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					Genetics

Standards: 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, 2f, 2g
           3a, 3b, 3c, 3e
           4a, 4b

Culminating Project:
30 pts, Scientific Survey on Genetic Engineering
        Groups of 3-4 people
        Choose one of the topics to discuss with individuals
        Survey 30 individuals about their opinions on genetic engineering
        - food, handicaps, sex of baby, birth defects
        - Questions will present 1) knowledge of subject & 2) opinion on subject
        - Responses will be on a 4 point scale, Strongly agree, Agree, Disagree,
            Strongly Disagree
        - Your data must be collected from the same location on the same day, ie mall,
            store, school, etc.
You will select a graph to show the data you collected. As a group you will present your
graph and the data you collected. As an individual you turn in a 1-page write up that
explains your procedure, summarizes the responses you collected.

Genetic Engineering Powerpoint or Word presentation
   1. Answer one of the questions
   2. Present articles that helped to answer the questions you asked
   3. Positive & Negative Aspects
   4. Explain your group’s position on the topic

Do not make it entirely text. Boring and difficult to follow. Add pictures, illustrations,
things that will peak the readers/audiences attention.

Genetic testing should be done on cloned human fetuses for incurable diseases.
Humans should be given medication and vaccinations for diseases that have been tested
on animals only.

30 pts, Family Tree showing the phenotypes and genotypes for 3 different character
traits. Students must show the lineage for at least 4 different generations.
Character Traits: attached earlobes (recessive), roll one’s tongue, eye color (Brown:
dominant), left-handedness (recessive)
Pictures, relationships, genotypes, and phenotypes

Instructional Activities
Lesson 1: Difference between mitosis and meiosis
Lesson 2: Meiosis
Lesson 3: Review for Quiz
Lesson 4: Mendel’s Principle of Segregation
Lesson 5: Patterns of Inheritance
Lesson 6: Independent Assortment
Lesson 7: Modes of Inheritance
Lesson 8: Internet Activity
Alternate Plan
Lesson 1: Intro to Genetics, Heredity, Dominant vs Recessive, Pedigree Charts, &
Homozygous vs Heterozygous
Lesson 2: Pedigree Practice
Lesson 3: Mendel’s Laws
Lesson 4: Punnett Squares
Cell Biology: Protein Synthesis

Standard: 1d

Culminating Task: Outline & diagram the production of a protein beginning in the
nucleus through its release into the cytoplasm.

Assessments: 3 Quizzes: DNA Structure, Transcription, Translation
              1 Cumulative Exam: Protein Synthesis
              Worksheets: Color Plates: DNA Replication, Transcription, & Translation
              Internet Assignments
              Group Work
              Labs
              Construct a model of DNA
              - Include nucleotides, phosphate, & sugar
              - Must be in double helix form

Instructional Activities:

I. Protein Synthesis
        A. DNA Structure
               1. deoxyribonucleic acid vs. ribonucleic acid
               2. Nucleotides & bonding
               3. Double Helix
        B. Function
               1. Serves as blueprint for human characteristics
               2. DNA Replication
        C. Transcription
               1. Nucleolus: ribosome production
               2. rRNA, mRNA & tRNA
        D. Translation
               1. RNA to Protein
Lesson 1: DNA Structure

Warm Up Activity:
De-code this message:




deoxyribonucleic acid dna is like a code that reveals the genetic makeup of every person

Using the following key:
a=b=c=d=e=f=g=h=i=j=k=l=m=
n=o=p=q=r=s=t=u=v=w=x=y=
z=

Instruction:
DNA – found in the nucleus, on chromatin, on chromosomes
DNA is made up of repeating units called nucleotides; adenine, thymine, cytosine,
guanine.
Nucleotides in DNA are joined together in a long chain, see Fig. 7-2, bonded to a
phosphate group and sugar (deoxyribose).
Structure of DNA
        Double Helix: twisted ladder, Fig 7-4
        Sugar: Deoxyribose
        Phosphate Group
        Complimentary base pairs: nucleotides: A-T & G-C
Structure of RNA
        Single Strand copy of DNA
        Sugar: Ribose
        Phosphate Group
        Complimentary base pairs: A-U & G-C

