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									Using CMMI, ITIL, and PMBoK to
Improve Proposal Operations

Brenda Crist   Lohfeld Consulting Group
                                Current Proposal Practices

          Proposal Management Books Often Focus on
           Proposal Management Basics:
                        Capture and Positioning
                        Bid Request
                        Bid Decision
                        Proposal Scheduling and Development
                        Proposal Planning
                        Review Teams

                              These processes are tried and true and
                           promote collaboration and delivery on schedule
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              Do These Processes Meet All Your Job Needs?

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                                Does Your Job Involve Multiple
          Do           You Manage Multiple Projects?
                       Staffing and Resources
                       Budgets and Communications
                       Cost and Quality Control
          Do           You Provide These Services?
                       Proposal Systems Design
                       Pipeline Management
                       Knowledge Management
                       Configuration Management
                       Template Creation
                       Training Services
          Do           You Promote Continual Improvement?

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          What Can We Learn from Industry to Improve Our
                   Management of These Tasks?

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                                We Can Take Best Practices From:

          The Project Management Institute, Project Management
           Body of Knowledge (PMBoK) can help us effectively
           manage multiple projects
          Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) can
           help us deliver better proposal services
          Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI) can help us
           smoothly integrate proposal functions
          ISO 9001:2000 can help us improve consistency and

                     We write about “industry best practices” daily; let’s
                       use them to improve proposal management
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                                What Can We Learn from PMBoK?

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                                PMBoK Highlights

              Offers a framework for project management backed
                     by project management best practices
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                                What Can We Take From PMBoK?

          Specific practices for
                   – Project Planning
                   – Schedule Management
                   – Quality Management
                   – Communications
                   – Cost Management
                   – Risk Management

                   We can also use PMBoK methods for managing two
                             or more projects concurrently
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                                Project Planning and Scheduling

          In advance of proposal activities:
                    Develop a realistic pipeline to determine workload (preferably
                     Using a Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Tool)
                    Develop project plans with WBSs and schedules for 10, 15, 30,
                     and 45 day turnarounds
                    Establish milestones for major capture/proposal activities
                    Establish agreements with vendors and consultants
          Manage to the schedule; reporting status daily against the
          Proactively monitor and record variance of planned vs.
           actual activities

                                  Pre-planning + Commitment = Success
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       ID# Agency Name                         Description   Capture   Status    RFP Date Value

       110         DOE           ELMS          BPR           Smith     Pre-RFP   5/1/09   $25M
       210         DOC           IPS Program   Help Desk     Jones     RFP       6/1/09   $50M

       330         Navy          TACS          Call Center   Turner    Future    9/1/09   $40M

                                               Create a Pipeline

                                Create a Work Breakdown Schedule
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                                Cost Management

          Budget realistically
          Plan ways to drive down proposal
           development costs
          Proposal costs are often unpredictable;
           leave plenty of cushion in the budget
          Implement cost controls and break down
           work into small incremental pieces
          Measure performance
          Maintain historic cost data for the next
           budgeting cycle

                     You will be a hero if you deliver your proposal under
                                       your B&P budget
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                                Tips for Driving Down Costs

          Buy supplies in discounts like paper, toner
           cartridges, and binders and tabs
          Negotiate discount rates for hardware
           maintenance (printers, copiers)                   30% OFF YOUR
          Establish agreements with set rates for               NEXT
           services vendors like writing or editing            PURCHASE
          Create a knowledgebase of reusable written
                                                               OF PAPER
           materials (resumes, graphics)
          Hold brainstorming sessions after hours
           w/dinner so billable hours are not lost
          Limit review team membership
          Control color printer use

                     Re-invest savings back into the training of your staff
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                                Quality Management
          Incorporate quality standards
                    ISO 9001:2000, PMBoK, CMMI
          Implement a Quality Assurance Program
                    Define quality metrics
                    Define processes for accomplishing
                    Identify artifacts resulting from reviews
          Implement Quality Controls
                    Compliance and solution reviews
                    Editorial and document reviews
                    Book check and media reviews
          Evaluate and continuously improve quality

         The quality of the proposal reflects your company’s quality
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                                Incremental Quality Controls

                      Build time in for quality reviews throughout the proposal life cycle
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                                Human Resources Management

