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									Biology 1 Outline and Objectives

Unit 1 The Science of Biology
Chapter 1

General Outcome
1.0 The students should be able to recognize the basic characteristics of life and describe the nature of
science.

Specific Learning Outcomes:
Upon successful completion of this unit, the students should be able to:
1.1 List the major properties of life.
1.2 Explain how science is distinguished from other ways of seeking understanding of life.
1.3 Explain the significance of major unifying themes of modern biology.
1.4 Explain the limitations of science.
1.5 Identify how the steps in the scientific process were used to determine the effects of CFCs on the earth‟s
ozone layer.
1.6 Be able to define the following terms.

The Scientific Process
Deductive reasoning
Inductive reasoning
Stages of scientific investigation
        Observation
        Hypothesis
        Predictions
        Controlled experiment (testing)
                 Control experiment
                 1 Variable experiment
        Scientific Theory

Properties
        Cellular organization
        Metabolism
        Homeostasis
        Reproduction
        Heredity
Biological Themes
        Evolution
        The flow of energy
        Cooperation
        Structure determines function
        Homeostasis

Explain this statement: The process of science does not work to discover truth.




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Unit 2 The Chemistry of Life
Chapter 3

General Outcome:
2.0 The students should be able to explain the structure of atoms, chemical bonding, properties of water, and
the groups of organic molecules associated with life.

Specific Learning Outcomes:
Upon successful completion of this unit, the students should be able to:
2.1 Explain how the structure of an atom determines its chemical properties and the kinds of bonds it can
form.
2.2 Describe and explain ionic and covalent bonding.
2.3 Name the elements that make up the majority of all living matter.
2.4 Recognize the structure of the water molecule, showing areas of positive and negative charge.
2.5 Describe a hydrogen bond.
2.6 List the major chemical and physical properties of water which result from the hydrogen bonding between
water molecules
2.7 Describe the ionization of water and describe the pH scale.
2.8 Explain why the carbon atom plays a central role in the formation of organic molecules.
2.9 Describe the condensation and hydrolysis of carbohydrates. List examples of monosaccharides,
disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
2.10 Describe the condensation and hydrolysis of triglycerides and the role of other lipids such as steroids
and phospholipids.
2.11 Describe the structure of an amino acid and how polypeptides are formed. Explain protein variety in
terms of amino acid arrangement.
2.12 Define primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins and relate the structures to
protein function.
2.13 Describe nucleic acid structure and function.
2.14 Describe theories and significant experiments regarding the origin of life on earth.

2.15 Define the following terms:
Basic Chemistry
Atom
        Nucleus
                 Protons
                 Neutrons
        Electron
                 Orbitals
                 Energy of position (potential energy)
Ions
Isotope = variations in # of neutrons
        Atomic number = # of protons
        Atomic mass = protons + neutrons
Chemical bond
        Molecule
        3 types of bonds
                 Ionic bond- strong when solid, weaker in H2O
                 Covalent bond- strong
                 Hydrogen bond- weak
Water
Properties of water
        Polar molecule
                 Cohesion
                 Adhesion
                 Solvent
        Heat storage = high



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       High heat of vaporization = high, so carries away a lot of heat
       Lower density of ice- ice floats in water!
Hydrophobic property of nonpolar compounds that are not water soluble

pH
         pH scale
         Hydrogen ion (H+)
         Hydroxide ion (OH-)
         H2O       OH- + H+
Acid
Base
Buffer
         Carbonic acid/bicarbonate
                                                     -3
         H2O + CO2              H2CO3          HCO        + H+

Macromolecules
      Polymer
              Dehydration synthesis = making a polymer
              Hydrolysis = breaking down a polymer
      Organic molecule- backbone of carbon
      Functional group = groups of atoms with special properties that are added to a carbon backbone

Carbohydrate C6H12O6 (H2O)
        Monosaccharides
                Examples: glucose, fructose
        Disaccharides
                Examples: sucrose
        Polysaccharides
                Examples: starches, glycogen, cellulose
        Functions: energy storage and structure
Lipids- mostly C-H bonds, little O
        Fats
                Subunits: Fatty acids (3), glycerol (1) = triglyceride
                Saturated: usually animal fat, hard fat
                Unsaturated: usually plant oil
        Phospholipids
        Steroids- four-carbon ring structure
                Examples: cholesterol, hormones
        Functions: energy storage, cell membranes, hormones
Protein
        Subunit: amino acids, 20 common ones
                Peptide bonds bind amino acids into chains
        Polypeptides = chains of amino acids
        Examples:
                Structural proteins
                         Examples: collagen, keratin
                Enzymes- makes possible most chemical reactions of life
                         Example: amylase, lipase
        Structure
                1. Primary = the sequence of amino acids
                2. Secondary
                3. Tertiary
                4. Quaternary
                Denaturation
        Functions: structural, enzymes (catalyst)
Nucleic acids



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       Subunit: nucleotide = 5-carbon sugar (2 types), phosphate (PO4), nitrogen-containing base (4 types)
       Function: Information storage for the message of life
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) = chemical blue print of an organism
       Double helix- base pairing
                Adenine – thymine (A-T)
                Guanine – cytosine (G-C)
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)



Unit 3 Cells / Energy and Life / How Cells Acquire Energy
Chapter 4, 5, 6

General Outcome
3.0 The students should be able to describe a theory of the origin of cells, distinguish prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cells, list cell organelles and their functions, describe membrane function, and detail the phases of
mitosis and their significance.
3.1 The students should be able to explain: 1) the energy requirements of cells, 2) the central role of ATP, 3)
the generation of ATP during cellular respiration, 4) the production of food by photosynthesis, and 5) the role
of enzymes in controlling chemical processes in cells.

Specific Learning Outcomes:
Upon successful completion of this unit, the students should be able to:
3.1 Define the terms heterotroph, autotroph, prokaryote, and eukaryote.
3.2 Describe the structure of a cell membrane and a cell wall. Explain how they differ in function.
3.3 Describe the structure and function of the nucleus and the following cell organelles: ribosome,
endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body, lysosome, chloroplast, mitochondrion, and vacuole.
3.4 Describe microtubules and microfilaments and their role in support and movement.
3.5 Discuss the biological importance of maintaining a chemical composition that is different from that of the
surrounding medium.
3.6 Explain the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure.
3.7 Compare and contrast movement through the cell membrane by diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion,
and active transport.
3.8 Describe endocytosis and exocytosis.
3.9 Explain how most living things are dependent upon the radiant energy of the sun.
3.10 Describe an oxidation-reduction reaction.
3.11 Describe the biological importance of enzymes and coenzymes and explain how they work.
3.12 Explain why ATP is often called the "universal energy currency" of the cell and describe how it performs
its important function.
3.13 Recognize the summary equation for the oxidation of glucose to form carbon dioxide and water.
3.14 Detail the anaerobic process of fermentation in microorganisms and the production of lactic acid in
human muscle during vigorous exercise.
3.15 Describe glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain; list where each occurs in the cell,
relative energy yield, and major events of each phase.
3.16 Recognize the overall equation for photosynthesis.
3.17 Recognize that life depends upon the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and the chemical
process of photosynthesis.
3.18 Describe the events of the light dependent and light independent reactions (Calvin cycle) of
photosynthesis, explaining how the latter reactions depend on the products of the former reactions.
3.19 Recognize that the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis create building block molecules for
plant cell macromolecules.
3.20 Compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