Closing Activity
Colored index cards w/ nucleotides
Have the students stand and roam through the room trying to find their corresponding
nucleotide in DNA, stand with them until all are finished. Flip index card over and fine
corresponding nucleotide in RNA

DNA: Adenine: purple, Thymine: blue, Guanine: green, Cytosine: orange
RNA: Cytosine: purple, Adenine: blue, Uracil: green, Guanine: orange

Open-ended homework assignment (20 pts.), Due Monday 10/20:
Construct a model of DNA. You must include sugar, phosphate group, & nucleotides
and the model must be in double helix form. Be creative. You can decide which material
to use. The only material you cannot use is anything perishable!
Lesson 2 –

Warm Up – Show Brain Pop: DNA

Instructional Activity
DNA found on chromatin, on chromosomes, in the nucleus
Review DNA & RNA structure & nucleotide bonding
        Sugar: Deoxyribose vs. Ribose
        Phosphate Group
        Nucleotides: A-T, G-C & A-U, G-C
        Double Helix vs. Single Strand

DNA Replication
       DNA code is copied. Each new cell that is formed gets a copy of DNA.
Hydrogen bonds between the base pairs are broken by enzymes. (Essentially, the DNA
molecule unzips.)The helix opens exposing the bases. Free floating nucleotides pair with
the exposed bases. Each daughter molecule consists of one parent strand and one
daughter strand

Closing Activity:
Color plates, fill in for DNA replication. This will help them visualize the model that
they will be constructing. Have them color corresponding nucleotides the same color,
along with the sugars and phosphate groups.
Lesson 3 – Internet Assignment

Warm Up –

Instructional Activity
Have the class come up with the rubric for the DNA Model. 20 min

Internet Assignment - Review DNA Replication
Go over procedure for internet assignment. 5 min
Assign 2 people to a computer. 5 min
Have the students fill out the worksheet that details the information. 20 min
        www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/dna
Lesson 4: Transcription

Standards: 3d, 3e

Objectives:
   • Understand the differences between the different types of RNA
   • Understand the process by which the DNA code is copied onto a strand of RNA

Warm Up Activity: 15 min
In your journal, sketch a picture of the DNA model on that is on the front lab desk. After
you are done drawing the model, draw the double helix as two single strands. After you
are done drawing the two single strands, draw a third picture that completes the process
of DNA replication with two identical copies of your original picture the DNA model.

Motivation/Context
The students will be able to visually represent the process of DNA replication.

Instructional Activity: 20 min
                                 DNA – Deoxyribonucleic      RNA – Ribonucleic Acid
                                 Acid
Structure                        Double Helix                Single Strand
Sugar                            Deoxyribose                 Ribose
Nitrogen Bases (4)               Guanine, Cytosine,          Guanine, Cytosine,
                                 Thymine, Adenine            Uracil, Adenine
Phosphate Group                  Phosphate Group             Phosphate Group
Purpose/Function                 Character Traits, makes     Copy of DNA – can leave
                                 everyone different          the nucleus

Transcription – process to make RNA
       (Very similar to DNA Replication)

   1)   DNA unzips, hydrogen bonds are broken.
   2)   Free-floating RNA nucleotides match up to DNA.
   3)   RNA breaks away from DNA and leaves nucleus
   4)   DNA strands rejoin together

Look at DNA replication – compare the two


Diagram Transcription
Label 4 steps
4 different free floating nucleotides
Label nucleotides in DNA

(Nucleotide – sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base)
Define: mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
Why: DNA found in the nucleus. Proteins made by ribosomes in the cytoplasm. There
must be a middleman between the two to direct this process.
Transcription:
- Synthesis of RNA
- Exactly like DNA Replication, but only produces one single strand of RNA.
- Occurs in the nucleus, enters the cytoplasm through a nuclear pore and travels to a
  ribosome.
        How: DNA uncoils, hydrogen bonds are broken, other enzymes attach free
floating nucleotides. Instead of thymine bonding to adenine, uracil takes its place.

SENTENCE STRUCTURE DEMONSTRATION
        Transcription follows rules just like the English language follows rules. Bonding
continues until a terminator on the DNA strand is reached. Transcription stops and the
newly formed RNA detaches from the DNA molecule.
        Typically RNA undergoes additional processing. There is a sequence of
nucleotides that are not part of the code. These noncoding nucleotides are called introns.
After they are removed, the two ends, called exons, are spliced together. RNA then
leaves the nucleus.

