up of teachers, teacher-specialists, administrators, counselors, school health
professionals and in some cases central office professionals involved in curriculum, assessment or other specialty fields. As
a parent you are also a member of your child’s team and will be invited to all meetings. If you are not able to attend, the
results of the meeting will be communicated to you. The interventions provided in the SST are more focused,
individualized and intense than those in the earlier levels with more frequent progress monitoring being performed. Success
at this level may indicate a need for a careful move to earlier Tiers. Children who do not make expected progress or whose
progress requires an extremely intense program, may be referred for further evaluation to Student Services to help to
determine the cause for the student’s lack of progress. As noted in the other levels, you will be invited to the meetings and
will be notified of the decisions if you cannot attend.




                                                          Page 30 of 63
                                                Burke County Schools
                                           RTI Referral from Tier 1 to Tier 2

Student Name: ___________________________ School: ___________ Date: _______________________

Teacher: _________________ Birthdate: ____________Grade: ___________ Grades Retained: ___________

Problem prompting referral: (Please check all that apply)
Academic________ Behavioral _______ Social/Emotional _______ Speech/ Language________ Other _________

Additional Information and/or Concerns:
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________

*Attach Copy of most recent report card or SASI grade report.
 Date:
 CRCT Scores (may be attached)         Reading (800)                 Language Arts (800)              Math (300)
 Grade Average
 Student’s Scores

Before referring a student for Tier 2 interventions, you must ensure that you are providing standards-based instruction and that the
instruction has been differentiated based on the student’s need. For behavior/ emotional issues you must ensure that you have fully
implemented the school-wide behavior management plan.

Summary of Results of Tier 1 Interventions (attach plan): ________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________

Are the interventions documented in your lesson plans? _______

Attach additional documentation if available, including dated work samples before and after interventions were
implemented as well as raw data sheets for progress monitoring and any charts generated from the data.

Attendance: Days Present _______ Days Absent_______

Discipline: Number of Discipline Referrals_________ Attach summary.

Language: Is the student identified ELL? _____ Yes _____ No
Parent Contacts: (Please specify dates and methods)
_________________________________________________________________________________________

Results of Universal Screenings:

 Benchmarks: Date:                     Date:                        Date:
             Student      Class or     Student      Class or        Student          Class or
 (may be                  Grade                     Grade                            Grade
 attached)   Pre     Post Pre     Post Pre     Post Pre     Post    Pre       Post   Pre    Post

 Reading
 E/LA
 Math

Reading CBM/ Below Cut Score: ____ Yes ____ No
Math CBM/ Below Cut Score: ____ Yes ____No

Other_________________________________ Date ______________ Attach Documentation

____________________________________
Teacher Signature

Intervention Team Recommendation:
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Intervention Team Members:
Name:                                 Position:
____________________________          _______________________________
____________________________          _______________________________
____________________________          _______________________________
____________________________          _______________________________
____________________________          _______________________________
____________________________          _______________________________
____________________________          _______________________________
                                                    Page 33 of 63
                                         Burke County Schools
                       REFERRAL TO STUDENT SUPPORT TEAM/ TIER III

Student Name: ___________________________ School: ___________ Date: _______________________

Teacher: _________________ Birthdate: ________Grade: _______ Parent/ Guardian: __________________

Problem prompting referral: (Please check all that apply)
Academic________ Behavioral _______ Social/Emotional _______ Speech/Language________ Other _________

Additional information and/or concerns: (this may include any factors felt to negatively or positively affect
student performance).
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Parent contacts made during T2 Interventions regarding student’s difficulties: (Please specify dates and
methods)
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Parental Concerns:
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________

For emotional, behavioral, speech and language concerns, does there appear to be an academic impact as a result
of the problem? Yes_______ No _______

In what setting does the problem most frequently occur (subject, time of day, structured vs. unstructured,
transition, etc.)?_____________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________

Tier 2 Interventions: Summarize the results of specific, evidence-based interventions that have been
implemented in addition to those noted in T1 (attach plan): ________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________

Attach additional documentation if available, including dated work samples before and after interventions were
implemented as well as raw data sheets for progress monitoring and any charts generated from the data.

Additional Data:
Medication: ______________________           Glasses: ____Yes ____No Hearing Aides: ____Yes ____ No
Medical condition or psychiatric diagnoses: ____________________________________________________
                                                     Page 34 of 63
Hearing/Vision Screening Dates: _____________ Results: _______________________
Current Absences: _________________________

Additional testing not addressed in T2 Referral: (additional benchmarks, IRI’s, GHSGT, etc.)
 Benchmarks: Date:                        Date:                     Date:
 (may be        Student      Class or     Student      Class or     Student      Class or
                             Grade                     Grade                     Grade
 attached)      Pre     Post Pre     Post Pre     Post Pre     Post Pre     Post Pre     Post

 Reading
 E/LA
 Math


 Instrument         Date               Reading             E/LA               Math               Writing




Other Evaluations (private/ school evaluations/medical): ____________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________

Intervention Team Recommendation:
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________

* Please attach copy of the student’s most recent report card, T1-T2 referral form, updated intervention plan (s), progress monitoring
documentation, social history and most current discipline report.
Intervention Team Members:
Name:                                        Position:
____________________________                 _______________________________
____________________________                 _______________________________
____________________________                 _______________________________
____________________________                 _______________________________
____________________________                 _______________________________
                                                              Page 35 of 63
Student’s Name:___________________________

Case Manager:____________________________________

                                               RTI Tier 2/Tier 3
                                                  Case Record
School:
Date of meetings                       Team Action Taken/ Summary of Recommendations
  or activities




Team Members            Date (s) Attended                     Team Members Date (s) Attended
_________________ (______) (______) (______)                  _________________ (______) (______) (______)
_________________ (______) (______) (______)                  _________________ (______) (______) (______)
_________________ (______) (______) (______)                  _________________ (______) (______) (______)
_________________ (______) (______) (______)                  _________________ (______) (______) (______)
                                                   Page 36 of 63
                                         Burke County Schools
                                          Student Services Referral