3.21 Define the following terms:

Chapter 4 Cells



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Cell theory
         4 principals of cell theory
Cell surface to volume ratio
Cytoplasm
Plasma membrane
         Phospholipid bilayer
         Membrane proteins
                  Cell surface markers
                  Transmembrane proteins
                  Membrane defects Example: cystic fibrosis
Procaryotes
Eukaryotes
         Organelles
Cytoskeleton
         Microfilaments
         Microtubules
Nucleus
         Nuclear envelope
         Nuclear pores
         Chromosomes
Ribosomes
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): rough and smooth
         Vesicles
Golgi complex
Lysosomes
Mitochondria
         Oxidative metabolism
         Mitochondrial DNA
Chloroplasts
Centrioles
Flagella and cilia
Vacuoles
Cell walls
Diffusion and osmosis
         Concentration gradient
                  Net movement of molecules from an area of higher to lower concentration
         Osmotic pressure
                  Hypertonic
                  Hypotonic
                  Isotonic
Endocytosis
         Phagocytosis
         Pinocytosis
Exocytosis
Facilitated diffusion
Active transport
         Sodium potassium pump
         Proton pump

Chapter 5 and 6
Energy and Life / How Cells Acquire Energy

Chemical reaction
      Substrates
      Products
      Activation energy



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         Enzymes
                  Specificity
                  Binding site and active site
                  Catalyst
                  Cofactor or coenzyme, example: NAD+
         Factors affecting enzymes
                  pH
                  Temperature
         Biochemical pathway
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Photosynthesis = energy from the sun
         6CO2 + 12H2O + light energy                C6H12O6 + 6H2O + 6O2
         Chloroplast
                  Grana
                            Thylakoids
                  Stroma
         Photons
         Electromagnetic spectrum
                  Visible light
                  UV light
         Pigments
                  Chlorophyll in photosystem networks
                            Chlorophyll a and b
                  Carotenoids
         Light dependent reactions occurs inside thylakoid: 3 steps
                  1. Primary photo event occurs where light is captured by chlorophyll by an excited electron.
                  H2O is split to give off O2 , H+, and a free electron.
                  2. Electron Transport. The excited electron moves along an electron transport chain.
                  NADPH is produced that provides reducing power to make sugars and other
                  organic compounds.
                  3. Chemiosmosis. ATP is made with H+ pump providing energy to build organic
                  molecules.
         Light independent reactions (Calvin cycle, C3 photosynthesis) occur inside stroma surrounding the
         thylakoid
                   CO2 is fixed into organic molecules
                            ATP provides energy to power reactions.
                            NADPH provides hydrogens with energetic electrons to bind to carbon
                  C3 photosynthesis = Calvin cycle
                            Circular set of reactions.
                            Some molecules are siphoned off to make sugars.
                            Some molecules reform the 5C sugar to restart the cycle.
                  C4 photosynthesis- common in Taft
                            Photorespiration occurs in excessive heat and interferes with C 3 photosynthesis to
                            fix CO2.
                            C4 concentrates CO2 in the leaf so the Calvin cycle can continue but is less efficient
                            than C3.
Cellular respiration = energy from organic chemicals
         Aerobic respiration
                  C6H12O6 + 6O2                6CO2 + 6H2O + energy (heat, ATP)
         Biochemical pathway
                  NAD+ = coenzyme, an electron carrier
         2 steps in cellular respiration
                  Step 1:Glycolysis in the cytoplasm
                            O2 not required
                            2 Pyruvate molecules, 2 ATP, 2 NADH (2 ATP) produced
                  Step 2: Oxidation in the mitochondria



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                        Krebs cycle (2 cycles needed for each glucose molecule)
                               Electron carriers (NADH and FADH2) and 2 ATP are produced
                               3 CO2 produced as waste

                         Electron transport system (ETS)
                                 O2 used as electron acceptor with protons (H+) to form water (H2O)
                                 ATP produced at H+ transport pump (channel protein)
                Grand total of 36 ATP molecules from 1 glucose molecule
Fermentation- inefficient but used when O2 not available
       Pyruvate acts as electron acceptor in absence of O 2
       Lactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle
       Ethanol and CO2 release occur in yeast fermentation

Exam I Chapters 1,3-6




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Unit 4   Cell Division

4.1 List essential life processes that depend on mitotic production of new cells identical to the parent cell.
4.2 Explain the role mitosis plays in the cell cycle.
4.3 Explain one strategy for curing cancer.
4.4 Discuss the two cell divisions of meiosis and their effect on the chromosome number.
4.5 Describe the importance of these 2 events of meiosis I and II: 1) crossing over, and 2) independent
assortment.

4.6 Define the following terms:


Chapter 7 Cell Division
Binary fission of prokaryotes
Mitosis of eukaryotes
         Somatic cells
         Chromosomes
                  Homologous chromosomes
                  Diploid cells
                  Sister chromatids
                  Centromere
Cell cycle
         3 Phases
                  Interphase
                  M- mitosis
                  C- Cytokinesis
Stages of mitosis
Cytokinesis
Programmed cell death
         Example: Developmental cell death
Cancer = cell division out of control
         Tumor
         Metastases
         Strategies for cures
Meiosis = 2 cell divisions to make cells for sexual reproduction
         Germ cells
         Chromosome number
                  Diploid
                  Haploid
         Sexual reproduction
                  Gamete
                  Zygote
         Meiosis reduces the number of chromosomes in gametes to half of parent cell.
         Meiosis cell division I separates the 2 parental versions of each chromosome
                  Crossing over with DNA exchange occurs during synapsis in prophase I
                           Creates 2 collage chromosomes containing parts of both parental versions. 2
                           parental chromosomes remain unchanged.
                  Independent assortment of each parental chromosome versions occurs in anaphase I
                           Possibilities = 2 to the power of the number of chromosome pairs
                                                  23
                                    Humans = 2 = 8,388,608
                  No replication of chromosomes occurs between Meiosis I and II, so a reduction in
                  chromosome numbers occurs.
         Meiosis cell division II separates the 2 replicas of each parental chromosome
                  4 Gametes are produced, each haploid
                                                     23  23
                  Random fertilization results in 2 x 2 = 70 trillion possible outcomes
                  Generating diversity provides choices for survival in a changing environment



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Unit 5   Mendelian Genetics / Genes / Gene Technology / Genomics

Chapter 8

General outcome:
5.0 The student should understand the principles of heredity as first worked out by Gregor Mendel and
extended by others, both in regard to chromosome behavior and to the statistical ratios of traits among
offspring.
Specific learning outcomes:
Upon successful completion of this unit, the students should be able to:
5.1 State Mendel's first principle of inheritance and give examples.
5.2 Define: dominant, recessive, allele, homozygous, heterozygous, genotype, phenotype, segregation,
     recombination.
5.3 Explain Mendel's trait ratios in terms of probability.
5.4 Recount Mendel's second law of inheritance, independent assortment, giving an example involving two
     traits.
5.5 Define and give examples of incomplete dominance and codominance.
5.6 Define and give examples of multiple allele inheritance.
5.7 Define and give examples of polygenic inheritance.
5.8 Explain Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment in terms of chromosome behavior
     during meiosis.
5.9 Explain the connection between meiosis and trisomy-21.
5.10 Give a chromosomal explanation of sex determination.
5.11 Analyze the genetics of sex-linked traits in terms of inheritance.
5.12 Give examples of chromosome mutations.
5.13 Define the following terms:

Chapter 8
Heredity
Mendel‟s genetics
Mendel‟s experiments
        P(arental) generation
                 True breeding
        F1 generation (first filial meaning „son‟ or „daughter‟)
        F2 generation (second filial)
Genes
Alleles
Homozygous
Heterozygous
Dominant
Recessive
Phenotype
Genotype
Punnett square
        Probability
        Test cross
Mendel‟s laws of heredity
        I: Law of segregation: Only one allele for a trait can be carried in a gamete, and gametes combine
        randomly to form offspring.
        II: Law of independent assortment: Genes located on different chromosomes are inherited
         independently of one another.
Epistasis
Multiple alleles
        Codominant e.g. ABO blood groups
Polygenic inheritance (continuous variation)
Incomplete dominance