Purpose of RNA
- RNA is a copy of DNA
- RNA is used as instructions to make a protein
- Ribosomes are where proteins are made, but since ribosomes are not in the nucleus
      RNA leaves the nucleus and goes to the ribosome.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) – carries a message from the nucleus to the ribosome.
      mRNA is made from Transcription

Closing Activity: 15 min
Transcription Lab
Cut out DNA & RNA nucleotides from worksheet. Color them and illustrate
Transcription as a group on a large sheet of paper.
Review: DNA Structure & Replication Review, Transcription

Objectives:
I will make sure that I understand the structure of DNA & RNA.
I will understand the processes and differences between DNA Replication and
Transcription.

Instructional Activity:
4 corners activity: 5 colors – 8 each; letters – A through F
What are the three differences in structure between DNA & RNA
        - Sugars, Structure, Nucleotides
Outline the entire process of DNA replication
        - Hydrogen bonds between complimentary pairs are broken by enzymes
        - Free floating nucleotides in the nucleus attach to the exposed nucleotides in the
        original DNA strands
        - Hydrogen bonds reform between complimentary pairs and the helix re-coils.
        - Two identical copies of the original DNA molecule
Outline the entire process of Transcription
        - DNA helix opens exposing nucleotides
        - Beginning sequence starts the mRNA chain formation from free floating
        nucleotides. The ending sequence, terminator sequence, ends the copying to
        produce copy of DNA. Note that Uracil bonds with Adenine in RNA
        - Introns get cut out of the mRNA
        - Exons rejoin to form final mRNA that exits the nucleus
What are the differences between DNA replication & Transcription
        - Uracil bonds with Adenine instead of Thymine
        - Only a portion of original DNA molecule gets copied

Motivation/Context:
Students will answer questions in a cooperative group and then switch groups to ensure
that the same information is being studied and copied throughout the room.

NEED TO MAKE NOTECARDS
5 colors – 8 each; letters – A through F
Need to make color signs and letter signs
Review 2: DNA Replication & Transcription

Quiz: Draw a picture of the four steps involved in DNA Replication.
Label what is happening at each of the four steps.

Draw a picture of the three steps involved in Transcription
Label what is happening at each of the three steps

                                           OR

Review information and them ask a series of questions. Have the students write down
answers on blank sheets of paper. Check all their responses.

DNA & RNA Structure
What is the sugar in DNA? RNA?
       DNA: Deoxyribose, RNA: Ribose
What is the twisting structure of DNA called?
       Double Helix
What is the structure of RNA?
       Single strand
What is a nucleotide?
       Sugar, phosphate, nitrogen bond
What are the four nucleotides in DNA? RN A?
       DNA: Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine
       RNA: Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, Cytosine
What is the purpose of DNA?
       Character traits

DNA Replication
True/False, DNA replication must occur before mitosis begins.
True/False, DNA is only in our skin cells.
What is the purpose of DNA Replication?
       Make an identical copy of DNA
What type of bonds connect nitrogen bases/nucleotides?
       Hydrogen bonds
How are the hydrogen bonds broken in DNA Replication?
       Enzymes in the cell’s nucleus
What are free-floating nucleotides? Where are they found?
       Loose nucleotides inside the nucleus
How many DNA molecules are produced in DNA Replication?
       2
Thymine bonds with _______
       Adenine
Cytosine bonds with _______
       Guanine
Transcription
What is the purpose of transcription?
        Make mRNA
Which nitrogen base is different in RNA than DNA?
        Uracil
What type of bonds connect the nitrogen bases in DNA?
        Hydrogen
Where do the RNA nucleotides found to make RNA?
        Floating in the nucleus
When the DNA Helix opens, what are exposed?
        Nucleotides, bases
What does mRNA stand for?
        Messanger RNA
What is mRNA?
        Copy of DNA
In transcription, Adenine bonds with ___________
In transcription, Guanine bonds with ___________
What are the noncoding nucleotides of mRNA called?
        Introns
What happens to introns?
        They get cut out of mRNA
What are the rejoining nucleotides called?
        Exons
What happens to exons?
        They rejoin to make a complete RNA strand