Student Name: ___________________________ School: ___________ Date: _______________________

Sex/Race: _____________________ GTID #: ____________________ Birthdate: ________Grade: _______

H/R Teacher: _______________ Parent/ Guardian: __________________ Relationship: _________________

Current Parent Phone(s): ____________________ Mailing Address: ________________________________

Problem prompting referral: (Please check all that apply)
Academic________ Behavioral _______ Social/Emotional _______ Speech/Language________ Other _________

Specific Strengths and Weaknesses (include additional concerns such as motor, memory, attention span, social):
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________

Parent contacts made during T3/ SST Interventions regarding student’s difficulties: (Please specify dates
and methods)
_________________________________________________________________________________________

For emotional, behavioral, speech and language concerns, does there appear to be an academic impact as a result
of the problem? Yes_______ No _______

Tier 3 Interventions: Summarize the results of specific, evidence-based interventions that have been
implemented in addition to those noted in T2 (attach plan): ________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________

*Attach additional documentation if available, including dated work samples before and after interventions were
implemented as well as raw data sheets for progress monitoring and any charts generated from the data.

Current Absences: _________________________
Previous Schools Attended: ___________________________________________________________
Does this student receive speech therapy? _____ Yes _____ No

Involvement with other Agencies/ Professionals :____________________________________________



                                                     Page 37 of 63
Additional testing not addressed in T3 Referral: (additional benchmarks, IRI’s, GHSGT, etc.)
 Benchmarks: Date:                        Date:                     Date:
 (may be        Student      Class or     Student      Class or     Student      Class or
                             Grade                     Grade                     Grade
 attached)      Pre     Post Pre     Post Pre     Post Pre     Post Pre     Post Pre     Post

 Reading
 E/LA
 Math
 Other Instrument (s):     Date         Reading      E/LA           Math         Writing            Other:




Student Support Team recommendations and rationale for further referral:
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Required Attachments:
____ T2 Referral Document                                               _____ Work Samples

_____ T3 Referral Document                                              _____ Medical Records (if available)

_____ Cumulative Progress Monitoring Data                               _____ Psychological Report (if applicable)

_____ SST By Pass Request (if applicable)                               _____ School Screening Instruments (IRI’s, W-J-III. etc)

_____ Cumulative Record                                                 _____ Social History

_____ Hearing and Vision report (current within a calendar year)        _____ Behavior Log (if applicable)

_____ Current Discipline Report, with narrative                         _____ Current Report Card
Student Support Team Members:
Name                          Position                                                     Agree Disagree         Date
1.___________________________ _______________________________                 _____ ______                     ____________
2.___________________________ _______________________________                 _____ ______                     ____________
3.___________________________ _______________________________                 _____ ______                     ____________
4.___________________________ _______________________________                 _____ ______                     ___________ _
5.___________________________ _______________________________                 _____ ______                     ____________
6.___________________________ _______________________________                 _____ ______                     ____________
7.___________________________ _______________________________                 _____ ______                     ____________
8.___________________________ _______________________________                 _____ ______                     ____________
Principal’s Signature______________________________________________ Date: _________________
Student Services Director’s Signature ________________________________ Date: _________________
                                                             Page 38 of 63
                                    Intervention Team Student Management Summary
School: ____________Grade: ____________________ School Year: ____________________________ Chairman: _________________

     Student      Teacher   Tier    Initial   Actions     Follow-     Actions     Follow-      Actions      Fidelity Obs./Checks
                            Prior   Date                 up date(s)              up date(s)
                            SY
                               BURKE COUNTY SCHOOLS
                              RTI PROCEDURES CHECKLIST
                                                                     RTI Procedureschecklist07-08


Use this checklist in conjunction with the school’s RTI Guide to make sure procedures are
followed and all file content is in place as the student has interventions.

Student _______________________________ Referring Teacher________________________

Completed                                            Procedure
            T1 Create student RTI file for storing documentation as it is collected.
            Implement Tier 1 interventions and record in RTI Intervention Plan/Log.
            Progress monitor every 2 to 4 weeks for at least 6 to 12 weeks (at least 3 data points);
            record/store results w/ RTI Intervention Plan/Log in RTI file.
            Review progress to determine if Tier 2 interventions are needed.
            Contact Instructional Coordinator to request an intervention team meeting.
            Send Parent Invitation to RTI Meeting w/A Parent’s Guide…attached.
            Request Hearing/Vision Screening results from school nurse.
            Completion of RTI Referral from Tier 1 to 2 by intervention team at initial meeting; if
            Tier 2 placement is determined, intervention team develops Tier 2 intervention plan and
            timeline.
            T2 Implement Tier 2 interventions and record in RTI Intervention Plan/Log.
            Progress monitor at least every 2 weeks for 9 to 12 weeks (at least 4 data points);
            record/store results w/RTI Intervention Plan/Log in RTI file.
            Report progress to parents at least every two weeks.
            Fidelity measures of interventions to be done by appropriate personnel.
            Review progress to determine if Tier 3 (SST) interventions are needed.
            Contact Instructional Coordinator to request an intervention team (pre-SST referral)
            meeting.
            Send parent letter (Invitation to RTI meeting).
            Completion of Burke County Schools SST Referral (Tier 2 to 3) by intervention team.
                  Conduct initial SST meeting to review student’s RTI file and possibly recommend
            T3 additional individual screening prior to developing an individual intervention plan.
            Conduct follow-up SST meeting (2 to 3 weeks later) for reviewing screening results and
            RTI file to date; develop individualized intervention plan on RTI Plan/Log form.
            Implement Tier 3 interventions and document in RTI Plan/Log.
            Progress monitor at least weekly for 9 to 12 weeks (at least 9 data points); record/store
            results w/RTI Intervention Plan/Log in RTI file.
            Report progress to parents weekly.
            Conduct SST meetings at least monthly to review effectiveness of Tier 3 interventions.
            Recommend continuation or modification of intervention, or refer for Special Education
            evaluation.
            Conduct additional meetings as needed.