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Environmental effects
Chromosomes
        Karyotype
        Aneuploidy
                Nondisjunction
                        Monosomic
                        Trisomic example: Down syndrome- chromosome 21 trisomy
        Sex chromosomes
                Autosomes
                Sex chromosomes
                        X chromosome
                        Y chromosome
                Abnormal numbers of sex chromosome
                        Examples: Klinefelter syndrome = XXY male
                                  Turner‟s syndrome = XO female
Mutations
        Autosomal recessive, example: Sickle-cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease
        Sex linkage inheritance = when a recessive gene is carried on the X chromosome
                Example: Hemophilia
        Pedigree
        Dominant autosomal, example: Huntington‟s disease
        Genetic counseling



Unit 6 Molecular Genetics
Chapter 9, 10, 11
General Outcome:
6.0 The students should understand the chemical and physical structure of the gene and its operation in the
synthesis of polypeptides.
Specific Learning Outcomes:
Upon successful completion of this unit, the students should be able to:
6.1 Chronicle the experimental evidence by key researchers leading to the Watson/Crick Model of DNA.
6.2 Chronicle the experimental evidence leading to an understanding of gene function.
6.3 Describe the Watson and Crick Model of DNA and the Central Dogma of molecular biology.
6.4 Describe DNA replication.
6.5 Define introns and exons.
6.6 Contrast an RNA nucleotide with one of DNA.
6.7 Describe the transcription of RNA.
6.8 Discuss the structure and function of tRNA, mRNA, and rRNA.
6.9 Define codon and grasp the significance of the tabulated genetic code.
6.10 Describe the role of the ribosome in translation of genetic information.
6.11 Discuss control of gene expression.
6.12 Define: 1) genetic mutation in terms of a point mutation, 2) mutagen. State examples of common
mutagens.
6.13 Describe the 4 steps in transferring a gene from one organism to another.
6.14 Describe the role that restriction and ligase enzymes play in gene transfer.
6.15 Describe the uses of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in biology and society.
6.16 Describe the use of a Ti plasmid in agriculture for genetically altered plants.
6.17 Explain the benefits of a glycophosate resistance gene.
6.18 Describe the use of piggyback vaccines in treating genetic defects.
6.19 Give examples of genetically engineered drugs.
6.20 Describe the goal of the Human Genome Project.
6.21 Define the following terms:
Chapter 9
Transformation: Griffith (1928) and Avery(1944) experiments



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Hershey-Chase experiment (1952): Radioactive isotopes in protein vs DNA
DNA structure
        Double helix: The Watson and Crick model (1953)
        Nucleotides
                 Purines- two large bases: adenine, guanine
                 Pyrimidines- two small bases: thymine, cytosine
                 Base pairing: A-T G-C
                          Chargaff‟s rule states amount of A = T, G = C
        DNA replication (semiconservative)
                 DNA polymerase adds complementary nucleotides at each position
                 DNA repair mechanisms limit errors
Central dogma of gene expression: from gene to protein
        Gene expression: DNA               RNA              protein
Transcription: creating a functional copy of a gene in the form of mRNA
        Messenger RNA (mRNA)
        RNA polymerase: reads a gene to make a complementary RNA version
                 Note: T(hymine) is replaced with U(racil)
        Genetic code
                 Codon- a three base sequence corresponding to an amino acid.
                 Genetic code dictionary: universal for all organisms
Translation: making protein
        1. mRNA binds to a ribosome at its starting point and acts as a template for tRNA molecules
                 Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and ribosomal proteins act as an anchor for the mRNA
        2. Transfer RNA (tRNA) with attached amino acids are attracted to complementary codons on mRNA
                 Anticodon- a three base sequence on tRNA complementary to a codon
        3. As each codon is read by a tRNA, the amino acid is released and attached to the previous amino
        acid to form a growing protein chain. The used tRNA returns to the cytoplasm to get another amino
        acid.
        4. The process stops when the stop codon is reached by the ribosome and the protein is released
        into the cell.
Gene expression- some genes are turned on, some turned off
Eukaryotic gene architecture
        Exons- DNA containing coding information for amino acids
        Introns- „extra‟ DNA that must be removed from the mRNA (90% of human genome)
Mutations
        Point mutations (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism or SNP)
        Mutagens
                 Examples: chemicals: cigarette tar, diesel exhaust, pesticides, stomach acid
                 UV radiation (other radiation too)
Chapter 10
Genetic engineering: moving genes from one organism to another
Gene transfer- 4 steps
        1. Cleaving DNA
                 Restriction enzymes cuts DNA
                          Gel electrophoresis separates cut fragments
                          Sticky ends bind complementary base pairs of other DNA fragments
        2. Recombining DNA
                 Ligase enzymes joins cut fragments into the DNA vectors
                 Vector is used to carry new gene into an organism
                          Plasmid
                          Viral DNA
        3. Cloning is used to make copies of the inserted gene
                 Clone library: a collection of an organism‟s genome in fragment form inserted into vectors
        4. Screening for a gene of interest
                 Probe
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)



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        The PCR cycle
        1. Denature with heat to separate DNA strands
        2. Primers added to start the sequence
        3. Primers extended with heat stable DNA polymerase (Taq polymerase)
DNA „fingerprint‟: amplify DNA with PCR, cut with restriction enzyme, separate fragments with electric field
Genetic engineering examples
        Glyphosate resistance gene for crop plants
        Pest resistance with the Bt gene
        Genetically modified (GM) „Golden rice‟ with iron and Vit A enhancements
        Genetically engineered drugs
                 Insulin to control blood sugar
                 Anticoagulants to dissolve blood clots
                 Factor VIII to clot blood
        Gene therapy       example: Cystic fibrosis
Reproductive Cloning: an asexual form of reproduction

Chapter 11 Genomics
Genome
Human genome
        Human Genome Project
        DNA sequencing
Genes code for proteins (30-40K) and sometimes can rearrange exon transcripts to form alternate proteins
Noncoding regions of DNA make up 99% of human genome
Variation within the genome
        Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
                  Markers of different alleles that can be used to find disease producing genes

        Gene exchanges have occurred laterally between very unlike species, ex. Humans and bacteria
        Plant hybrids can duplicate whole genomes to form a new species with double sets of chromosomes
        (polyploidy)
        Gene microarrays can measure all the SNPs of an individual: a profile of your inherited traits.


        EXAM 2 CHAPS 7, 8, 9, 10, 11




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Unit 7 Evolution and Natural Selection
Chapter 2 , 13
General Outcome:
7.0 The student should understand the basic mechanics of evolution and cite evidence that supports its
existence.
Specific Learning Outcomes:
Upon successful completion of this unit, the students should be able to:
7.1 Chronicle the events of Darwin‟s work that led to his published account of evolution “On the Origin of
Species”.
7.2 Explain the evidence that supports the theory of evolution.
7.3 Describe the mechanism of how organisms evolve using natural selection.
7.4 Describe how populations evolve using microevolution, using the concepts of allele frequencies, Hardy-
Weinberg equilibrium, and the 3 forms of natural selection (directional, stabilizing, disruptive).
7.5 Explain how the 2 examples, sickle cell anemia and industrial melanism, demonstrate how organisms
have acquired adaptations that supports the concept of evolution in the world at large.
7.6 Explain how species may form during macroevolution using isolating mechanisms that reinforce
differences.
7.7 Define the following terms:

Chapter 2

Evolution
Natural selection
Charles Darwin
         HMS Beagle, Galapagos Islands and Darwin‟s finches
         Thomas Malthus: Essay on the Principal of Population, 1798
         On the Origin of Species, 1859
         Darwin‟s major evidence:
                  Fossils: similar to living species, in strata with progressive change
                  Geographic distribution of species: different organisms for each continent
                  Oceanic island species: local species show strong relatedness and resemble nearest
                  mainland species.
Chapter 13
Fossil record
         Relative dating: position in rock strata
         Absolute dating: Radioisotopic dating (see Chapter 3, p 45)
                  Half-life
                                14              14
                            50% C decays to N over 5,600 years
                                40              40
                            50% K decays to Ar over 1.3 billion years
         Fossil record shows progressive change
                  Examples: whales, oysters, titanotheres
                  Weaknesses: Gaps in the record, need a hard substance to mineralize
Molecular record
         Molecular clock = the rate of DNA change due to mutation over time
                  More distantly related species should have accumulated more genetic changes than more
                  recently diverged species.
                            Example: hemoglobin, Cytochrome c
                  Molecular family tree
                            Example: globin gene
Structural evidence
         Embryo development shows previous structures
         Homologous structures show evolutionary paths
         Analogous structures results of parallel evolution
         Vestigial structures are structures no longer in use
Macroevolution
Microevolution