Translation
What cellular organelle does mRNA attach to to start translation?
       Ribosome
What is the 3 nucleotide sequence that appears on mRNA called?
       Codons
What is the 3 nucleotide sequence that appears on tRNA called?
       Anticodons
What is the function of the start codon?
       Tells where to beginning translating mRNA
What is the function of the stop codon?
       Tells where to stop translating mRNA
tRNA stands for?
       Transfer RNA
What are proteins made of?
       Amino Acids
What does AUG, Methionine code for?
       Start codon
How are amino acids transported to the ribosome to make a protein?
       They are brought by tRNA
Name one example of a use of a protein in the cell.
       Cell organelle, enzyme, etc
Lesson 6: Translation

Standards: 3d, 3e, 4a, 4b

Objectives:
Today I will understand the process of how a protein is made from DNA
Today I will understand the roles of mRNA and tRNA in protein synthesis

Instructional Activity:
Codon: pg 116, 3 nucleotides code for a certain amino acid in mRNA. Amino acids
make proteins. Initiation codons: start of a protein, Termination codon: end of protein
synthesis
Anti-codon: determines which amino acid the tRNA will carry, opposite to codon.
YOU NEED TO KNOW HOW TO LOCATE SPECIFIC PROTEINS IF GIVEN A
CODON OR THE ANTICODON.

Translation: once outside the nucleus, mRNA travels to a ribosome, a ribosome translates
the sequence of mRNA bases into a sequence of amino acids to form a protein.
Free molecules of tRNA scattered throughout the cytoplasm, attach to free molecules of
amino acids.
5 Steps: Pg 118.
1. mRNA attaches to a ribosome.
2. Ribosome locates the beginning codon (AUG) to begin attaching amino acids
3. tRNA brings in corresponding amino acids to continue bonding process
4. Ribosome locates the stop codon to cease attaching amino acids.
5. Protein chain detaches from ribosome and leaves for use.

Once finished the mRNA breaks down into individual nucleotides and returns to the
nucleus.

Translation
End of transcription, RNA has left the nucleus
mRNA (messanger RNA) – instructions for making a protein

   1) Attaches to a ribosome (making proteins)
   2) Ribosome decodes mRNA
       o looks for the ―start codon‖ – AUG
               Codon – every 3 nitrogen bases
   3) Once the ribosome finds the start codon, it continues to translate the rest of
      mRNA until it reaches the ―stop codon‖ – UAG, UGA
   4) In between the ―start codon‖ & ―stop codon‖ tRNA brings in an animo acid for all
      the other codons on mRNA
   5) Once the ―stop codon‖ is translated the amino acids join together to make a
      protein

USE mRNA strand to illustrate start, stop, & codons for amino acids

Closing Activity:
Coloring plates for translation.
Lesson 7: Internet Assignment

Standards: 3c, 3d, 4a, 4b

Objectives:
   • Today I will understand the processes of DNA Replication and protein synthesis.

Instructional Activity:
Review Questions for Transcription and Translation. During the warm-up, students will
write down a question that they have from their studying of these two processes for the
quiz tomorrow. I will answer written questions and ask students to ask their questions
aloud.

Closing Activity:
Internet Assignment to review DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis. Pair up students
to work on a wireless laptop.
Lesson 1: Mitosis vs. Meiosis

Standard: 2a

Warm Up Activity: Journal

Instruction:
Review Research Cancer Paper
    - 70% turned in. Very good, as opposed to 55% Do not pass grades
    - Spelling/Grammar, Proofread your paper out loud to yourself
            o Read a paper that has poor grammar
    - Plagiarism, must cite sources and must put research into your own words
    - Read good introduction

Mitosis: The double set of chromosome pairs are divided into two separate cells each
with two sets of chromosome pairs (diploid cell)
   - After DNA Replication occurs, the cell is left with 4 copies of the chromosome.
       The cell is only supposed to have 2 pairs of chromosomes. Thus the cell divides
       into two separate cells.
   - Each cell contains an exact copy of the DNA. The DNA is contained within the 2
       sets of chromosome pairs.

