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									                                                   ERC INNOVATIONS AND IMPACTS

CENTER                    TECHNOLOGY                 PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                                 MARKET IMPACT
BIOENGINEERING
Emerging                  Antiarrhythmic systems     Two major research developments–improved                U.S. market for improved implantable
Cardiovascular                                       electrodes and biphasic waveforms– were transferred     defibrillators is over $1 billion dollars
Technologies (class of                               to implantable defibrillator industry. Two              annually. The international market is several
1987; lead institution,                              companies, Intermedics and Ventritex, took biphasic     times larger.
Duke University)                                     waveforms to clinical testing. Two others, Cardiac
                                                     Pacemakers, Inc., and Medtronic, Inc., developed
                                                     proprietary biphasic waveform circuitry based partly
                                                     on ERC research. Intermedics also brought the
                                                     ERC’s improved electrodes to clinical trials.


                          Biphasic waveforms         Made portable defibrillators feasible for use in        Worldwide market is well into the billions of
                                                     public places—malls, airports and airplanes, hotels     dollars. Individual units prices at ~$3000.
                                                     and casinos, police cars, etc.—by non-medical
                                                     personnel in emergency situations.
                          3D ultrasound              Several research breakthroughs in sensing and image     Estimated current worldwide market: $2.7
                                                     processing made real-time 3D ultrasound possible.       billion annually
                                                     Startup Volumetrics Medical Imaging was formed to
                                                     push the new technology, which was eventually
                                                     accepted. 3D ultrasound is now commonplace.

GTEC for Living Tissues Pharmacological              Revitus, LLC started up in 2001 to develop
(class of 1998; Georgia prevention of thrombotic     therapeutic strategies for prevention of heart attack
Tech/Emory)             vascular disorders           and stroke. Has two pharmaceutical product
                                                     candidates in its pipeline.




                                                                                                                                                         1
CENTER                    TECHNOLOGY                PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                              MARKET IMPACT
                          Autologous vascular graft Graft Solutions, Inc., was started in 2001 to form
                          engineered structures     vascular graft materials. The company has developed
                                                    a prototype device, conducted proof of concept
                                                    studies and is in Phase II of a four-phase
                                                    development and market entry plan. A second-
                                                    generation device, suitable for preclinical studies,
                                                    has been designed and built and is undergoing bench
                                                    testing.
                          Improved hydrogel               Startup Orthonics was formed by GTEC faculty             Cartisept Medical, Inc., bought Orthonics' IP
                          biomaterial, novel surface      (2002) to develop advanced biomaterials with the         for $1 million and recently raised $20M in
                          patterning technique for        ability to promote bone and cartilage growth and         venture capital financing to develop a range of
                          attaching artificial material   adhesion. Translational research funding from NSF        products for cartilege therapy.
                          to bone or cartilage.           was key to GTEC and Orthonics collaborating on a
                                                          proof-of-concept, preclinical implant study to use the
                                                          technique to grow new bone. The project was a
                                                          success.
                          ―Platform‖ technologies in      Cytogenesis, Inc., a GTEC spinoff biotechnology    Sold to BresaGen, Inc., for an undisclosed
                          human embryonic stem            company, developed a novel way to cause stem cells amount.
                          cell biology                    to differentiate into nerve cells.
Computer-Integrated       2D image overlay system         Startup ImageGuide, Inc., is pursuing integration
Surgical Systems          to improve image-guided         of advanced imaging platforms with robotic-
Technology (class of      needle placement                assisted technology to perform minimally
1998; lead institution,                                   invasive surgical procedures.
Johns Hopkins)
                          ―Heartlander,‖ a small,         Start-up company Enhanced Medical Systems LLC
                          minimally invasive robot        was established in 2005 to commercialize
                          that can move                   Heartlander. EMS is currently in discussions with
                          autonomously beneath the        medical device manufacturers as potential partners.
                          pericardium under the
                          control of a surgeon




                                                                                                                                                                 2
CENTER                 TECHNOLOGY                 PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                                  MARKET IMPACT
Botechnology Process   Bioprocess simulation      BioDesigner software for bioprocess simulation led       Estimated income from software licenses
Engineering Center                                to the efficient design and synthesis of bioprocesses.   totals several million dollars annually.
(class of 1985; MIT)                              This algorithm was licensed to a start-up company        Resulting savings to industry from more
                                                  and is used presently by biotechnology companies         efficient design and production are not
                                                  worldwide for bioprocess simulation as well as in        possible to estimate, but are very large.
                                                  universities for course teaching.