                                           Page 40 of 63
                    Hierarchy of Reading Acquisition and Instruction
         In considering remediation and interventions for reading problems, it is vital that teachers identify
which component(s) of reading are missing or delayed in their students and target those skills specifically.
A student who is having difficulty with fluency due to phonological awareness problems will not improve
in his/her reading rate or comprehension unless these underlying skills are taught explicitly, no matter how
much time is spent in remediation activities for fluency or reading comprehension.
         Phonological Awareness is the conscious ability to discriminate the sounds of language. It
includes the ability to auditorily distinguish parts of speech, such as syllables and phonemes. The ability to
blend and segment phonemes is critical to the development of decoding and spelling skills. Phonological
awareness is an important and reliable predictor and pre-cursor of phonics skills and ultimately of reading.
Children develop phonological awareness through verbal communication and is typically acquired at a
very early age through exposure to language, songs, literature and media. In many cases children come to
school with well developed phonological awareness, but with others, it must be explicitly taught. Various
subtypes of phonological awareness are:
                 Alliteration (verbal/auditory)
                 Rhyming (verbal/auditory)
                 Sentence Segmentation (verbal/auditory)
                 Word Segmentation (verbal/auditory)
                 Phonemic Awareness (verbal/auditory as well as sound/symbol association)

Essential Components of Reading Instruction as defined by the National Reading Panel:
     phonemic awareness
     phonics
     vocabulary development
     reading fluency, including oral reading skills
     reading comprehension strategies.

Brief descriptions of these essential, hierarchaial components are as follows:

 Phonemic Awareness – The understanding that individual sounds of spoken language (phonemes) work
together to make words. This awareness enables readers to hear, identify, and manipulate the individual
sounds. Many children pick up these skills at an early age, but it can be formally addressed through
curriculum.

 Phonics – The relationship between the sounds of spoken language (phonemes) and the letters
representing those sounds in written language (graphemes). Skill in phonics helps students to recognize
familiar words and decode unfamiliar ones. Direct instruction in phonics is typically performed in grades
K-3, but remediation can be performed at all grades.

Vocabulary – The ability to store information about the meaning and pronunciation of words. There are
four types of vocabulary: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Vocabulary development begins in
early childhood and continues throughout the lifespan.

 Fluency – The skill of reading texts accurately and quickly, which allows readers to recognize and
comprehend words at the same time. Practice and frequent exposure to text can often improve fluency
rates.

 Reading Comprehension – Understanding, remembering, and communicating with others about what has
been read. Comprehension strategies help readers to make sense of a text. Decoding/phonics, vocabulary
and fluency are all necessary components of reading comprehension.

                                                  Page 41 of 63
                                       Active Reading Chart
Name: ____________________ Teacher: __________________
Book/ Story: _____________________ Date: _______________

  What Characters          What seems to be           What Questions have       What is my
have we met so far?       the main conflict or        I asked myself while prediction about what
                            problem at this                 I read?           happened next?
                                 point?
Chapter 1:




Chapter 2:




Chapter 3:




Chapter 4:




                                               Page 42 of 63
                    Behavior Management and Interventions
                          Strategies that Facilitate Appropriate Classroom Behavior
   Develop consistent behavior expectations.

   Involve the student in setting academic and personal goals.

   Engage in role playing situations.

   Communicate with parents so that strategies are consistent at home and school.

   Set limits and boundaries.

   Apply established consequences immediately, fairly and consistently.

   Acknowledge and reinforce acceptable behavior.

   Avoid confrontation and power struggles.

   Provide a highly structured classroom environment.

   Clearly post rules and expectations.

   Establish a quiet cool off area.

   Provide and teach opportunities for the student to use self control/self monitoring techniques to control
    behavior.

   Teach self talk to relieve stress and anxiety.

   Teach and provide time for relaxation techniques.

   Establish cues as reminders for inappropriate behavior.

   Redirect to avoid situations that may increase anxiety levels.

   Remain calm and aware of your body language when addressing the student.

   Provide a positive and encouraging classroom environment.

   Use a study carrel.

   Use visually stimulating material for assignments/learning presentations.

   Use specialized technology and software.

   Develop and use behavior contracts.

   Give frequent feedback.




                                                     Page 43 of 63
                                        Key Points for Effective Behavior Analysis

The origin(s) and function(s) of behavior(s) are often difficult to discern. Many behaviors are amenable to modification,
while others are not. Behavior problems resulting from environmental/ecological factors are often more easily modified,
whereas those with medical, physiological and/or emotional origins, such as clinical depression, may be beyond the
student’s ability to control and are subsequently resistant to change. Identification of likely etiologies of problematic
behavior(s) is critical in that attempts to modify behaviors beyond the control of the student may further exacerbate the
problem and harm the student. Any intervention which presents the potential for adverse impact is inappropriate.
Application of principles of positive behavioral support are advocated along with a positive collaborative problem solving
relationship with the student and their parents.

       The same behavior in two different students may:
           o Have widely different origins/causes
           o May serve different functions for each student
       The same traumatic event(s) for two different students may:
           o Result in two different maladaptive patterns of behavior
           o Required different treatment strategies
       Behavior problems typically:
           o Communicate something about unmet needs, deficits or contextual demands
           o Have multiple or interactive causes
           o Develop over time and require time to change
           o Served an adaptive function for the student at one point in time or in a specific setting
       Behavioral origins may be viewed from one or more of the following perspectives:
           o Proximal influences
                     These are within the immediate setting such as the classroom (eg. conflict with another student,
                        frustration with difficult academic demands...)
                     These may be effectively addressed using a basic management plan, token or point system
           o Distal influences
                     These are stressors/conditions outside the immediate setting which originate and/or exacerbate
                        problem behavior (eg. family conflict, neglect or abuse, divorce...)
           o Socially motivated behavior
                     A child who engages in socially motivated challenging behavior may do so in order to gain access
                        to attention, objects or activities, or to escape or avoid nonpreferred situations (attention, objects,
                        events or activities)
           o Non-socially motivated behavior
                     These children do not require reinforcement from others in the environment
                     Behaviors may serve the function of obtaining or escaping internal stimulation such as high
                        anxiety, pain, physical contact, etc.
           o Many behaviors may acquire social benefits which result in a socially motivated pattern
           o Physiologically derived behavior
                     Behaviors beyond the control of the individual possibly associated with brain damage, tumors,
                        ADHD, seizure activity...
           o Psychological/emotional disorders
                     Behavior patterns derived from and/or associated with emotional disturbance such as depression,
                        bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders...