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Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium lets us predict allele frequencies for two alleles p and q
        p + q = 1, the sum of the 2 alleles must be 100%, and
                2      2                                           2
        (p + q) = p (homozygous) + 2 pq (heterozygous) + q (homozygous) = 1
        Allele frequencies
        Hardy-Weinberg rule predicts no change in allele frequency when:
                  1. The size of population is large.
                  2. Individuals mate at random.
                  3. All alleles are replaced equally (no natural selection)
                  4. No input of new alleles from any source (no mutation or immigration)
5 Agents of evolutionary change
        1. Mutation
        2. Migration
        3. Genetic drift
                  Founder effect
                  Bottleneck effect
        4. Nonrandom mating
                  Inbreeding
        5. Selection
                  Natural
                  Artificial
        These all cause the allele frequencies to change over time for a given trait.
3 Forms of selection
        1. Directional
        2. Stabilizing
        3. Disruptive
Adaptation (evolution at work)
        Sickle-cell anemia: people respond to deadly malaria infections
        Industrial melanism
                  Example: Biston betularia,the peppered moth
Species concept
        4 steps in species formation
                  1. Local population adapts to environment.
                  2. Ecological races form.
                  3. Natural selection reinforces differences, successful hybrids are rare.
                             Reproductive isolation mechanisms develop.
                                     Prezygotic
                                             Geographic isolation
                                             Ecological isolation
                                             Temporal isolation
                                             Behavioral isolation
                                             Mechanical isolation
                                             Prevention of gamete formation
                                     Postzygotic
                                             Hybrid embryo does not develop
                                             Hybrid adults do not survive or are infertile
                  4. Ecological races become incapable of interbreeding and are considered separate species.




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Unit 8. Our Living Environment
2, 31, 32, 34
General Outcome:
8.0 The students should be able to understand 1) how organisms interact with their environment and 2) the
effects of human and natural events on the environment‟s ability to support the diversity of life necessary for
a stable ecosystem.
Specific Learning Outcomes:
Upon successful completion of this unit, the students should be able to:
8.1 Define the term ecosystem and explain how habitat and community form a self sustaining ecosystem.
8.2 Explain how energy drives the growth and interaction of organisms within ecosystems.
8.3 Discuss the flow of energy through the trophic (feeding) levels of an ecosystem and how disturbing a
food web may alter the energy flow.
8.4 Explain how the major materials of life cycle in an ecosystem: water, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus.
8.5 Describe the major types of ecosystems and how the weather is responsible for the diversity of
ecosystems on the earth.
8.6 Draw and label a population curve.
8.7 List the density dependent and independent factors that effect population growth.
8.8 Give examples of how coevolution affects ecosystems.
8.9 Explain aposematic coloration, cryptic coloration, Batesian mimicry, and Mullerian mimicry.
8.10 List the factors that promote biodiversity and stability in an ecosystem.
8.11 List and explain how humans disrupt ecosystems and ways humans can modify ecosystems
successfully.
8.12 Discuss the global changes affecting the world ecosystem caused by chemical pollution, plastics,
agricultural chemicals, water pollution, acid rain, ozone, and the greenhouse effect.
8.13 Discuss these four key areas of human intervention that will reduce global ecological changes: reduce
pollution, develop other sources of energy, preserving nonreplaceable resources, and curbing population
growth.
8.14 List five steps that can be successfully used to solve environmental problems.

8.15 Define the following terms:

Chapter 2 Chapter 31
Ecology
Ecosystem
        Community
        Habitat
                 Physical habitat
Biosphere
Energy flow in ecosystems
        Sun energy: the source of all life on earth
Trophic levels
        Producers = Level 1
        Consumers = Level 2
                 Primary consumers (herbivores)
                 Carnivores = Level 3
                 Detritivores (decomposers) = specialized class of consumers for organic waste and dead
                 bodies
                 Tertiary consumers = Level 4
                 Omnivores = Levels 2, 3, and 4
Food chain
Food web
Primary productivity
Net primary productivity
Biomass
Trophic efficiency
        Energy stored in a trophic level is about 10% of the level below.



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Cycling of materials in ecosystems
        Water cycle
                Evaporation
                Transpiration
                Groundwater
        Carbon cycle
                Respiration
                Combustion
                Erosion
        Nitrogen cycle
                Nitrogen fixation
        Phosphorus cycle
                Eutrophication
Major ecosystems
        Weather shapes ecosystems
                Latitude vs. rainfall
                Rain shadow
                Ocean currents
Ocean ecosystems
        Shallow water
                Intertidal region
                Estuaries
        Surface water
                Plankton
        Deep water
Freshwater ecosystems
        Lakes have three zones: shallow edge, open water surface, deep without light
                Thermal stratification
                Spring and fall overturn
                Eutrophic lakes
                Oligotrophic lakes
Land ecosystems = biome
        Influenced by
                Climate
                Continental Drift
                Glaciation
        Types
                Tropical rainforest
                Savannas: dry tropical grasslands
                Deserts
                Temperate Grasslands (prairies)
                Deciduous forests (hardwood forest)
                Taiga (northern coniferous forest)
                Tundra (cold boggy plains)
                Other less widely distributed local types to Kern County
                         Chaparral
                         Semidesert
                         Riparian
Chapter 32, Chapter 2
Population dynamics
        Population
                Size
                Density
                Dispersion
                         Random
                         Clumped



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                            Uniform
Population Growth
         Exponential growth model = growth without limits
         Logistic growth model = growth with limits, sigmoid curve
                  Lag phase growth
                  Exponential growth
                  Carrying capacity limit steady state
                  Death phase growth
         Biotic potential (population growth) = r
                  r = (birth rate + immigrants) – (death rate + emigration)
         Carrying capacity (K)
         Population growth rate = r N ( K-N) N= current population
                                               K
         r selected vs K selected populations
                  Example: r selected = aphids, cockroach, mice; k selected = whale, redwood tree
         Density dependent effects
         Density independent effects
         Mortality rate and survivorship
                  Age distribution curve
                  Survivorship curves: type I, II, III
Coevolution and ecosystems
         Plants vs. herbivores
         Symbiotic relationships
                  Commensalism
                  Mutualism
         Parasitism
Niche
         Fundamental
         Realized
         Niche division among sympatric species
                  Competitive exclusion
                  Resource partitioning
                            Character displacement
Predation-prey
         Cyclical pattern of populations
Animal defenses
         Aposematic coloration- „I‟m warning you‟
                  Mullerian mimicry
                  Batesian mimicry
         Cryptic coloration
Ecosystems over time
         Disruption = beginning (ex., volcano) or change (ex., fire)
         Succession
                  Primary
                  Secondary
         Climax community
Biodiversity
         Keystone species
         Ecosystem species richness
                  Size
                  Latitude
                            Length of growing season
                            Climatic stability
Chapter 34
Pollution
         Chemical



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        Plastics
        Agriculture
                 Biological magnification of toxins
        Water
        Acid rain
        Ozone
                 CFC‟s
        Greenhouse effect: affects the entire biosphere
                 Greenhouse gases: CO2, methane, nitrogen oxides, CFC‟s
                 Global warming
Reducing pollution
        Antipollution laws
        Pollution taxes/credits
Other sources of energy
        Nuclear
        Wind
        Solar
Preserving nonreplaceable resources
        Topsoil
        Groundwater
        Biodiversity
                 Disruption of ecosystems
                         Physical habitat destruction
                                   Example: Lowering species diversity with clear-cutting
                 Reducing competition
                         Example: Exotic species introduction upsets balance
                 Solution: Minimizing ecosystem damage by 1) limit physical disruption, 2) maintain
                 biodiversity, 3) maintain competition

Human population growth curve
        Population pyramid graphs (chapter 2)
        6 billion in 1999 with 80 million more each year
5 Steps to solving environmental problems
        Scientific assessment and modeling
        Risk analysis- predict consequences action and inaction
        Public education- problem, solutions, costs
        Political education- public demand action from political process
        Follow-through (monitor effectiveness of solution, learn by doing)


EXAM 3 CHAPS. 2, 30, 31, 32, 34




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Unit 9. Single Celled Life and Simple Multicellular Life
Chapter 14, 15, 16, 17

General Outcome:
9.0 The students should be able to understand how organisms are classified and the major characteristics of
each major group (kingdom, phylum, etc).