          Define Staffing Plan
                    Define roles, authority, and responsibilities
                    Define competencies, experience, education,
                    Maintain a realistic staffing plan for program
                     and specific proposals
          Develop a Training Plan
                    Define Program-Level Plan
                    Define Individual Development Plans
                    Attend APMP events
          Develop a Retention Plan
                    Spot bonus pool or bonus plan
                    Alternate work schedules for long hours
                    Morale boosters
                  Develop plans and objectives for training and retaining
                  valued capture and proposal management employees
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                                Communications Management

          Five things we can learn from PMBoK:
                    Create a communications plan and train members in its
                    Identify the most effective and secure methods for
                     information distribution
                    Define the best way for communicating with
                    Identify how to report status
                    Define your risk escalation path
                            Communications represent a significant part of a
                                 proposal manager’s daily activities
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                                Communications Plan

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                                Risk Management

                Define a risk management plan or processes
                 with escalation paths
                Identify major risks                           Date   Risk          Due    Assigned To
                   Proposal program risks: Lack of             6/16   No Solution   6/26   James Smith
                      resources (personnel, technology,                for Reports
                      funds), Lack of training, Lack of time
                   Proposal risks: Solution gaps, Lack of      6/17   Missing Key   6/27   Recruiting,
                      key personnel, Missing price                     Personnel            John Doe
                      information, Unforeseen RFP               6/18   Missing SW    6/28   SW Dept, Jane
                                                                       Pricing              Jones
                Maintain a risk mitigation log
                   Identify the risk
                                                                               Risk Log
                   Person responsible for mitigating the
                   Risk mitigation timeframe and due date
                   Risk mitigation outcome
                Discuss risk mitigation during daily standup
                 meetings and at routine staff meetings
                  Keep management aware and focused on potential capture and
                             proposal risks to mitigate deficiencies
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                                What Can We Learn from ITIL?

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                                Information Technology Infrastructure
                                Library (ITIL) Framework

                        If your job requires more than just proposal management, ITIL
                                  offers a framework for the delivery of services
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                                The ITIL Framework Defined

          Service Strategy provides guidance on how to design, develop and
           implement service management

          Service Design describes how to convert your service strategy objectives
           into service assets

          Service Transition describes how to ensure service elements (applications,
           infrastructure knowledge, facilities) are delivered on schedule

          Service Operations provides strategies for service support (incident,
           problem, access mgmt, and service delivery (infrastructure and security

          Continual Service Improvement measures performance, implements
           improvements, and ensures expected results are achieved

            ITIL is an IT infrastructure and services framework originated by the UK
                                  Office of Government Commerce
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                                Service Strategy and Design

          Develop Your Service Strategy
                    What services are you offering in addition to proposal management and
                                o Knowledge management
                                o Data calls/information requests
                                o Change and configuration management
                                o Customer relationship management (CRM)
                                o Pipeline management
                                o Proposal facilities management
                                o Task order registration and processing
                    Who are your internal/external clients?
                    What assets do you need?

                   Develop a service strategy that meets the needs of your internal
                                          and external clients
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                                Knowledge Management Services

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                                ITIL Knowledge Management Tips

          Make knowledge easy to access and intuitive to
          Create an electronic library using directory folders
           or a collaboration tool
          Create instructions for a cheat sheet for finding
          Restrict access to the knowledgebase as
           appropriate for your company

           Don’t re-create the wheel – build a knowledgebase
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                                Items to Put in the Knowledgebase

          Resumes (updated annually)
          Past performance summaries (updated annually)
          Processes for program planning, cost control, human resources,
           communication, risk, quality, and monitoring
          Management factoids about retention, degrees, certifications
          Processes for transition, incident, problem, change, configuration, release,
           asset, availability, capacity, and security management
          Technical architectures and system flows for operations
          Performance management success stories to demonstrate performance at or
           above industry averages
          Problems and solutions
          Kudo letters and success stories
          Proposal templates
          Art library containing photos and graphics

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                                Do You Feel Like a Help Desk?

          Are you always fielding questions
           about company characteristics?
           Like number of employees,
           certifications or revenue?
          Are you always asked for past
           performance summaries or
          Are you always asked for sample
           graphics or photos?