                                                          Page 44 of 63
                                                              Key Points for Effective Behavior Analysis - 2

o   Inconsistent and/or inappropriate parenting strategies
         Inconsistent and/or overly harsh discipline
         Neglect, abuse and lack of emotional support
         Poor/limited behavioral monitoring of the child by the parent
o   Classroom environmental factors – such as:
         Conflictual and/or overly dependent relationship with the teacher
         Social skills and peer relationship problems
         Environmental stimulation (such as noise) negatively impacts the student




                                          Page 45 of 63
                                                     INCREASING OCCURANCES OF BEHAVIOR

For effectiveness all strategies require a precise definition of target behavior(s) and clear communication to the student of the procedure and both
desirable and undesirable behavior(s).


STRATEGY:              PROCEDURE:                              IMPACT/DURATION               REQUIRES
1. Positive            Positive reinforcement is presented     Gradual/Long Lasting          1. Immediate provision of reinforcement
   Reinforcement       immediately following a desired                                          following the desired behavior
                       behavior                                                              2. Sufficient intensity of reinforcement to
                                                                                                maintain the behavior without loss of
                                                                                                effectiveness (student gets tired of it)
                                                                                             3. Determination of what is reinforcing to
                                                                                                the student (see notes on page 2)
                                                                                             4. Should be combined with modeling and
                                                                                                other positive strategies


2. Removal of          Removal/elimination of the              Rapid/Long Lasting            1. Precise definition of the eliciting
   Interfering         stimulus, individual(s),                                                 stimulus/situation
   Condition(s)        interaction(s) which have been                                        2. Complete elimination of the eliciting
                       found to elicit or trigger the                                           stimulus/situation
                       inappropriate behavior                                                3. Reinforcement of positive behavior which
                                                                                                incompatible with the undesirable behavior


3. Positive Modeling   Frequent exposure to models             Gradual/Long Lasting          1. Precise definition of desirable behavior
                       of appropriate behavior                                               2. Selection of a modeling strategy
                                                                                             3. Consistency of application


4. Self-Modeling       1. Video taping of the student in       Gradual/Long Lasting          1. Precise definition of desirable behavior(s)
                          question while exhibiting positive                                 2. Communication/collaboration with the
                          or appropriate behavior in various                                    student
                          settings                                                           3. Equipment, materials and time must be



                                                                         Page 46 of 63
                                                                                                                                            Increasing Behavior - 2
STRATEGY:               PROCEDURE:                                IMPACT/DURATION                  REQUIRES
4. Self-Modeling        2. Video may be edited to provide                                             considered
   Continued               only positive behavior --- or                                           4. The tape must be reviewed and discussed
                        3. Video may involve role playing                                             frequently with the student
                           of a student developed script                                           5. ONLY positive behavior should be pointed
                           focusing on desired social skills                                          out and discussed
                                                                                                   6. Parental Permission to Tape is Required


Strategies for Determination of Positive Reinforcers:

       Premack Principal
            o Behavior(s)/activities in which a person participates on a voluntarily basis at a high rate or frequency present as potentially strong reinforcers
            o Subsequently, application may involve the following -- ―IF‖ you complete this task ―THEN‖ you may participate in ______
       Use of reinforcement menus, lists of available activities, tangible and intangible reinforcers
       Student-teacher collaboratively developed contracts
       Use of student self-reports via interview, checklist, etc.
       Parent conferences




                                                                             Page 47 of 63
                                                      REDUCING OCCURANCES OF BEHAVIOR

For effectiveness all strategies require a precise definition of target behavior(s) and clear communication to the student of the procedure and both
desirable and undesirable behavior(s).

STRATEGY:              PROCEDURE:                               IMPACT/DURATION              REQUIRES
1. Extinction          Withhold reinforcement following         Gradual /Long Lasting        1. Precise definition of behavior(s)
                       the defined behavior                                                  2. Communication of expectation to the student
                                                                                             3. Identification of all reinforcers within the
                                                                                                environment
                                                                                             4. Implementation long enough to be effective
                                                                                             5. Provision of reinforcement for other desired
                                                                                                behavior(s)

2. Timeout             Removal of reinforcement or removal      Rapid/Long Lasting           1. Precise definition of behavior(s)
                       from a setting for a designated period                                2. Communication of expectation to the student
                       of time                                                               3. Removal of reinforcers from the environment
                                                                                             4. OR – Isolation from reinforcements
                                                                                             5. High level of application consistency -- must
                                                                                                be implemented for every occurrence of the
                                                                                                defined behavior in order to be effective

3. Response Cost       Loss of a designated amount of            Rapid/Long Lasting          1. Precise definition of behavior(s)
                       reinforcement (eg. points) when a                                     2. Communication of expectation to the student
                       defined behavior occurs (eg. yelling out)                             3. Consistent application of the strategy


4. Punishment *        Presentation of an aversive stimulus     Immediate/Long Lasting       1. Precise definition of behavior(s)
                       or situation immediately following an                                 2. Communication of expectation to the student
                       occurrence of the defended behavior                                   3. Consistent application
                                                                                             4. Explanation of/examples of desired behavior
                                                                                             5. Reinforcement of desired behavior
                       * This procedure is aversive and potentially may negatively impact
                         self-concept/esteem and thus its use is typically discouraged