                       Rational medium design BPEC established rules for rational medium design           It is difficult to estimate the monetary value of
                       principles             based on fundamental principles in stoichiometry,           this algorithm, but many of the mammalian
                                                  biochemistry, and metabolism to increase cell           cell products manufactured today use this
                                                  viability and prolong cell culture times in animal cell approach. The total value of mammalian cell
                                                  culture systems, increasing the product                 products worldwide is in the tens of billions
                                                  concentration. Many companies now employ the            of dollars annually.
                                                  algorithm derived from this research.
                       Perfusion chromatography Startup company PerSeptive Biosystems, Inc., was           Sales grew from $1 million in 1991 to $100
                                                established by a Center PhD graduate in 1987 to            million in 1997. PerSeptive merged with PE
                                                commercialize this technology. Later, while a Senior       Corporation in 1998, in a transaction valued at
                                                VP at PE Corp., he oversaw the creation of Celera          $360 million.
                                                Genomics, a subsidiary of PE Corp. Celera recently
                                                completed the sequencing of the human genome.

                       Engineered-tissue arrays   Startup company Concordance Biosystems
                                                  established by a Center PhD graduate to
                                                  commercialize living engineered-tissue arrays for
                                                  drug pharmacology/toxicology testing
                       Bioprocess simulation      BPEC spinoff, Intelligen, Inc., was founded and led      Estimated income from these licenses totals
                                                  by a Center PhD graduate. The company licensed           several million dollars annually.
                                                  the BioDesigner bioprocess simulation software
                                                  from BPEC, and in turn licenses this technology to
                                                  biotechnology companies around the world.




                                                                                                                                                          3
CENTER   TECHNOLOGY                  PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                                MARKET IMPACT
         Engineered-tissue           Two BPEC PhD graduates developed the first             RegeneMed plans to earn revenue through
         construct for               commercial-scale, FDA-approved bioreactor and          direct sales, funded research, and technology
         transplantation therapy     cryopreservation systems for production and            licensing agreements. Break-even is expected
                                     distribution of two novel living engineered-tissue     in 2007 with revenues by 2008 forecast to
                                     constructs for transplantation therapy. They also      exceed $23M and $70M by 2009.
                                     developed bioreactor systems to move orthopedic,
                                     cardiovascular, and cosmetic products to animals
                                     studies and the market. They founded RegeneMed, a
                                     tissue engineering company initially focused on non-
                                     therapeutic applications of the technology for drug
                                     discovery, diagnostics and biosensors, and over the
                                     long term on commercializing tissue implant
                                     products.
         Production of therapeutic   A BPEC PhD graduate at Genentech developed the
         protein from recombinant    first licensed, high-density, fed-batch cell culture
         animal cells                process (for production of Pulmozyme™), the first
                                     process to enable economically viable production of
                                     a high-dose therapeutic protein from recombinant
                                     animal cells.

         Therapeutic protein         A BPEC PhD graduate at Genentech was an early
         delivery                    champion and project team leader in introducing
                                     novel slow, controlled-release technology for
                                     therapeutic protein delivery.
         HIV-1 protease inhibitor    A BPEC PhD graduate at Merck successfully led the Crixivan has annual sales in the hundreds of
                                     project team for CrixivanR, the first HIV-1 protease millions of dollars worldwide.
                                     inhibitor and a key componenent of new
                                     breakthrough therapies for AIDS. Other BPEC grads
                                     were members of the project team.




                                                                                                                                            4
CENTER                     TECHNOLOGY                   PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                                 MARKET IMPACT
                           Cell and virus culture       A BPEC PhD graduate at Merck developed the              These Merck vaccines have annual sales in
                           processes for vaccine        commercial cell and virus culture processes for         the low billions of dollars.
                           production                   productions of Merck’s Hepatitis A (VAQTA) and
                                                        Varicell Zoster Virus (chicken pox, VARIVAX)
                                                        vaccines.
                           Purification process for     Another BPEC PhD graduate at Merck played a
                           vaccine production           critical role in development of a novel purification
                                                        process for Hepatitis A vaccine (VAQTAR), winner
                                                        of the first American Chemical Society Industrial
                                                        Biotechnology Award.
Center for Biofilm         Biofilm control by           Several companies (Microbia, Aurora, Quorex, Bio-
Engineering (class of      chemical signal              Signal) are searching for specific blocking signal
1990; Montana StateU.      manipulation                 analogues that can control biofilm formation. All
                                                        four have discovered synthetic biofilm blocking
                                                        signals; two of those molecules have undergone
                                                        clinical trials for treatment of cystic fibrosis
                                                        pneumonia and for prevention of toxic shock.