Specific Learning Outcomes:
Upon successful completion of this unit, the students should be able to:

9.1 Explain the importance of Carolus Linnaeus‟s development of the binomial classification system.
9.2 Cite the descending order of hierarchy taxons: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and
     species.
9.3 Explain why the biological species concept works well for animals but not for other kingdoms.
9.4 Explain how ecological races develop.
9.5 Contrast the cladistic and traditional taxonomy approach to establishing phylogenies among groups of
     organisms.
9.6 Compare a prokaryotic to a eukaryotic cell.
9.7 Name the key differences between Archeabacteria and Eubacteria.
9.8 Explain the 5 steps of viral replication in a host cell.
9.9 Explain the theory of endosymbiosis and its relationship to the appearance of the eukaryotic cell.
9.10 Compare and contrast the 3 types of sexual life cycle among eukaryotes.
9.11 Be able to cite the characteristics of the major phyla of protists and give an example of each.
9.12 Explain the 2 main characteristics of complex multicellular organisms: cell specialization and intercell
     coordination.
9.13 Be able to cite the characteristics of the major phyla of fungi and give an example of each.
9.14 Explain the symbiotic relationship called mycorrhizae.
9.15 Define the following terms:


Chapter 14
Levels of classification
        Polynomial system
        Binomial system
                  Carolus Linnaeus (1750‟s)
                  Scientific name vs. common names
                           Genus and species
        Taxonomy
                  Taxons
        Higher categories
                  Kingdom
                  Phylum
                  Class
                  Order
                  Family
                  Genus
                  Species
                  Examples: Human being, honeybee, red oak
                  A way to remember: „Kindly pay cash or furnish good security‟
                  3 Domains over the kingdoms
                           Archeabacteria
                           Eubacteria
                           Eukarya
The basic biological unit: the species
        The biological species concept
                  This concept assumes that outcrossing occurs: works well for animals.



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                 Asexual reproduction dominates in bacteria and many protists, fungi, and plants.
                 Hybrids can be common in plants and some animal (fish form fertile hybrids).
                 Humans are putting genes from one organism into another. What are these?
        Ecological races or ecotypes
                 Isolating mechanisms
        How many species are there?
                 Measuring species diversity is difficult.
                 1.5 million named, 10 million total on earth?
Phylogeny: the evolutionary history of life on earth.
        Constructing the phylogeny of a group of organisms: a family tree.
        Cladistics uses derived characteristics to evaluate relatedness and lineage
                 Advantage: an objective exercise once the criteria are defined.
        Traditional taxonomy: weighting the characteristics by biological significance.
                 Example: Flight gives birds (Aves) its own class vs. shared class with reptiles in cladistic
                 approach.
Chapter 15
Bacteria and viruses
Bacteria: the oldest organisms on earth, 3.5 billion years old.
        Bacteria existed for 2 billion years before eukaryotes first appeared 1.5 billion years ago.
        Most abundant life form on earth (2.5 billion per tablespoon of rich earth).
        Role of bacteria
                 Recycle minerals.
                 Introduced oxygen into the earth‟s atmosphere.
                 Cause plant and animal diseases.
                 Provide nutrients in animal digestive tracts.
Bacterial structure
        Prokaryote: a simple design
                 Single, circular DNA chromosome. No nucleus.
                 Cell wall
                 Capsule
                 Flagella
                 Pili
                 Endospores
Reproduction: binary fission
        Conjugation: passing plasmids
Comparing prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Characteristic                   Prokaryote                       Eukaryote
Internal                         Little                           Many membrane compartments
compartmentalization                                              and organelles
         Cell Size               1x                               10x
         Unicellularity          Single celled                    Multicellular with integrated
                                                                  activities
        Chromosomes              Single circular in cytoplasm     Many in a nucleus wound
                                                                  around protein, linear
        Cell division            Binary fission                   Mitosis with all its apparatus
        Metabolic diversity      Diverse among species            Similar among species

Archeabacteria vs. eubacteria: the 2 domains of bacteria.
       Differences in cell wall, plasma membrane, gene translation, gene architecture.
       Archeabacteria: ancient bacteria
               Survivors live in extreme environments: strict anaerobes (methanogens), thermoacidophiles.
       Eubacteria: modern bacteria
               Autotrophs: Photosynthesis
                        Example: Cyanobacteria
                                  Helped produce the oxygen atmosphere we depend on.


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                                  Fix nitrogen in heterocysts. Only a few bacteria fix nitrogen.
                 Heterotrophs: consume organic molecules.
                          Decomposition: Breakdown organic molecules.
                          Disease producers
                                  Mycobacterium tuberculosis- TB, tuberculosis
                                  Yersina pestis- the black plague
                                  Vibrio cholera- cholera
Viruses: simpler than bacteria
        The „parasitic chemical‟ concept
                 Infective RNA or DNA
        Viral Structure
                 Capsid: protective protein sheath in geometric shapes
                 Envelope: some viruses have a membrane like covering.
        Viral replication
                 1. Attachment: virus attaches to a specific cell membrane receptor (protein, glycoprotein).
                 2. Penetration: Binding triggers endocytosis with release of viral nucleic acid.
                 3. Biosynthesis: virus nucleic acid directs synthesis of viral components by host cell.
                 4. Maturation: viral components assemble into virus particles.
                 5. Release: host cell lyses and new virus in released to infect surrounding cells.
                 Example: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), an RNA virus
                          Attaches to CD4 receptor, reverse transcriptase makes DNA
        Latency
                 Example: Oral and genital herpes simplex virus, chickenpox then shingles
        Human disease producer examples
                 Influenza- changes protein coat often
                 Hanta virus- acute respiratory disease, rodent vector, located in rural California.
                 HPV (human papilloma virus)- sexually transmitted cause of cancer
Prion (proteinaceous infectious particle) disease
        Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs)
                 Example: infectious protein in beef causing „mad cow disease‟


Chapter 16
Endosymbiosis
         Theory of endosymbiosis as origin of eukaryotes
         Living example: Pelomyxa palustris, primitive amoeba-like organism that lacks mitochondria,
         chloroplasts, and mitosis.
         Resembles descendants of the non photosynthetic archaebacteria more than eubacteria.
         Membrane bound organelles of endosymbiotic origin
                   Mitochondria: allows oxidative metabolism
                   Cholorplasts: 3 types red algae, green algae (similar to plants), brown algae
                   Both have a piece of circular DNA
Evolution of sex in eukaryotes: sexual reproduction appears in eukaryotes
Sexual reproduction
         Two parents, diploid (or multiploid)
         Haploid gametes made by meiosis combine to form diploid zygote
         Two copies of each chromosome in each individual
Asexual reproduction
         Many eukaryotes use asexual reproduction for most of their life
         Parthenogenesis: unfertilized egg undergoes mitosis (without cell division) forming diploid cells
                   Develops as zygote but same genes as parent
                   Example: bees, females are fertilized, males are unfertilized
                   Common in insects, some lizards, fish, amphibians
Self-fertilization: a special form of sexual reproduction in a single individual
         Examples: plants (pea plant) and some fish
         Same genes as parent but with crossing over and independent assortment