                                                                          Page 48 of 63
                                                                                                                                  Behavior reduction – 2

STRATEGY:            PROCEDURE:                                IMPACT/DURATION         REQUIRES
5. Differential      Reinforce a response/behavior ONLY Gradual/Long Lasting           1. Precise definition of behavior(s)
   Reinforcement     when it occurs in the presence of a                               2. Communication of expectation to the student
   For Stimulus      specified stimulus/situation (eg. student                         3. Effective use of both reinforcement and
   Control           is reinforced for addressing the teacher                             extinction
                     ONLY when they have a raised hand
                     during formal academic lessons)

6. Reinforcement     Provide reinforcement for a             Gradual/Long Lasting      1. Insure that selected behaviors are
   of Incompatible   specific competing behavior                                          incompatible
   Behaviors         (eg. Reinforce in-seat behavior, as                               2. The target behavior must be maintained
                     one may not be both in one’s seat and                                by environmental factors – if reinforcement
                     out of one’s seat at the same time)                                  is intrinsic to the student other procedures
                                                                                          may be more effective




                                                                       Page 49 of 63
                                   BEHAVIOR PROBLEM CHECKLIST
Student Name:_______________________                                        Date:__________
Respondent: _________________________

1. Check all problematic behavior:
2. Add additional behaviors of concern below.

 Independent work skills                Under reactive                  Tantrum behavior
 Lacks confidence                       Over reactive                   Rage behavior
 Lacks motivation                       Overly excitable                Ignores rules
 Task completion – too slow             Impulsive                       Resistive, slow to comply
 Task Completion – too rapid            Elevated activity level         Noncompliant
 Off-task, verbal                       Distractible                    Defiant
 Off-task, motor                        Inattentive                     Instigates
 Off-task passive                       Short attention span            Lies
 Out-of-seat                            Overly compliant                Teases others
 Talking                                Withdrawn                       Bullies, verbal
 Noise/sound effects                    Socially isolated               Bullies, physical
 Talks out, disruptive                  Reactive to criticism           Throws things
 Yell out, disruptive                   Irritable                       Aggressive, verbal/threats
 Negative comments                      Impatient                       Aggressive, physical
 Rude comments                          Daydreams                         Hits
 Disruptive gestures/mannerisms         Sulks/pouts                       Kicks
 Inappropriate language                 Argues with peers                 Bites
 Poor sharing behavior                  Argues with adults                Fights
 Turn-taking behavior                   Cries                           School avoidant
 Won’t raise hand                       Low frustration tolerance       Nonsensical language
 Exaggerations                          Poor anger control              Sexual comments
 Social skills                          Sad, depressed                  Sexual behavior

Explain any of the following:
  Stereotyped behavior _____________________________________________________________
  Self-injurious behavior _____________________________________________________________
  Unusual fears           _____________________________________________________________
  Unusual stories/tales   _____________________________________________________________
  Fantasy                 _____________________________________________________________

Immediate referral to designated school personnel (typically the principal, counselor and/or school psychologist)
 should be initiated in the following cases:
     Suicidal threats/attempts                           Marked/sustained bizarre behavior
     Threats of bodily harm to others                    Weapons violations

Other Behaviors, Comments/Notes:
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________



                                                        Page 50 of 63
                                                Context Analysis

Student:________________________                  Date:_________
Interviewer:_____________________
Respondent:_____________________

   1.   Designate time slots for each activity during the day
   2.   Identify/define the activity
   3.   Rate the likelihood of problem behavior(s)
   4.   Briefly define the type of problematic behavior

Context Analysis:
Schedule Activity             Likelihood of Problem Define Behavior
 (Time)                            Behavior
                              Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 High
                              Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 High
                              Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 High
                              Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 High
                              Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 High
                              Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 High
                              Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 High
                              Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 High
                              Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 High
                              Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 High
                              Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 High
                              Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 High
                              Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 High
                              Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 High

Problems primarily occur in settings which are:

 Structured            Large group        Transitions
 Semistructured        Small group
 Unstructured          Seat work

Comments/Analysis:




                                                     Page 51 of 63
                                        IMPACT ASSESSMENT

Student Name:_______________________                                     Date:__________
Teacher:____________________________

Statement of Problem:
Operationally define behavior(s) to be addressed:
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________

Location(s)/Setting(s) - Where the problem(s) occur?
   Classroom          Transitions between activities       Large group
   Halls              Transitions between classes          Small group
   Bathrooms          Seat work                            Solitary work
   Lunchroom          Centers                              Social peer relations
   Library            Recess/PE                            Other ______________________
   Bus                Unstructured settings                 ___________________________

Comments:____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

                                                Activities:
  Morning calendar          Science                 Other:__________________________
  Centers                   Social Studies          _______________________________
  Writing                   Language Arts           _______________________________
  Reading                   Vocational classes      _______________________________
  Math                                               _______________________________

Comments:____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

Temporal Parameters – When do behaviors occur?
   Daily                       All day       Other:_________________________
   Beginning of week           Morning       ______________________________
   End of week                 Midday        ______________________________
   Variable, no pattern        Afternoon     ______________________________
   Comments:_________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________



                                                 Page 52 of 63
                                                                                            Impact Assessment - 2
                             FREQUENCY – How often does the problem occur?

 High frequency- Daily:
  Define: _________________________________________________________________
          _________________________________________________________________
          _________________________________________________________________

 Moderate frequency – A few time a week.
  Define: _________________________________________________________________
          _________________________________________________________________
          _________________________________________________________________

 Low frequency (yet quite disruptive)
  Define: _________________________________________________________________
          _________________________________________________________________
          _________________________________________________________________

                              DURATION – How long does the behavior persist?

 A few minutes                        Comments:____________________________________
 10 + minutes                         _____________________________________________
 Up to 30 minutes or longer           _____________________________________________
                                       _____________________________________________
 Impacts mood for the day             _____________________________________________

                                                  INTENSITY:
                           1. What is the extent of disruption for the class as a whole?