Closing Activity:
Review grades with students. Grading period ends week from Tuesday
Lesson 2: Meiosis

Standards: 2a, 2b, 2d

Warm Up Activity: Brain Pop, Genes

Instruction:
Meiosis vs. Mitosis

Mitosis – cell division
       - occurs in all of our cells, Somatic (Body) Cells
       - examples: skin cells, muscle cells, stomach cells
       - All somatic cells go through mitosis
Meiosis – cell division
       - ONLY occurs in reproductive cells
       - example: Animals: egg cell, sperm cell
       - Meiosis produces cells called gametes
                o Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that
                    Normal cells have
All human somatic cells have 46 chromosomes, All human reproductive cells have 23
chromosomes

Diploid Cell – exactly the same as the original cell.
       Has the same number of chromosomes as the original cell
       - Examples: All somatic cells, muscle cells, skin cells, etc
       - Mitosis occurs in these cells

Haploid Cell – has HALF the number of chromosomes as the original
       Cell
       - Example: Reproductive cells, egg cell & sperm cell
       - Meiosis occurs for these cells

Meiosis: only occurs in organisms that sexually reproduce
Process by which sex chromosomes get isolated into gametes
   - Process by which a diploid cell (contains a set of two chromosome pairs) divides
       into two cells that are haploid cells (contain one chromosome)
   - When two haploid cells come together, the produce a diploid cell. Typically an
       egg cell, female, and a sperm cell, male.
   - One cell has two sets of chromosome pairs (diploid). After meiosis, the one cell
       is now four cells each with one chromosome (haploid).
   - Gametes either have a X chromosome or Y chromosome

Intriguing Questions:
Twins – breaking of egg cell after fertilization
Trisomy – most are lethal unless with the sex chromosome, more than one set of
chromosomes, where the chromosomes do not separate and the resultant fertilized egg
has 3 sets of chromosomes. Down Syndrome, three of chromosome 21, XXY, XXX,
XYY are all types of sex chromosome trisomy.
Closing Activity:
Coloring plates of both mitosis and meiosis
Trait: Eye Color, Brown eyes dominant (E); Blue Eyes recessive (e)
Homozygous: same alleles
Heterozygous: different alleles
Dominant – most common characteristic
Recessive – least common characteristic

Dominant:
EE – Homozygous Dominant – Brown eyes
Ee – Heterozygous Dominant – Brown eyes
       Carrier for recessive trait
Recessive:
ee – Homozygous Recessive – Blue eyes

Heterozygous recessive – DOES NOT EXIST

Allele – genes passed on from a father or a mother
Genotype - arrangement of alleles, EE, Ee, ee
Phenotype – physical characteristics
               EE – Brown eyes
               Ee – Brown eyes
               ee – Blue eyes

Changes in Meiosis

Genetic Variations –
Crossing Over – overlap of chromosomes
Independent Segregation – reassortment of traits on a
       chromosome

Genetic Recombination – any type of rearranging of
chromosomes during meiosis

Mistakes in Meiosis
Pg 278

Trisomy – when one gamete has an extra chromosome
      Example: Humans – fertilized egg 47 chromosomes
             Produces Down Syndrome

Monosomy – when the fertilized egg is missing one
     Chromosome
            - most fertilized eggs with monosomy do not
               survive.
     Example: Turner’s Syndrome – born with only one
            X chromosome.

Polyploidy – an individual has an abnormal number of
Chromosomes – more than one extra or one missing
       Very rare in animals, but very common in plants
Pedigree Chart – graphic representation of genetic
Information
       Circle – female, square – male
       Shaded – recessive, unshaded – dominant
       Circle/square connected – parents
       Circle/square & vertical line - offsping

Pedigree Diagramming

Parents: father has brown eyes & mother has blue eyes
Children: 2 boys have blue eyes and 2 girls have brown eyes
One of the boys gets married to a brown eyed girl and has 1 boy with brown eyes and a
girl with blue eyes.
One of the girls gets married to a boy with brown eyes and has two boys with blue eyes
Dominant: Brown Eyes
Recessive: Blue Eyes


Parents: Father has attached earlobes and mother has unattached earlobes
Children: 1 boy with unattached, 1 boy with attached, & 1 girl with attached
Boy with unattached gets married to girl with unattached and have a girl with attached.
Boy with attached gets married to girl with attached and have a boy with attached
Girl with attached marries a boy with unattached and have a boy & girl both with
unattached.
Dominant: Unattached
Recessive: Attached