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Sex evolved as a way to repair double stranded chromosome damage
Sexual reproduction shuffles genes quickly to create genetically diverse populations
         Genetic diversity is the raw material of evolution
         Natural selection can defeat species that lack diversity
Sexual life cycles: 3 major types
         1. Zygotic meiosis. The zygote is the only diploid cell. Haploid cells occupy the major portion of the
              life cycle.
              Example: algae
         2. Gametic meiosis. Diploid zygote occupies most of the life cycle with haploid gametes a small
              portion of organism.
              Example: animal (humans)
         3. Sporic meiosis. A regular alternation of generation occurs between a haploid and diploid
              generation.
              Example: the primitive plants such as a fern
Multicellularity on a simple scale when an organism is composed of many cells, permanently.
         Colonial organism: little or no integration of activities
                   Example: Volvox
         Aggregations of organisms: cells come together transiently and then separate to live as single cells
                   Example: slime molds
         Simple multicellular organisms: many cells that interact and coordination activities
                   Example: Brown algae
Kingdom Protista: a catchall kingdom of diverse eukaryotes that are not plants, animals, or fungi.
         Mostly single cells but some are simple multicellular forms
                   No complex tissues or specialized organs
         Many have flagella for movement
         15 separate phyla with diverse characteristics
         Evolutionary relationships are not clear.
                   Grouped by shared characteristics, primarily mode of transportation, photosynthesis, and
                   metabolism.
5 major groups of protists with selected examples of each group:
1. Heterotrophs with No Permanent Locomotor Apparatus, the Sarcodina.
Amoebas and forams that move with pseudopods or cytoplasmic streaming
         Amoebas: phylum Rhizopoda
                   Movement with pseudopodia
                   Reproduction: asexual fission, no sex
2. Heterotrophs with Flagella
         Phylum Sarcomastigophora, the zoomastigotes, several thousand species
                   Ancestor to all animals via the sponges.
                   Heterotrophic, unicellular, movement with flagella
                   Examples:
                            Trypanosomes: insect to human blood pathogens causing sleeping sickness.
                            Symbiotic gut flora in termites that digest wood.
3. Nonmotile Spore-formers
Phylum Apicomplexa (Sporozoa), the sporozoans: nonmotile, spore forming, unicellular parasites of animals.
         3900 species
         Complex life cycles of alternating generations
                   Haploid cells with fast mitotic growth to increase infection. Some become gametes and join
                   to become a diploid cell.
                   Diploid cells that become spores, the oocyst that resists environmental challenges. Meiosis
                   within the oocyst produces haploid spores that are infective.
                   Example: Plasmodium = malaria. Spread person to person by mosquitoes.
4. Photosynthetic Protists
Phylum Pyrrhophyta, 1000 species
         Mostly marine, may be luminous producing twinkling light
         Red tides are blooms of dinoflagellates that produce toxins
         Unusual shapes with a stiff cellulose coat often with silica (SiO2)



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Phylum Chrysophyta, 11,500 species
       Diatoms: photosynthetic unicellular protists with double shell of silica
       Both radial and bilateral symmetry
       Fossil diatoms = diatomaceous earth. Abrasive used in products, e.g. toothpaste.

Algae: 3 kinds of photosynthetic protists
        Green algae: phylum Chlorophyta, 7000 species
                 Ancestor to modern plants
                 Usually mobile with flagella in aquatic environment but can be in soil or on trees trunks
                 Usually unicellular but can have multicellular forms
                          Example: Volvox
        Red algae: phylum Rhodaphyta, 4000 species
                 Red pigment (phycobilins)
                 Mostly multicellular with interwoven filaments and live in the sea.
                 No flagella.
        Brown algae: phylum Phaeophyta, 1500 species
                 Multicellular, photosynthetic, often large and fast growing, mostly in marine environment
                 Giant kelp- large conspicuous seaweed with flat blades off California coast, up to 100 meters
                 long.
5. Heterotrophs with Restricted Motility
Molds: heterotrophs with restricted movement
        Phylum Oomycota: water molds called rusts and mildews, 580 species
        Parasitize living organisms or feed on dead organic matter
                 Example: Phytophthora infestans that causes late potato blight. Irish potato famine of
                 1845-47.

Chapter 17
Complex multicellular organisms
       Kingdom Fungi
       Kingdom Plantae
       Kingdom Animalia
Characteristics of multicellular organisms
       1. Cell specialization
                 Development
       2. Intercell coordination

Kingdom Fungi
Characteristics (and differences from plants)
        Heterotrophic
        Cell walls made of chitin
        Nuclear mitosis- a special type of mitosis that occurs within the nucleus
        Fungi have filamentous bodies
                 Mycelium
                          Hyphae with or without septa
                                   Cytoplasmic streaming between most cells
                 All parts of the mycelia are metabolically active
                 The mushroom structure found in some fungi are only a temporary reproductive structure
        Reproduction
                 Primarily asexual by spore production
                 Sexual: non motile gametes join between different mating types
        Nutrients absorbed from environment by external digestion
                 Digestive enzymes secreted into local environment
                          Cellulose can be digested (see on dead trees)
                          Cause rot, decay, food spoilage, diseases of plants and animals. Some predators.
Kinds of fungus: 73,000 species, 400 million years old, differ by sexual reproduction structures
        Phylum Zygomycota , 1050 species



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                 Sexual reproduction: an environmentally resistant zygosporangium forms similar to a zygote
                 when two nuclei join.
                 Examples: Rhizopus, black bread mold
        Phylum Ascomycetes, 32,000 species
                 Sexual reproduction: 2 different hyphae fuse to form an ascus with diploid cells
                 Examples: yeast, Dutch elm disease, morels, truffles
        Phylum Basidiomycota, 22,000 species
                 Sexual reproduction: sexual reproduction is dominant, occurs in basidium on underside of
                 mushroom cap
                 Examples: mushrooms, puffballs, toadstools, shelf fungus
        Imperfect fungi, 17,000 species
                 Sexual reproduction: unknown, probably mostly ascomycetes
                 Example: dermatophytes (athlete‟s foot, ringworm), Valley fever
Fungal associations
        Lichens: a symbiotic association between a fungus (usually an ascomycete) and a photosynthetic
        partner (cyanobacteria or green algae)
                 The photosynthesizer makes organic molecules and may fix nitrogen
                 The fungus dissolves mineral in rock and provides nutrients.
                 Lichens are extremely sensitive to pollution.
                 Examples: rock lichen, tree lichen
        Mycorrhizae: a symbiotic relationship with plant roots
                 Fungi release mineral nutrients (e.g., phosphorus) from the soil.
                 Plant supplies organic compounds to fungus.
                 Helped plants colonize the primitive infertile soils
                 2 types
                         Endomycorrhizae: about 30 species of zygomycetes penetrates plant root cells of
                          > 200,000 plant species
                         Ectomycorrhizae: wrap around but do not penetrate root cells of about 10,000
                         Species of plants.
                                 Usually a one to one relationship with a plant and fungus species. Most are
                                 basidiomycetes with some ascomycetes.



Unit 10.    Plant Life

Chapters 18, 19, 20, 21

General Outcome:
10.0 The students should be able to understand how organisms are classified and the major characteristics
of each major group (kingdom, phylum, etc).