Circle Number:


  Less ---------0-----1-----2----3-----4-----5----6-----7----8-----------More

                         2. What is the extent of disruption for the student in question?

Circle Number:


  Less ---------0-----1-----2----3-----4-----5----6-----7----8-----------More

                         3. What is the extent of disruption to the teaching process?

Circle Number:


  Less ---------0-----1-----2----3-----4-----5----6-----7----8-----------More




                                                      Page 53 of 63
                                        OBSERVATION RECORD
                                          For Interval and Time Sampling

Student: ________________________                                       Date:____________________
Teacher:________________________                                        Time Stopped:_____________
Observer:_______________________                                        Time Started:______________
                                                                        Total Time: _______________
Type Class:_____________________
Subject:________________________
Class Size:______________________

Circle applicable setting and method below.
Setting:                      Data Collection Method:
L = Large Group               1. Interval                    Selected Time Frame______
S = Small Group               2. Time Sampling               (seconds/minutes for each interval)
O = One-to-one
I = Independent Work
F = Free Time

S = Student         C = Comparison Student(s)

                       Intervals:
BEHAVIOR(S)            1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
                   S
                   C
                   C
                   S
                   C
                   C
                   S
                   C
                   C
                   S
                   C
                   C

NOTES:




                                                        Page 54 of 63
                                        OBSERVATION RECORD
                                         -FREQUENCY COUNT-

Student: ________________________                    Type Class:_____________________
Teacher:________________________                     Subject:________________________
Observer:_______________________                     Class Size:______________________

       Setting:
       L = Large Group       O = One-to-one          F = Free Time
       S = Small Group       I = Independent Work

Day or Session One:          Setting:_______
Behavior(s)       Tally
                                                                         Date =
                                                                         Time Stopped =
                                                                         Time Started    =
                                                                         Total Time Obs. =

Day or Session Two:           Setting:_______
Behavior(s)       Tally
                                                                         Date =
                                                                         Time Stopped =
                                                                         Time Started    =
                                                                         Total Time Obs. =

Day or Session Three: Setting:_______
Behavior(s)       Tally
                                                                         Date =
                                                                         Time Stopped =
                                                                         Time Started    =
                                                                         Total Time Obs. =

Day or Session Four: Setting:_______
Behavior(s)       Tally
                                                                         Date =
                                                                         Time Stopped =
                                                                         Time Started    =
                                                                         Total Time Obs. =

Day or Session Five: Setting:_______
Behavior(s)        Tally
                                                                         Date =
                                                                         Time Stopped =
                                                                         Time Started    =
                                                                         Total Time Obs. =

NOTES:




                                                    Page 55 of 63
                          FORMAL DATA COLLECTION STRATEGIES
                                            (Details Attached)
Procedure        _            Type/Rate of Behavior           Advantages                     Disadvantages
1. Interval Recording         Moderate or steady rate         Easiest                        Less accurate count for
                              of behavior                                                    brief duration/high
                                                                                             frequency behavior

2. Time Sampling              Moderate or steady rate              May observe several       Less accurate count for
                              of behavior                          students in one session   brief duration/high
                                                                   Time to setup class       frequency behavior
                                                                   Mico-norms

3. Event Recording            High or low frequency                High accuracy for rate    Requires more precise
 (Frequencies)                behavior of brief duration           of behavior               definition of behavior

4. Duration Recording         Major problem behavior               Sensitive to gradual      Requires more precise
                              with extended duration               changes in behavior       definition of when a
                              (eg. tantrums)                                                 behavior starts/stops
                                                                                             Requires constant
                                                                                             observation
5. Latency Recording          Behaviors such as delayed            Sensitive to gradual      Requires precise
                              compliance                           changes in behavior       measurement of initiating
                                                                                             classroom behavior and
                                                                                             lag time to student’s
                                                                                             compliance




Adapted from Sulzer & Mayer, Behavior Modification for School Personnel




                                                        Page 56 of 63
FORMAL DATA COLLECTION STRATEGIES                                                                         2

1. Interval Recording:
     A measure of the number of intervals (time blocks) within which a behavior was observed to have occurred
     Used when behavior occurs at moderate, steady rates
     Easiest method to use
     Procedure:
            o Select a time block, usually 30 seconds (or 60 seconds)
                     Each block on the grid then equals 30 seconds
            o During observation place an ―X‖ in the block if the defined behavior occurred at any point within the 30
                second time block
                     Even if the behavior occurred more than one time – only one ―X‖ is recorded
            o At the end of the observation session total the number of ―Xs‖
            o Compute the percentage

                Eg. Off-task behavior:
                        Total Xs = 18 divided by 50 time blocks = 36% off-task behavior
                        In positive terms:
                                 John was on-task 64% of the time

2. Time Sampling Recording:
     A measure of the number of times the defined behavior occurred at pre-specified observation points in time
          o eg. at the end of every 60 second or every 3 minute period
     Used when behavior occurs at a moderate, steady rate
     May be the best procedure if it is necessary/desirable to:
          o Observe more than one student
          o Carry out other tasks within the classroom
          o Class micro-norms are desirable
                    Observation/recording of non-target/average students within the classroom for behavioral
                       comparison to the targeted student
     Procedure:
          o Select a time block such as every 3 minutes
          o At the end of the designated time block observe for the defined behavior and record an ―X‖ if the behavior
              is being exhibited at that point in time
                    If the behavior occurred before or after the designated time, it does not count
          o If observations include comparison students (eg. 2 non-target students) record occurrences of the defined
              behavior as outlined above
                    Observe the target student, followed in one minute by an observation of the comparison student 1
                       and one minute later an observation of comparison student 2
                    Repeat this sequence such that each student is observed every 3 minutes
          o At the end of the observation session compute the totals and percentages

            Eg. John was on-task 64% of the time
                Tom and Lark were on-task 93% and 97% of the time respectively