Parents: Father is right handed and mother is right handed
Children: 2 boys – right handed, 2 girls – left handed
One boy gets married to right handed girl and have two boys who are right handed
One girl marries a right handed boy and have 1 boy and 1 girl who are both right handed
Another girl marries a left handed boy and they have left handed boy

Dominant – right handed
Recessive – left handed

Write
Phenotype (left handed or right handed)
Genotype (HH, Hh, hh)
Homozygous/Heterozygous Dominant/Recessive


Heredity – passing on of characteristics from parent to offspring
Lesson 3:

Standards: 3a, 3b
Warm Up Activity: 10 min
   - Journal

Instruction: 10 min
Clarify for students that diploid is 2n and haploid is n. Give the example that there are 23
chromosome pairs in the human genome. That means that there are 46 chromosomes,
half of which are found in the sperm cell of a male and the other half from the egg cell of
a woman. Diploid is not always 2 and haploid is not always 1. Haploid is always half of
diploid.

A chromosome pair is called a homologous chromosome. These chromosomes are the
same size and shape, but contain different genetic information. They are not identical.

Pass out whiteboards, markers, & erasers. 5 min
       Please write with dry erase markers only on these.
Review Questions: 15 min
   - Process which the cell divides and produces identical copies of itself.
          o Mitosis
   - In order to make a diploid cell, which two types of cells must come together?
          o 2 Haploid cells
   - Finish this sentence. Genetics is the study of _________.
          o Heredity
   - Heredity is the transmission of ________ from parent to offspring.
          o characteristics
   - Name the five phases of mitosis.
          o Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
   - Process which the cell divides and produces cells with half the number of
       chromosomes
          o Meiosis
   - Give two examples of gametes.
          o Sperm cell & Egg cell
   - Draw the steps in mitosis of a cell with 2 chromosomes pairs
   - If a cell has 26 chromosome pairs, how many total chromosomes are there?
          o 52
   - Draw the steps in meiosis of a cell with 5 chromosome pairs
   - If a cells diploid number is 36, what is its haploid number?
          o 18
   - Write the formulas for a diploid cell and a haploid cell.
          o Diploid: 2n, Haploid: n
   - What process must occur before mitosis begins?
          o DNA Replication
   - Name the 10 phases of meiosis.
          o Interphase I & II, Prophase I & II, Metaphase I & II, Anaphase I & II,
              Telophase I & II
   - True or false, Meiosis can produce gametes with a diploid number of
       chromosomes instead of a haploid number of chromosomes.
          o True
Lesson 4:

Standards: 2a, 2c, 3b

Warm Up Activity: 10 min
Brainpop: Genes
Journal

Instruction:
Dominant vs. Recessive
- Some alleles will control the physical characteristics of a person.
- Illustrate through Mendel’s pea plant experiment
         - parent generation, P1, offspring generation F1, F2
         - Homozygous dominant & recessive,
         - Heterozygous

Mendel’s Principle of Segregation
   1. Hereditary characteristics are determined by distinct units or factors
   2. For each characteristic, an individual carries two factors, one inherited from each
       parent.
   3. The two factors of each pair segregate from each other and end up in separate
       gametes.
These factors are called genes, character traits on chromosomes. Each character trait is
separated into alleles, individual character traits on chromosomes. There can be a
number of different alleles in each chromosome.

Project Introduction: 30 pts
Construct a family tree that must include at least 3 generations (4 would be best or
more!). We will trace 3 different characteristics through our family history. 1) Attached
(recessive) or unattached earlobes, 2) ability to roll your tongue, 3) is your choice. Try
and think of a last characteristic that is unique. i.e. Lefthandedness is a recessive trait.

Poster board, pictures, and a hypothesis at the genotypes of all family members based on
these characteristics. Include the phenotype also. Include a brief summary of the data
you have collected.