10.1 Describe the adaptations used by plants for terrestrial living.
10.2 Explain the phrase „alternation of generations‟ in regards to plant reproduction.
10.3 Cite 4 reasons why seeds improved the adaptation of plants to terrestrial living.
10.4 Explain how water can move up a tall tree from the roots to the leaves.
10.5 Explain how carbohydrates move from the leaves to the roots of plants.
10.6 Explain how plants control water loss.
10.7 Define the following terms:

Chapter 18
Life appeared on land about 440 MYA
        UV radiation prevented life on land until the O2, O3 atmosphere formed from photosynthetic organism
        emissions produced the oceans.
        Plants and fungi first invaded the land.
        Terrestrial autotrophs, most dominant life form on land surface, 288,700 species



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Moving from water to land (terrestrial living)
        Plants evolved from green algae
                 The earliest plants formed symbiotic relationships with fungi = mycorrhizae to gain access to
        minerals of life from rocky soils.
                 Nitrogen (protein), calcium (plant cell wall glue), potassium (regulate water loss/retention),
                 phosphorus (nucleic acids/ATP), magnesium (chlorophyll), sulfur (amino acid cysteine)
        Plants needed to conserve water
                 Cuticle
                 Stomata
        Reproducing on land without a watery environment
                 Spores
                 Seeds
Generalized plant life cycle
        Alternation of generations
                 Sporophyte = diploid plant generation producing haploid spores by meiosis
                 Gametophyte = haploid plant generation producing haploid spores by mitosis
        Early plants were largely gametophyte tissue, modern plants largely sporophyte tissue
Evolution of vascular system in plants on land (about 410 MYA)
        Plants developed vascular plumbing
                 Take advantage of land away from streamside
                 Provided ability to grow tall
                 A network of tubing from root tip to leaf tip
                 Vascular plants are the most successful. 9 of 12 phyla.

Types of plants
       Plants with no vascular systems: 2 phyla
                Phylum Hepaticophyta: Liverworts 8,500 species
                Phylum Anthocerophyta: Hornworts 100 species
                Both are inconspicuous and live in damp, shady places
       Plants with simple vascular systems: single phylum
                Phylum Bryophyta: Mosses, 12,000 species
                Strands of soft cells conduct water and carbohydrates.
                Inconspicuous plants found in moist places

        Plants with well developed vascular systems: 9 phyla with 250,000 species
                Vascular plant features
                         Dominant sporophyte (diploid tissue)
                         Specialized, reinforced bundles of water and nutrient conducting tissue
                         Specialized body form: roots, stems (shoots), leaves
        Seedless vascular plants: 4 of 9 modern phyla
                Free-living sperm require water for fertilization
                Phylum Pterophyta: Ferns, the most abundant phyla with 12,000 species
                         Can be small to tall (24 m)
                         Life cycle of ferns
                                  Independent sporophyte (large) and gametophyte (small)
                         Fronds: vertical leaves with spore forming structures on backside of frond
        Plants with seeds: a key evolutionary advance for land domination
                Seeds are plant embryos surrounded by a durable, watertight, cover that improves survival
                on land.
                         1. Dispersal of seeds to new habitats possible
                         2. Dormancy allows plants to postpone development until conditions are favorable.
                         3. Germination (the reinitiation of growth) permits development to be synchronized
                              the seasons.
                         4. Nourishment is provided to the embryo by endosperm until the seedling is
                              established
                Gymnosperms: the first seed plants, 4 phyla



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               Example
                      Phylum Coniferophyta: 600 species, seed produced in cones
                              Examples: all in California
                                       Tallest tree = Sequoia sempervirens, coastal redwood
                                       Largest tree = Sequoidendron gigantea, mountian
                                       sequoia redwood
                                       Oldest tree = bristlecone pine
                              All have cones, so called conifers
                              Needle like leaves are adaptation to avoid water loss
                              Life cycle
                                       Seed cones = eggs, pollen cones = sperm ( yellow pollen grains)
                                       Profuse amount of pollen produced with wind pollination
                                       Zygote forms new sporophyte that arrests as a seed
               Angiosperms: the most successful plants with 250,000 species
                      Phylum Anthophyta: the flowering plants
                              Half the calories humans consume originate in 3 species: rice, corn and
                              wheat
                              Angiosperms solved the problem of having efficient sex when anchored to
                              the ground (to gain nutrients): induce insects and other animals to
                              participate as a third party!
                              Different kinds of flowers
                                       Yellow or blue sweet smelling = bee pollinators
                                                20,000 bee species
                                       Long, slender floral tubes, nectar, with platform = butterfly with long
                                       proboscis
                                       White, heavily scented flowers = night time pollinators (moths)
                                       Red flowers, little smell = humming birds, sun birds (invisible to
                                       insects)
                                       Small greenish, odorless = wind pollinators (oak, birch, grasses)
                              Seed dispersal by fruit
                                       Fruit = mature ripened ovary with seeds surrounded by a carpal
                                       Fruits taste good to animals so they will eat them and disperse the
                                       seeds to far away places.

Chapter 18, 19, 20
Structure and function of vascular plant tissues
Basic organization
        Root: below ground portion, penetrates ground and anchors plant, absorbs water and
        mineral ions
        Shoot: above ground portion
                 Stems: framework for positioning leaves
                 Leaves: most photosynthesis (food production) occurs here
                         Most chlorophyll containing cells located here (green color)
                         Combination of vascular bundle tissue and photosynthetic parenchyma
                         Cells with large open areas for gas exchange
                         Cuticle: waxy layer over epidermis toward sunny side
                         Stomata: open close valves on leaf bottom
        All higher vascular plants share this theme: rose, pine, cactus
Conducting tissue: elongated cells stacked end to end
        Phloem
                 Conduct carbohydrates away from leaves to other parts of plant
        Xylem
                 Conduct water and minerals up from the roots
        Water movement and regulation
                 Transpiration: Water reaches leaves from roots and exits through the stomata
                 (90%)



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                Cohesion-Adhesion-Tension theory
                         Polar water molecules are „sticky‟ and cling to each other and capillary structure of
                         vascular tissue
                         Atmospheric pressure pushes water up the plant tubing 10.4 meters
                         Evaporation from leaves creates vacuum and water rises above 10.4 m
                Regulation of stomata opening and closing (K+ important ion)
                         Must be open for CO2 entry and O2 exit
                         Must be closed when under water stress
                                 Turgid (high water content) guard cells are open
                                 Usually open in day and close at night
                Leaf size
         Carbohydrate transport
                Sugars (mainly sucrose) move from the high concentration (leaf) to low concentration (root)
                for storage.
                Water moves from high concentration (roots) to lower concentration (leaves)
                Translocation of sugar in phloem due to mass flow developed by osmosis
Growth
        Primary growth
                Apical meristem: growth plate at tip of plant creates taller growth
                Early vascular plants (lycophyte trees, ferns) only had a primary meristem so were tall and
                slender (10 to 35 meters).
                        Age of Coal- these plants formed the fossil fuels we use today
        Secondary growth
                Lateral meristem: cylinders of growth tissue around the plant to create wider shoots and
                roots
                        Vascular cambium
                                  Wood with growth rings
                                          Large light rings = spring-summer growth
                                          Thin, Dark rings = winter-fall growth
                        Cork cambium
                Secondary growth appeared about 380 MYA
                        Thick-trunked and tall trees of today, 120 m high, 11 meters diameter
                        (redwood)
The flower of angiosperms
        Reproductive organs with sophisticated pollination structures arranged in whorls
                        1. Sepals: modified leaves to protect flower as a bud, usually green
                        2. Petals: often vividly colored, forming the corolla
                        3. Stamens, slender, threadlike filaments with swollen terminal anthers where pollen
                        develops
                        4. Carpel: a case that enclosed the egg cells.
                                  Ovary
                                  Stigma
Plant hormones
        Auxin: regulates plants cell growth
                2,4,-D synthetic auxin , kills by growth acceleration in broadleaf dicots
                2,4,5-T – „agent orange‟ herbicide. Contaminated with dioxin, an endocrine disrupter.
        Ethylene- ripens fruit. Example: green tomatoes
                CO2 has opposite effect




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Unit 11 Kingdom Animalia: Evolution and History of Animal Life
Chapter 21

General Outcome:
11.0    The students should be able to understand the basic evolutionary progression of animal
    characteristics among the major animal phyla, discuss the major events of terrestrial vertebrate natural
    history, and chronicle the major events of human evolution.