                           Biofilm growth reactors      Startup company BioSurface Technologies founded         BST is the largest "process flow" biofilm
                                                        by a CBE research engineer to manufacture biofilm       reactor company in the US, with gross annual
                                                        growth reactors for the academic and industrial         sales of around $150,000 and a 10% sales
                                                        market.                                                 growth rate, serving an international customer
                                                                                                                base.
ERC for Biomimetic         Prosthetic retinal implant   BMES has entered clinical testing of a second-         Potential market value worldwide depends on
Microelectronic Systems                                 generation implantable prosthetic retina, the Argus II eventual pricing of the device, but is clearly in
(class of 2003; lead                                    Retinal Prosthesis System, developed in conjunction the billions of dollars.
institution, University of                              with device manufacturer Second Sight Medical
Southern California)                                    Products. Six patients implanted with the first
                                                        generation of the device all had limited sight
                                                        restored.




                                                                                                                                                                 5
CENTER                       TECHNOLOGY                  PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                              MARKET IMPACT
University of                Novel self-assembled        Startup Asemblon, Inc., founded by UWEB faculty,     Company is marketing these products to the
Washington Engineered        monolayers used for         offers materials for use in hydrogen storage and     chemical industry with steadily increasing
Biomaterials (UWEB)          hydrogen storage and        production in automotive and other applications.     success. $5M in venture capital funding
(class of 1996; University   release                                                                          expected in March 07.
of Washington)


                             Osteopontin technology      Startup Healionics, Inc., founded by several UWEB
                             for improved heart valves   faculty and staff to commercialize UWEB patents,
                                                         including developing a manufacturable process for
                                                         an anticalcifying bioprosthetic heart valve

                             Vascularizing membrane      Healionics is applying PIHM technology in two
                             technology, Porosity        areas: outer membranes for subcutaneously
                             Induced Healing             implanted biosensors, such as for glucose and the
                             Membranes (PIHM)            management of diabetes; and preventing biofilm
                                                         formation and systemic infection related to
                                                         percutaneous access devices.
                             Precision coating of      UWEB and Combimatrix Corp are conducting a             Anticipated markets are DOD, Homeland
                             molecules on the surfaces special project using NSF Technology Innovation        Security, municipal governments, hospitals,
                             of materials and devices  Funds (TIF). They aim to create an "electronic nose"   and even home use. Estimated value of these
                                                       for the detection of nerve gas and other toxins        products is $500 million annually.
                                                       relevant to homeland security and national defense.


MANUFACTURING AND PROCESSING




                                                                                                                                                            6
CENTER                      TECHNOLOGY                PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                                  MARKET IMPACT
ERC for                     IC manufacturing water    In use by many semiconductor manufacturing               Cost savings ranging from $250,000 to
Environmentally Benign      conservation and resource companies worldwide                                      $2,000,000 annually at each manufacturing
Semiconductor               management techniques                                                              site. Semiconductor Research Corporation
Manufacturing (class of                                                                                        recognized these contributions as ―major
1996; lead institution,                                                                                        innovations that have significantly impacted
University of Arizona) [a                                                                                      industry and society.‖
joint NSF and
Semiconductor Research
Corporation investment]



                            Additive processing         Spinoff GVD Corp. was formed in 2001 to apply this
                            selective film deposition   environmentally benign technology for
                            process for use in          manufacturing semiconductors, novel thin films,
                            semiconductor and nano      coatings, and novel membrane materials with unique
                            device manufacturing        porosity characteristics
                            Novel "biochip" sensor      Startup Picogen Inc, founded in 2001 by CEBC
                                                        faculty and a former ERC student, aims to
                                                        commercialize Center-developed biochip sensor
                                                        technology for rapid assessment of toxicity of
                                                        chemicals. Application areas include large-scale
                                                        distributed sensor/scanning systems for security and
                                                        environmental monitoring, as well as IC
                                                        manufacturing.