             If you feel like a help desk, implement ITIL best practices
                 for service management to function most efficiently
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                                Consider Adding a Self-Help Feature

         • Work with company executives to determine what type of knowledge
           should be included in the self-help feature
         • Determine how you will restrict access based on roles
         • Identify what subset of the knowledgebase can be shared
         • Setup policies for adding, updating, and maintaining data

                                                       The self-help feature can
                                                        benefit the company by
                                                      providing secure, accurate,
                                                         consistent, and timely

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                           Configuration Management Services

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                                ITIL Configuration Management Tips

                                    Develop a central
                                                             Develop a folder /
                                 repository for managing
                                                              structure for the
                                  proposal configuration
                                                             repository for CIs
                                       items (CIs)

                                                   Assets Under
                                                    CM Control

                                                              Routinely review
                                  Number and label CIs         knowledge for
                                                           timeliness and accuracy

                                   Keeping knowledge under configuration control
                                     increases proposal preparation efficiency
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                                Items to Put Under CM Control

         • Capture Plans and CRM data
         • Solicitation, Q&As, amendments, BAFOs, debriefs
         • Proposal Management Plans and schedules
         • Kick-off meeting agendas
         • Compliance matrices, storyboards, outlines
         • Templates, graphics, photos
         • Background information
         • Input from authors
         • Blue, black, pink, red, and gold team versions of the proposal/task
           order or oral presentations
         • Resumes, past performance summaries
         • Final proposals (hardcopy and softcopy)
         • Proposal budgets and metrics
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                                What Can We Learn from CMMI?

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                                Capability Maturity Model
                                Integration (CMMI)
                                                       Level 5          Focus on process
          CMMI is a                                  “Optimizing”       improvement
        improvement                            Level 4
          approach                          “Quantitatively     Process is measured and controlled

                                       Level 3         Process is defined, repeatable, and proactive

                                  Level 2
                                               Process is characterized but is often reactive

                    Level 1
                                       Process in unpredictable, poorly controlled, and reactive
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                                Continual Process Improvement

         •       Obtain buy-in for a CPI Program
         •       Define SOPs for performing your
         •       Establish metrics                               Plan
         •       Allocate sufficient resources to
                 collect metrics and analyze findings
         •       Use IT to facilitate CPI data          Manage
                 capture and analysis
         •       Monitor performance and record
                 lessons learned
         •       Identify and implement
         •       Control improvements to verify
                 they achieve the intended result

                          Start with one or two areas you wish to improve
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                                Suggested Measurements

         • Win ratio
         • Completed on schedule
         • Completed within budget
         • Free of editorial defects
         • No unauthorized changes
           made to baselines
         • All proposal artifacts are
           kept under CM control
         • Internal clients express
           high satisfaction with
                                  Select performance metrics and use them to
“Knowledge is Power”
                                         measure how well you perform
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         • Use feedback and metrics to identify training needs
         • Train external clients: Proposal training classes, secure, just-in-time
           training knowledgebase
         • Proposal team training: On-the-job training, knowledgebase, formal
           proposal training, APMP events, professional certification programs

                                                                         APMP NCA
                                                                    Professional Day 2008

                       A well-trained team improves efficiency, increases retention, and
                                              improves morale
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                   Consider Using Software Development
                Techniques to Facilitate Proposal Management

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                                Software Development Methods
                                Applied to Proposal Development
         • The Software Engineering Institute (SEI) originally designed
           CMM/CMMI to define what processes and activities were needed to
           develop software
         • Many best practices were developed to specify how these processes
           and activities should be accomplished:
            – Waterfall Method
            – Spiral Method
            – Iterative Development Method
            – Agile Method
            – Plug and Chug Method

                      Evaluate each solicitation to determine the best
                    process for developing a winning proposal response
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                                Proposal Development
                                Methods to Consider

         Traditional Development SW Development Techniques
         • Storyboard            • Waterfall
         • Annotated Outline     • Plug and Chug
         • Pink Team             • Iterative Method
         • Red Team              • Spiral Method
         • Gold Team             • Agile Method
         • Production
         • Delivery

                                   Consider using an iterative development
                                 technique if your solution is not established
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                                Burn Rate/Burn Down Chart
                                               Burn Rate/Burn Down Chart

         • When using an                      120%

           iterative/agile                    100%
           development method                  80%
           link accomplishments                60%
           to a Burn Rate/Burn                 40%
           Down Chart, so                      20%
           executives can assess                0%
           progress in
           comparison to the
            A Burn Rate Chart illustrates your performance against the
                          budgeted schedule and cost
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                      What Can We Learn from ISO 9001:2000?