I want you to include your grandparents’ generation, your parents’ generation, and your
generation. If you are unable to talk to them directly, for any reason, then you can find
pictures or ask your parents. You may not be able to trace the ability to roll one’s tongue,
so you must come up with another trait to track.
Lesson 5: Patterns of Inheritance

Standards: 2g, 3a, 3b

Instructional Activity:
Difference between gene vs. allele
Genotype: describes the combination of alleles
        Homozygous Dominant & Recessive
        Heterozygous
Phenotype: the way an organism’s trait is expressed.
EXAMPLE: Use Mendel’s experiment

Draw Figure 9-4 on board

Punnett Squares
Monohybrid Cross 2 x 2, Male Gamete: Tt x Female Gamete: Tt

Examples:
Homozygous Dominant + Homozygous Dominant
Homozygous Dominant + Homozygous Recessive
Homozygous Dominant + Heterozygous Dominant
Heterozygous Dominant + Homozygous Recessive
Heterozygous Dominant + Heterozygous Dominant
Homozygous Recessive + Homozygous Recessive

Testcross:
If an organism shows the recessive trait, then you know that individual is homozygous
recessive because any other combination will result in a dominant phenotype. Compare
the crossing of a homozygous recessive with 1) homozygous dominant and 2)
heterozygous. See what offspring are and compare to the phenotypes given.

Closing Activity:
Calculating genotypes and phenotypes
Scenario 1: Unattached: Dominant, Attached: Recessive
    Parents: unattached earlobes
    Children: Boys 2 unattached, Girl 1 attached
    Estimate the genotypes of the everyone

Scenario 2:Right hand: Dominant, Left hand: Recessive
    Parents: one right-handed and one left-handed
    Children: Boys both left-handed
    Estimate the genotypes of everyone

Scenario 3: Brown Eyes: Dominant, Blue Eyes: Recessive
    Parents: One brown eyes, one blue eyes
    Children: Two girls, one brown eyes, one blue eyes
    One girl married a brown eyed male and has a blue eyed child
Lesson 6: Independent Assortment

Standards: 3b

Warm Up Activity:
Journal

Instruction:
Principle of Independent Assortment: the inheritance of alleles for one trait does not
affect the inheritance of alleles for another trait. For example, whether a plant is short or
tall has no effect on whether its sees are smooth or wrinkled. All of the alleles segregate
independently.
Study where two or more traits are inherited at the same time
Dihybrid Cross:

Closing Activity:
Check individual outlines. Filter through some of the family trees to cut down on the
individuals they have to track. 1st filter: both genetic lines, 2nd filter: who do they have
access to, 3rd filter: they can select which ones to do.

Have students work on planning out their posters. Phenotypes & Genotypes.
Decide the third character trait
Write down the phenotypes that you know of and predict genotypes.
Begin to draw a blueprint of your final presentation
Lesson 7: Modes of Inheritance: X-linked, Autosomal, Dominant, Recessive

Standards: 2f, 3a

Instruction:
Homozygous vs. Heterozygous

Difference between Autosomes and Sex Chromosomes
Up until now, we have been talking about autosomes, where dominant & recessive traits
are expressed.
Sex Chromosomes: sex linked genes & sex linked traits. IE

Males carry Y chromosome and X chromosome, females only carry the X chromosome.
Often times, certain genes are linked to specific chromosomes and only show themselves
in a recessive gene. IE. Red/green color blindness, inability to distinguish red from
green. This genetic trait is a recessive gene and is passed to offspring on the X
chromosome. XCXC – normal, XCXc – normal but carries allele, XcXc – color blind
woman, XCY – normal male, XcY – color blind male.

Other Modes of Inheritance
Simple Dominant & Simple Recessive

Incomplete dominance – Appearance of a third phenotype
phenotype of a heterozygote is in between two homozygotes –
       Example: Roses; RR – Red, rr – white, Rr – pink

Sex Determination – male genotype XY, female genotype XX
      Male determines the sex of offspring
      Female always gives X. Male can either give X or Y
      23 chromosomes & 23rd is sex determination

Sex linked – traits controlled by sex chromosomes
       Example: Sickle Cell Anemia

Polygenic inheritance – controlled by two or more genes. Gene
can be on the same chromosome

Codominance – expression of both dominant genes.
     Example: Heterozygote – checkered hen - black rooster, white hen

Multiple Phenotypes from Multiple alleles – traits controlled by more than two genes
        All the alleles code for different traits
                Example: Feather color
                Dominant: BA produces ash-red colored feathers, B gene produces blue
feathers, b gene produces dark brown. B is dominant to b, but recessive to BA

Polygenic Inheritance: traits are controlled by more than two genes.
       Example: Height
Closing Activity:
Students are to work on their projects. Use powerpoint slide to prioritize their activities.
Lesson 9: Genetic Engineering

Human Genome Project: Periodical from Heath Biology on Sequencing the Human
Genome, have students read the article aloud in a group and answer the questions at the
end of the article.

