Aspects of Genetics and Evolution Name __________________________ Evolution Worksheet # 1 Choose the answer which best completes the following statements or answers the following questions. (3 pts. @) Place the answers to these questions on your own lined paper. 1. Darwin believed that evolution took place: 1. Gradually, in small steps 2. Through the appearance of radically new types 3. Only in the distant past 4. In short bursts 2. Which statement is not consistent with Darwin's theory of natural selection? 1. Limited resources put limits on population growth. 2. Some members are more adapted to the rigors of competition. 3. There is no variation in individuals. 4. All populations tend to overproduce. 3. The structural similarities between the flippers of whales and the arms of humans are used to show that the: 1. Whales evolved from the human species. 2. Whales are older than the human species. 3. Human species and whales have a common ancestry. 4. Human species began life in the oceans. 4. What do we call structures that perform a similar function but arise from different ancestral traits? 1. Analogous structures 2. Neutral substitution 3. Homologous structures 4. Species richness 5. "Differential success in reproduction" is just another way of saying 1. genetic drift 2. mutation 3. natural selection 4. recombination 6. The idea that organisms are able to pass along characteristics acquired during their lifetime is most closely associated with: 1. Lamarck 2. Mendel 3. Lyell 4. Darwin 5. Wallace 7. Lamarck's contribution to the theory of evolution was the concept of 1. natural selection. 2. geographic distribution of organisms 3. mutation 4. catastrophism. 5. inheritance of acquired characteristics. 8. According to Lamarck, traits, such as large muscles, that are acquired over an individual's lifetime: 1. are acted on by natural selection 2. are the result of a change of alleles 3. cannot be passed on to offspring 4. can be passed on to offspring 9. According to Darwin, what caused species to change over time? 1. Natural selection 2. Inheritance of acquired traits 3. Use and disuse 4. Lamarckian inheritance 10. The oldest fossils usually 1. contain more radioactive isotopes than younger fossils 2. are found in sediments from the Cenozoic era 3. are found in the deepest strata 4. are found above younger fossils 5. have the longest half-lives Choose the choice most closely associated with each of the following scientists. 11. DeVries a. Sailed to the Galapago's and developed theory of natural selection 12. Lamarck b. Scientist also given credit for developing the theory of natural selection 13. Lyell c. Proposed the idea of use and disuse and that acquired 14. Darwin characteristics could be inherited 15. Wallace d. Proposed mutations were a source of variations e. Geologist stating ideas which influenced Darwin 16. Which are assumptions made with regards to the theory of evolution by natural selection? 1. variations exist among organisms 2. organisms compete with each other to survive 3. not all organisms that are born survive to reproduce 4. all of these 17. Which was NOT supported by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck? 1. Inheritance of acquired traits 2. Natural Selection 3. The change of species over time 4. Use and disuse 18. What would be the best technique for determining the evolutionary phylogenetic relationship among several closely related species? 1. examining the fossil record 2. comparative anatomy 3. comparative embryology 4. DNA analysis and protein comparison 5. comparison of homologous structures 19. Which statement BEST describes the process of natural selection? 1. New species are formed via genetic engineering 2. Individuals survive that have inherited traits adapted to their environment. 3. Populations sharing the same gene pool interbreed and create new species. 4. Farmers select animals with desirable variations for breeding. 20. A species of frogs has a stickier tongue than some other species of frogs, and it allows them to catch flies more easily. This stickier tongue is an example of a n: 1. species 2. fossil 3. radiation 4. adaptation 21. Which statement best describes evolution? 1. Evolution is a predictable change from simple to complex organisms. 2. Evolution is a process of change through time. 3. Evolution often proceeds from complex to simpler organisms. 4. Evolution causes organisms to develop characteristics they need. 22. Biologically similar organisms have similar DNA and proteins. This statement supports the concept of 1. diversity in species 2. acquired characteristics 3. use and disuse 4. organic evolution 23. Which observation could best be used to indicate an evolutionary relationship between two species? 1. They have similar nitrogenous base sequences. 2 They have similar fur color. 3 They inhabit the same geographic regions. 4 They occupy the same niche. 24. The embryos of fish, chickens, and pigs have gill slits and a tail. The presence of these features suggests that 1. all these animals can swim 2. these animals may have had a common ancestor 3. gill slits and tails are required for embryonic development 4. pigs developed from chickens 25. In the early stages of development, the embryos of birds and reptiles resemble each other in many ways. This resemblance suggests that they 1. belong to the same species 2. are adapted for life in the same habitat 3. share a common ancestry 4. are both animal-like protists 26. In his theory of evolution, Charles Darwin was not able to explain 1. competition 2. overproduction 3. reproduction 4. variation 27. What is the most probable reason that fossils found in lower layers of undisturbed rock are not found in upper layers of undisturbed rock in the same rock sequence? 1. The development of many different organisms is part of an evolutionary process which has occurred for billions of years. 2. Fossils of early organisms are much more complex than those of later organisms. 3. Organisms living today show no relationship to organisms living billions of years ago. 4. Changing environments on the earth have resulted in the extinction of many organisms. Short Answer Questions 1. Explain as Lamarck would have the evolution of the long neck in the giraffe. Include mention of the following bullets in your discussion: (6 pts.) * concept of use and use * concept of the inheritance of acquired characteristics 2. Discuss the evolution of the evolution of the long neck in the giraffe using Darwin's theory of natural selection. Include a discussion of the following bullets in your explanation: (12 pts.) * overproduction * variation * competition * survival of the fittest Your must highlight the bulleted terms above in your answer to receive any credit for your answer.