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                                ISO 9001:2000 Highlights

         • ISO 9000 is a family of quality management standards
           maintained by the International Organization for
           Standardization (ISO)
         • To become ISO 9001:2000 certified you need:
            – A set of procedures covering your business process
            – A plan for monitoring processes
            – Records demonstrating you followed your business
            – A plan to check output for defects and a plan for
              corrective action
            – Regular review processes
            – A plan for continual improvement
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                                We Can Learn to Write Effective
                                SOPs Using ISO Guidance
         • Procedures should have:
            – Clear instructions and a
            – Owner(s)
            – Metrics
            – Monitoring methods
            – Reporting methods
            – Audit methods

                Set expectations and communicate how you will perform
                      proposal management activities using SOPs
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                                Sample SOP
                   SOP Element        SOP for a Proposal Kick-Off Meeting Agenda
                   Instruction        Develop an Agenda for the Proposal Kick-Off
                                      Meeting. The Agenda should contain a welcome
                                      from executives, a bid review, proposal schedule,
                                      writing assignments, and meeting schedule
                   Owner              Proposal Manager
                   Metric             Distributed at Kick-Off Meeting
                   Monitoring         Capture Manager works with the Proposal Manager
                   Method             to ensure it is being created
                   Evaluation Method Executive Management and the Capture Manager
                                     review the agenda prior to the meeting and
                                     Proposal Manager makes corrections
                   Reporting Method   Agenda distributed at the Kick-Off Meeting and
                                      stored in the Proposal Library
                   Audit Method       Quarterly review of Proposal Library to determine if
                                      the Agenda is present
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                                Internal Audits

         • Conduct quarterly
           audits to determine if
           artifacts are:
            – Present
            – Complete
            – Secure
            – Correctly located
            – Require updating
                Internal audits provide a discipline for ensuring your
             records are present, secure, up-to-date, and easily located
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                   To determine if industry best practices can
                   help, make a list of your job functions

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                                To determine if industry best practices can
                                help, make a list of your job functions

         • Proposal Process                                   Process
         • Proposal Project
           Management         Service                       Functional    Project
         • Proposal Service    Mgmt                         Categories     Mgmt

         • Proposal Performance                             Performance
           Management                                          Mgmt

         Proposal management is a multi-dimensional process often
          involving project, service, and performance management
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                                Functional Breakdown

         • Process Management                         • Service Management
                   –     Capture Management              –   Knowledge Management
                   –     Proposal Management             –   Pipeline Management
                   –     Coordination Management         –   CRM Management
                   –     Graphics/Art Management         –   Change Management
                   –     Production Management           –   Configuration Management
                   –     Project Management           • Performance Management
         • Project Planning / Scheduling                 – Measurement and Analysis
                   –     Cost Management                 – Training
                   –     Quality Management              – Continual Improvement
                   –     Human Resources Management
                   –     Communications Management
                   –     Risk Management

                       List and categorize your job functions to determine if
                            you can benefit from industry best practices
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                                Link Functions to Best Practices
                     Function                Best Practice Area
                     Risk Management         PMBoK Risk Management
                     Cost Management         PMBoK Cost Management
                     Knowledge Management    ITIL Service Transition for Knowledge
                     Continual Improvement   CMMI Continuous Process Improvement and
                                             ITIL Continual Service Improvement
                     Quality Management      ISO 9001:2000 and CMMI Process and
                                             Product Quality Assurance Process Area
                     Communications          PMBoK Communications Management
                     Configuration           ITIL Service Transition for Configuration
                     Management              Management and CMMI Configuration
                                             Management Process Area
                        Link your job functions to best practices and create
“Knowledge is Power”
                                SOPs to enhance your performance
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         • As a proposal professional your job is complex
           and demanding
         • It involves the management of multiple
           processes, projects, and services simultaneously
         • Learn from industry and adapt best practices and
           lessons learned to help as needed
         • Pass your lessons learned and best practices onto

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                           Thank You

                           Brenda Crist
                           APMP NCA Vice President
                           Professional Day Committee Chairperson 2009
                           Principal, Lohfeld Consulting Group


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