                                                                                                                                                              7
CENTER                   TECHNOLOGY               PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                                MARKET IMPACT
                         Electro-Chemical Residue First and the only sensor technology to give in-situ   The potential for multi-million-dollar savings
                         Sensor                   and real-time contamination measurement in nano-       in water and energy usage has been
                                                  structures. A major breakthrough that solves a         demonstrated. A commercial product will be
                                                  critical problem in nano-manufacturing. Startup        on the market by summer 2007.
                                                  Environmental Metrology Corporation established in
                                                  2003 to commercialize ECRS technology. A product
                                                  prototype successfully prepared and tested at
                                                  industrial fabs of major semiconductor
                                                  manufacturers.
                         CMP characterization and Founded in 1999 by two ERC graduates, Praesagus,
                         modeling technology      Inc, is working to commercialize new CMP
                                                  characterization and modeling approaches for
                                                  semiconductor manufacturing
Advanced Combustion      Advanced combustion      ACERC's early research was aimed at improving the      The current CFD market is dominated by two
Engineering Research     technology               comprehensive 3-D entrained-flow coal combustion       companies, Fluent and StarCD (part of
Center (class of 1986;                            model (PCGC-3) in order to make the use of fossil      cdAdapco). Parts of ACERC codes are
Brigham Young                                     fuels in coal-burning plants cleaner and more          embodied in their commercial software
University)                                       efficient. Fostered the use of computational fluid     packages, which provide users with
                                                  dynamics (CFD) as a tool in this field.                substantial cost savings in lower emissions,
                                                                                                         faster/cheaper systems design or retrofit,
                                                                                                         better evaluation of fuel blends, and more
                                                                                                         reliable assessment of boiler problems. The
                                                                                                         value of these cost savings is difficult to
                                                                                                         quantify, since the software is now used
                                                                                                         worldwide in hundreds of plants and data are
                                                                                                         generally not available. However, it is very
                                                                                                         substantial.




                                                                                                                                                          8
CENTER                      TECHNOLOGY                  PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                                  MARKET IMPACT
                            Combustion and fuels        Combustion Resources, Inc., a 1995 spinout from          Founded by the center director and partners,
                            technology                  this ERC, provides consulting services in the field of   Combustion Resources now owns a 16,000 sq.
                                                        fuels and combustion with expertise in analytical        ft. building in Provo, Utah, employing 15
                                                        testing and computer modeling.                           people at an average salary of $100,000.

                            Combustion and            A 1990 spin-out from the ACERC, Reaction            In 2006, Reaction Engineering had 19 full-
                            environmental remediation Engineering International is an R&D consulting firm time employees with an average salary around
                                                      with an internationally recognized expertise in     $80,000. Revenues in 2005 were $3.7 million.
                                                      combustion and environmental solutions. Business
                                                      areas include utility boilers & APCD, petrochemical
                                                      furnaces, industrial furnaces, incinerators, rotary
                                                      kilns, smelters and stokers.
Center For Advanced        Shaped capillary             In 2005, several ERC faculty formed Specialty and
Engineering Fibers And channeled polymer                Custom Fibers LLC to manufacture shaped fiber
Films (class of 1998; lead fibers                       products that are designed to produce unique fluid
institution, Clemson                                    transport properties and chemical behaviors, with
University)                                             particular applications in separation processes and
                                                        biotechnology.
Particle Engineering        Multiangle-                 The developed instrument has been tested by several      Estimated impact could be in the tens of
Research Center (class of   multiwavelength             companies for different applications. Simultaneous       millions of dollars. ICI, Xerox, Johnson &
1994; University of         (MAMW) detection            determination of particulate properties such as size,    Johnson, and DuPont Company are now
Florida)                    system for characterizing   shape, and charge is desirable in many sectors such      implementing this technology in their
                            the joint property          as health (blood cells, bacteria, viruses, etc.),        operations and products.
                            distribution of particles   environment, chemical, and other processing
                                                        industries as well as by researchers.