Cloning:
Mention the 3 types of cloning:
-DNA Cloning: taking the egg and splitting it so that each piece carries exact copy of
DNA. Similar to how twins are produced
-Adult DNA Cloning or Reproductive Cloning: Remove the DNA from an ovum and
replaced with the DNA from a cell removed from an adult animal. Take the fertilized
ovum called pre-embryo and implant it into a womb and allow it to develop into a new
animal. This is how they cloned a sheep. This procedure has never done on humans yet,
can potentially produce severe birth defects.
-Therapeutic Cloning, procedure is identical to adult embryo cloning, except with the
purpose of extracting stem cells from the pre-embryo. This extraction kills the pre-
embryo. These stem cells can be cultivated to produce healthy organs or tissues for a
person who is sick.

Use the following articles:
http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/cloning/cloning.jsp?id=ns99994168 cloning
human embryos
http://www.lifenews.com/oped25.html, passing legislation to make legal the use of
cloned fetuses for experimentation

Have students answer the following questions:
What do you feel is the purpose and benefit of cloning? What about the risks and
consequences?
Do you think that the benefits of testing on human fetuses outweigh the risks and
concerns of doing so?

Genetically Modified Organisms: Periodical from Heath Biology on Genetically
Modified Foods, have students read the article aloud in a group and answer the questions
at the end of the article.

GM is a special set of technologies that alter the genetic makeup of such living organisms
as animals, plants, or bacteria. Biotechnology, a more general term, refers to using living
organisms or their components, such as enzymes, to make products that include wine,
cheese, beer, and yogurt.

Benefits
       Crops
       Enhanced taste and quality
       Reduced maturation time
       Increased nutrients, yields, and stress tolerance
       Improved resistance to disease, pests, and herbicides
       New products and growing techniques
       Animals
       Increased resistance, productivity, hardiness, and feed efficiency
       Better yields of meat, eggs, and milk
       Improved animal health and diagnostic methods
       Environment
       "Friendly" bioherbicides and bioinsecticides
       Conservation of soil, water, and energy
       Bioprocessing for forestry products
       Better natural waste management
       More efficient processing
       Society
       Increased food security for growing populations

Controversies
      Safety
      Potential human health impact: allergens, transfer of antibiotic resistance markers,
      unknown effects Potential environmental impact: unintended transfer of
      transgenes through cross-pollination, unknown effects on other organisms (e.g.,
      soil microbes), and loss of flora and fauna biodiversity
      Access and Intellectual Property
      Domination of world food production by a few companies
      Increasing dependence on Industralized nations by developing countries
      Biopiracy—foreign exploitation of natural resources
      Ethics
      Violation of natural organisms' intrinsic values
      Tampering with nature by mixing genes among species
      Objections to consuming animal genes in plants and vice versa
      Stress for animal
      Labeling
      Not mandatory in some countries (e.g., United States)
      Mixing GM crops with non-GM confounds labeling attempts
      Society
      New advances may be skewed to interests of rich countries

Genetic Engineering
- changing the genetic makeup of a living thing.

1) Human Genome Project – mapped out the 4 billion
nucleotides in human DNA

2) Cloning – stem cell research –
Create undifferentiated cells that can grow in the specific
types of cells
      - stem cell – heart cell, kidney cell

3) Genetically Modified Foods (GMO’s)
   - crops raised with chemicals and genetically modified
      fertilizers
- Examples: Year round fruit
- Traders Joes, Whole Foods, Bristol Farms, Gelsons
  Organic Foods – all foods are grown naturally
Genetic Engineering Presentation Grading Sheet

Names:


Topic/Question:


Rubric: 1-4

______ Answer to the question

______ Article Citations and Summaries

______ Positive & Negative Aspects of Topic

______ Group Opinion

Comments:




Genetic Engineering Presentation Grading Sheet

Names:


Topic/Question:


Rubric: 1-4

______ Answer to the question

______ Article Citations and Summaries

______ Positive & Negative Aspects of Topic

______ Group Opinion

Comments:

				
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