Specific Learning Outcomes:
Upon successful completion of this unit, the students should be able to:
Describe Discuss Define Chronicle Cite Characterize Explain Give example

11.1 Cite the 9 major evolutionary stages (innovations) represented in the 9 animal phyla presented.
11.2 Define the following terms and concepts:

Chapter 21
Animal characteristics
        Multicellular heterotrophs
        No cells walls so cells are flexible allowing for rapid movement
        Reproduce by sexual reproduction: the production of haploid gametes with diploid zygote formation
                 No alternation of haploid and diploid generations as in plants.
                 Nonreproductive animal tissues are diploid with few exceptions
Kingdom Animalia: 36 phyla
        Subkingdom Parazoa: no definite symmetry or tissues, 1 phylum
        Subkingdom Eumetazoa: definite shape and symmetry, tissues organized into organs, 35 phyla
        9 major evolutionary stages (innovations) in animals
                 1. Multicellularity
                 2. Symmetry and tissues
                 3. Internal organs and bilateral symmetry
                 4. Body cavity
                 5. Coelom
                 6. Segmentation
                 7. Jointed appendages and exoskeleton
                 8. Deuterostome development and endoskeleton
                 9. Notochord

Phylum Porifera: the Sponges, 5000 species, only member of Parazoa
       Key evolutionary advance: multicellularity
       No symmetry or tissues
       Filter feeder
       Evolved from a unicellular protist = choanoflagellates
Phylum Cnidaria : Cnidarians, the jellyfish, hydra, sea anemones, corals
       Key evolutionary advance: symmetry and tissues
                Radial symmetry: parts arranged around a central axis
                Tissues: specialized cells that act as a unit
                        Extracellular digestion in a gut cavity
                        3 embryonic tissues found in eumetazoans
                                 Ectoderm: skin and nervous tissue
                                 Mesoderm: muscles and skeleton (not in Cnidarians, appears in
                                 Platyhelminthes)
                                 Endoderm: digestive organs and intestine
                Carnivores with stinging cnidoyctes with a nematocyst (harpoon)
       2 body forms possible:
                Medusae: the jellyfish, a free-floating, gelatinous, umbrella-shaped body
                Polyp: a sessile, cylindrical, pipe-shaped body
Phylum Platyhelminthes: solid worms, 20,000 species, mostly parasites of animals



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        Key evolutionary advance: internal organs and bilateral symmetry with a head
               Bilateral symmetry: a right and left half that are mirror images
                        Dorsal, ventral, anterior, posterior
                        Cephalization: a distinct head with specialized sensory organs
                                 Designed for active, mobile life
                                 Head in front to sense the environment for food, danger, etc.
               Internal organs develop from mesoderm
                        Acoelomate: no body cavity with organs imbedded in a solid body
                        No circulation systems so body must be flat to allow for diffusion.
        Example: Planaria, the common flat worm; Schistosoma, the blood fluke
Phylum Nematoda: roundworms, 12,000 species
        Key evolutionary advance: body cavity
               Pseudocoelomate: a cavity (pseudocoel) located between the endoderm and
               mesoderm that has 3 advantages:
                        Circulation: better circulation, larger bodies possible
                        Movement: allows muscle driven body movement
                        Organ function: organs not deformed by movement
        Nematodes are abundant in soil: millions per square meter
               Important plant parasites
Phylum Mollusca: Mollusks, 110,000 species, mostly marine
        Key evolutionary advance: coelom, a body cavity completely enclosed in mesoderm
               Primary induction: the interaction of embryonic tissues to form complex organs
                        Example: stomach
               Circulation system of vessels and heart muscle carries nutrients and wastes
               Body plan: head, central section with organs, foot
        Examples: 3 major classes
               Gastropods: snails and slugs
               Bivalves: clams, oysters, scallops
               Cephalopods: octopuses, squids
Phylum Annelida: segmented annelid worms, 11,100 species, mostly marine
        Key evolutionary advance: segmentation, the building of a body from similar segments
               Repeating segments can act independently
               Segments can evolve for different functions
               Connections between segments
                        Circulatory system delivers nutrients and removes wastes
                        Nervous system links all segments to a central brain for coordinated activity
        Example: earthworm
               Body plan is a tube within a tube, a digestive tract within a coelom, surrounded by repeated
               segments of muscle.
        Segmentation underlies body organization of all advanced coelomate animals
Phylum Arthropoda: Arthropods, the most abundant eukaryotes on earth (2/3 of all named
species)
        Key evolutionary advances: jointed appendages and exoskeleton
               Jointed appendages: used for movement (legs, arms, wings), chewing (mouth parts)
               Exoskeleton: rigid outer skeleton of chitin
                        Advantages: Muscle attachment, protection, prevent moisture loss
                        Disadvantage: too heavy to support a large body
                                 Most arthropods about 1 mm long
        Body plan: coelom, segmented body, jointed appendages
               Head with chewing appendages, thorax with legs (wings), and abdomen formed from fused
               segments
               Tracheae: breathing tubes with spiracles (outer openings)
               Special senses: antennae, compound eyes
        Examples
               Chelicerates: arthropods without jaws, horseshoe crabs and extinct trilobites, arachnids
                        Class Arachnida: spiders, ticks, mites, scorpions, daddy long legs



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              Mandibulates: arthropods with jaws (mandibles)
                       Subphylum Crustacea, the crustaceans, „insects of the sea‟,
                       35,000 species
                       Many segments with appendages resembling their annelid ancestors
                                Appendages on abdomen and thorax, 2 pair of antennae
                       Crabs, shrimps, lobsters, crayfish, barnacles, pillbugs, copepods
                       Subphylum Uniramia: insects, centipedes, millipedes
                                Class Insecta: the insects, most abundant eukaryotes by numbers of
                                species and individuals
                                          Appendages on thorax, Malpighian tubes eliminate wastes
                       Occupy almost every conceivable habitat on land and fresh water
                       Examples: Termites, fleas, bees, butterflies and moths, body lice
Phylum Echinodermata: Echinoderms, marine, mostly bottom dwelling animals. 6000 species.
       Key evolutionary advances: deuterostome development and endoskeleton
              Deuterostome embryonic development
                       Identical cells in early embryo differentiate under influence of DNA
                                Protostomes develop by cell position in embryo
                       Anus develops from blastopore, not mouth
                                Protostome mouth develops from blastopore
              Endoskeleton: „spiny skin‟
                       Calcium rich plates form within a delicate skin
                       Plates fuse as tough spiny layer as animals becomes an adult
                       Acts much the same as endoskeleton
       Body plan
              Bilateral symmetry as larvae but radial as adult
              Water vascular system for locomotion: tiny tube feet
                       Extend by closed sac under water pressure
                       Pull foot back by muscle contraction
       Regeneration of a whole individual from a single arm
Phylum Chordata: the chordates, vertebrates, tunicates, lancets. 50,300 species
       Key evolutionary advance: notochord
              3 Characteristics of chordates
                       1. Notochord: long stiff rod along back of early chordates
                                Muscles attached to rod for swimming movement
                       2. Nerve cord: dorsal nerve cord that distributes nerves to all parts of the body
                       3. Pharyngeal slits: slits behind mouth in a muscular tube (pharynx) connected to the
                       digestive tube. (Relics of aquatic ancestry)
       Body plan
              Segmented with distinct blocks of muscle
              Most with true endoskeleton and jointed appendages
                       Bone and cartilage skeleton: strong (calcium carbonate) but flexible (collagen)
              Most are vertebrates
                       Backbone: notochord replaced by bony vertebral column with nerve cord inside
                       Head: well differentiated head with a brain encased in a skull

Exam 4 Chapters 14 – 21




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