                                                       Page 57 of 63
                                                                                           Formal Data Collection - 3
3. Event Recording (Frequency Counts):
     A measure of the precise number of occurrences of the defined behavior during the entire observation period
     Must define the behavior precisely such that one may determine when the behavior starts and stops
           o Eg. each occurrence of ―desk taping behavior‖ must be proceeded by a minimum of 5 seconds of non-
               taping behavior.
     Used when behavior is brief, discrete and occurs quite often
     Procedure:
           o Select an observation time block such as:
                    A 20 minute continuous segment
                    The reading lesson
                    Other
           o Count/tally the number of occurrences of the defined behavior – every time there is an occurrence
           o Calculate the total number of tally marks for the rate of behavior

4. Duration Recording:
     A measure of the precise length of time a behavior occurs (tantrum – 15 minutes)
     Must define precisely when a behavior starts and when it ends
     Used for major problems such as tantrum or rage behavior
     Procedure:
            o Using a stopwatch or timer measure (and record) the length of each occurrence of the defined behavior –
               eg. tantrum behavior
            o Following a number of such events an average length of ―tantrum‖ behavior may be determined – a base-
               line
            o Following initiation of an intervention the timed length of subsequent ―tantrum‖ behavior may be
               compared to the base-line data and the intervention may be
                     Supported as effective and thus maintained
                     Modified somewhat
                     Replaced by a potentially more effective strategy

5. Latency Recording:
     A measure of the precise length of time between a specific event (eg. teacher request) and the onset of or
        completion of the behavior (eg. student sitting down)
     Must precisely define the precipitating event/request and the student behavior representing compliance
     Used most often with noncompliant behavior
     Procedure:
            o Using a timer determine the length of time between the request and compliant behavior
            o At the end of the designated time frame (eg. half or full day) derived the:
                     Total number of events
                     Average time delay for compliance
            o Subsequent latency recording during and/or following intervention reflects the effectiveness of the
               strategy




                                                       Page 58 of 63
                                Daily Behavioral Progress Report
                                           (Example)
Student Name:_______________________                                                Date:__________
Teacher: _____________________________
                                                          Ratings Key:
                                                          1. Outstanding          3. Needs Improvement
                                                          2. Satisfactory         4. Problematic

Activity      Social Skill                   1   2   3     4     Comments/Homework
               Following Directions
               Respect
               Working with Effort
               Remaining Calm
               Following Directions
               Respect
               Working with Effort
               Remaining Calm
               Following Directions
               Respect
               Working with Effort
               Remaining Calm
               Following Directions
               Respect
               Working with Effort
               Remaining Calm
               Following Directions
               Respect
               Working with Effort
               Remaining Calm
               Following Directions
               Respect
               Working with Effort
               Remaining Calm
               Following Directions
               Respect
               Working with Effort
               Remaining Calm

Following Directions:                                     Showing Respect:
1. Looking at the person giving directions                1. Using a pleasant voice
2. Acknowledgment, saying OK                              2. Having a pleasant facial expression
3. Completing the task                                    3. Keeping hand/feet to self
4. Checking back                                          4. Not arguing
                                                          5. Using appropriate language
Working with Effort:
1. Following instructions                                 Remaining Calm:
2. Asking for help as needed                              1. Using self-control
3. Consistently on-task                                   2. Avoiding negative/aggressive behavior
4. Checking work                                          3. Turn-taking

                                                         Page 59 of 63
                                             Daily Behavioral Progress Report

Student Name:_______________________                                           Date:__________
Teacher: _____________________________
                                                             Ratings Key:
                                                             1. Outstanding         3. Needs Improvement
                                                             2. Satisfactory        4. Problematic

Activity      Social Skill               1    2   3    4 Comments/Homework




List below the specific behavioral descriptor for each skill under consideration.

Behavior/Skill 1                          Behavior/Skill 2
1.                                               1.
2.                                               2.
3.                                               3.

Behavior/Skill 3                          Behavior/Skill 4
1.                                               1.
2.                                               2.
3.                                               3.


                                                          Page 60 of 63
                                                               Incident Assessment

Student Name:____________________ DOB:______________ Teacher:______________ Initiation Date:________________

Each table is used to assess one individual incident. Please add any comments on the back.
Date   Time   Setting              Antecedent (Trigger)     Behavior                  Action Taken                Duration          Intensity
               Large group         Change in routine       Talking                  Student ignored            <1 minute       Circle:
               Small group         Reaction to new task    Yelling out              Used proximity control     1-4 minutes     Low = 1
               Seat work           Redirection             Out of seat              Gave nonverbal cue         5-10 minutes
               Structured          Task frustration        Off-task verbal          Gave verbal cue/warning    11-19 minutes              2
               Semi-structured     Goal blockage           Off-task motor           Change seating/setting     20-30 minutes
               Unstructured        Need for attention      Off-task passive         Redirection                ½ to 1 hour                3
               Transition          Peer interactions       Daydreaming              Lost privileges            1-2 hours
                                    Lack of structure       Inattentive              Time-out in class          2-3 hours                  4
               Classroom           Anger                   Noncompliance            Time-out out of class      3+ hours
               Lab                 Being bullied           Verbal aggression        Sent to counselor                           High = 5
               Free time/recess    Power play              Physical aggression      Sent to office
               Lunchroom           Other - Describe        Crying                   Detention
               Restroom                                     Tantrum behavior         Suspension
               Other - Describe                             Other - Describe         Other – Describe




Date   Time   Setting              Antecedent (Trigger)     Behavior                  Action Taken                Duration           Intensity
               Large group         Change in routine       Talking                  Student ignored            <1 minute        Circle:
               Small group         Reaction to new task    Yelling out              Used proximity control     1-4 minutes       Low = 1
               Seat work           Redirection             Out of seat              Gave nonverbal cue         5-10 minutes
               Structured          Task frustration        Off-task verbal          Gave verbal cue/warning    11-19 minutes               2
               Semi-structured     Goal blockage           Off-task motor           Change seating/setting     20-30 minutes
               Unstructured        Need for attention      Off-task passive         Redirection                ½ to 1 hour                 3
               Transition          Peer interactions       Daydreaming              Lost privileges            1-2 hours
                                    Lack of structure       Inattentive              Time-out in class          2-3 hours                   4
               Classroom           Anger                   Noncompliance            Time-out out of class      3+ hours
               Lab                 Being bullied           Verbal aggression        Sent to counselor                            High = 5
               Free time/recess    Power play              Physical aggression      Sent to office
               Lunchroom           Other - Describe        Crying                   Detention
               Restroom                                     Tantrum behavior         Suspension
               Other - Describe                             Other - Describe         Other – Describe



                                                                      Page 61 of 63
                     Instructions for Creating an Excel Chart/Graph
1. Open Excel
2. Your columns will need to be labeled. You can use Row 1 to label the columns.
3. On the ―Book 1‖ sheet use a column to record the date of your data points (Column A).
4. Use the next column for the specific data points. If you have more than one type of data (such as Words Read Per
   Minute and Errors, or mean group data verses individual data), you can use a second column to record this and put
   both types of information on the graph.
5. After you have listed several dates and data points, you can create your graph and just add the subsequent dates and
   data as you continue your progress monitoring (remember that the data should be measuring the same information
   every time so that it is comparable).
6. To create the graph, click on the ―Chart Wizard‖ icon which should be on your tool bar. If it is not, go to ―Insert‖
   and it should be in the drop down box. (The icon looks like a mini bar graph.)
7. Under ―Chart Type‖ click on ―line‖, then double click the default chart which is described as ―line with markers
   displayed at each data value‖ (4th line graph), or choose ―Next.‖
8. If you have Office 2002 or higher, it automatically incorporates your columns, data ranges and dates into the
   preliminary chart. If you have Office 2000, you have to select your data from Sheet 1. To do this, go to the top
   left corner of the dates and select-click/drag- the dates and data. If you need to use only part of the data you have
   entered for your graph, you can always go back and select the actual data to be incorporated by deleting the
   information in the ―Data Range‖ box and selecting on your Sheet 1 the data you want to graph.
9. While you are still on this ―page‖ click on the tab labeled ―Series‖ so that you can change the name of the label
   ―series‖ to something like ―John’s ORF‖ or ―Class Average ORF‖. You do this by highlighting the series then in
   the ―Name‖ space, typing the label as you want it to appear in the legend box.
10. Click the ―Next‖ button which should put you in step 3 of Chart Wizard. You can then type in your Chart Title, X
    axis label (bottom line) and Y axis label (left vertical line). You can also customize the chart for various items such
    as labeling the data points with numbers, changing the gridlines, the location of the legend, etc.
11. When this is complete, click ―Next‖ and then the Wizard will ask whether you want to put the chart on a new sheet
    or embed it on the page with your data. This is a matter of choice and is up to you. It is easier to print if you put it
    on a separate sheet, but it is easier to view changes if you keep it with your data.
12. Click ―Finish‖ and the initial chart is complete.
13. When you need to add dates and data points you have to expand the selection for both the date and the data points.
    You do this by clicking somewhere on the chart and then expanding the blue-outlined boxes down to incorporate
    the added data. (If you have a problem with the dates not matching up with what you originally typed, the Chart
    Options (Axes) may have Automatic checked. Right click on an open space on the chart you created and go to the
    ―Chart Options‖ category. Open the ―Axes‖ tab and under ―Category X axis‖ click ―Category‖ instead of
    ―Automatic.‖
14. If you want to do a trend line or ―aim line‖ (usually when comparing the student to the group or to see if the
    student is going to meet a stated goal), then you need to click once on a data point, then right click which will show
    a pop up box. Click ―Add Trend Line‖ and choose the ―linear‖ option and the series to use for the trend. You can
    also go to the ―Options‖ tab and forecast the trend line for several weeks ahead. There is a place to re-name the
    trend line. The new name will show up on the legend.
15. You are essentially finished with your graph. You will need to ―Save As‖, probably under the student’s name.
16. To print the chart only, click once on the chart to ―activate‖ it and then print. If you want to print the chart and the
    data (if you chose to embed the chart on your data sheet), click off of the chart and you can print the entire sheet.


                                                        Page 62 of 63
                                  Web Links and References

   http://www.interventioncentral.org Intervention Central, website by Jim Wright. It
   contains a lot of interventions, progress monitoring techniques and RTI information. He is the
   author of The RTI Toolkit
   http://studentprogress.org This site is a government clearing house on progress monitoring.
   There are multiple articles and rated examples of progress monitoring instruments.
   http://nrcld.org National Research Center on Learning Disabilities
   http://www.aimsweb.com/articles Articles on progress monitoring and use of Aimsweb
   http://www.cbmnow.com Good explanations on Criterion Based Measurement
   http://www.k8accesscenter.org US Department of Special Education site providing
   resources and interventions.
   http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/index.asp Florida DOE site that gives an excellent overview of
   positive behavioral support. It also has video and articles.
   http://www.pbis.org/main.htm Main government site on Positive Behavior Support.
   http://www.ritap.org/ritap/resources/presentations.php Rhode Island DOE sites with
   good presentations about many topics.
   http://www.reading.org/resources/issues/focus_struggling.html International Reading
   Association. Articles on RTI.
   http://www.ncld.org/content/view/1002/389/ National Center for Learning Disabilities.
   Great articles on RTI.
   http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/ Terrific site dealing with RTI and other intervention articles.
   http://www.jimwrightonline.com/php/chartdog_2_0/manual/chartdogman.html
    Chart Dog… this provides free charting of data.
   https://dibels.uoregon.edu Dibels site. You must register to access this, but it is free and
   has many articles as well as the actual assessment instruments.


                                            Books:

      Marzano, Robert J., 2003, Classroom Management that Works, ASCD.

     McCook, John E., 2006, The RTI Guide: Developing and Implementing a Model in Your
Schools. LPR Publications.

     Wright, Jim, 2007, RTI Toolkit, A Practical Guide for Schools. National Professional
Resources, Inc.

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