                                                                                                                                                              9
CENTER                  TECHNOLOGY                   PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                                MARKET IMPACT
                        Synthesis of artificially    Startup NanoCoat, Inc. (1999), which became            Nanotherapeutics is raising $8M in venture
                        structured, nano-            Nanotherapeutics in 2002, was formed to apply this     capital and has secured $5.5M in NIH and
                        functionalized particulate   technology in the production of slow-release drug      Dept. of the Navy contracts. A $20M+
                        materials using Atomic       particles, focusing on oral, inhaled, and nasal drug   development contract with NIH is pending for
                        Flux Coating Process         delivery for pain and diseases such as asthma and      inhaled antibiotics. FDA approval was just
                        (NanoCOAT)                   tuberculosis. Advantages over competing                granted for an injectable bone paste; projected
                                                     nanoparticle processing technologies include           annual sales are $5-$10M.
                                                     consistent size distribution, gentle processing,
                                                     stability, and scalability.
                        Slurry density sensor        KMW Research Corp. was founded in 1998 by two          The solids concentration sensor has been
                                                     ERC professors to commercialize the conductance-       installed at several phosphate mining facilities
                                                     based solids concentration sensor. The inherent        in Florida. In addition, the operating principle
                                                     advantage with this sensor is that it measures the     for the sensor was spun off for the
                                                     concentration of dense slurries in large diameter      development of a slurry tank level sensor,
                                                     pipelines without using a gamma radiation source,      which is in operation at several phosphate
                                                     which has been the standard practice.                  mining facilities.


ERC for Reconfigurable Stream-of-variation           Ford Motor Company’s Windsor Engine Plant              Savings of 2/3 of the measurement machines
Manufacturing Systems methodologies                  changed their coordinate measuring machine gauging     and 2/3 of the measurement time at each
(class of 1996; University                           strategy to only measure representative features.      plant. Produces savings of $1 million per
of Michigan)                                         This led to a 65 percent reduction in measurements     plant in fixed cost plus $250,000 annually
                                                     through the first three operations, with only
                                                     negligible loss of data




                                                                                                                                                          10
CENTER                       TECHNOLOGY                  PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                                MARKET IMPACT
                             Porosity inspection using   Detecting pores on engine blocks at line speed (20     Cost savings associated with the use of the
                             non-contact sensors         sec) is a major problem in the automotive industry.    new RIM system will range from $500,000 to
                                                         The industry currently relies on manual visual         $2M annually at each manufacturing site. If
                                                         inspection of porosity defects. The ERC/RMS            the technology were to be implemented at all
                                                         developed a Portable Reconfigurable Inspection         US automotive powertrain plants, the
                                                         Machine (P-RIM) to facilitate technology transfer to   potential annual savings would be $100
                                                         its member companies. It utilizes several new non-     million.
                                                         contact sensor technologies that can quickly measure
                                                         features of engine blocks, such as surface porosity
                                                         defects. After using a Center-supplied P-RIM
                                                         machine in one of its plants, General Motors applied
                                                         the knowledge gained to the development of an
                                                         industrial system for in-line surface porosity
                                                         inspection of engine blocks, which GM installed in a
                                                         production line in Flint, Michigan, in July 2006.

EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
Pacific Earthquake           Seismic Performance         Adopted as the main computational engine for a
Engineering Center           Assessment Tool             Federal Emergency Management Agency project on
(class of 1997; lead                                     Development of Next-Generation Performance-
institution, University of                               Based Seismic Design Procedures for New and
California at Berkeley)                                  Existing Buildings




                                                                                                                                                           11
CENTER   TECHNOLOGY                  PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                                MARKET IMPACT
         Models for seismic          PEER has developed important innovations for the       These innovations prompted industry leaders
         assessment of older         seismic assessment and upgrading of older hazardous    to call for a delay in the publication of the
         reinforced concrete         reinforced concrete building construction. Early on,   ASCE Seismic Rehabilitation Standard ASCE
         buildings                   PEER researchers developed the basic expressions       41 so the models could be incorporated.
                                     for the ASCE Seismic Rehabilitation Standard,
                                     defining the shear strength of concrete columns—the
                                     components of older concrete buildings most likely
                                     to collapse. Subsequently, PEER presented several
                                     new seismic assessment procedures covering a range
                                     of building components including columns, beam-
                                     column connections, slab-column connections, and
                                     shear walls. The new models lead to much more
                                     usable and cost-effective seismic retrofitting of
                                     hazardous buildings.


         Building seismic analysis   Earthquake ground motions pass from bedrock            Revised standards include seismic site
         standards                   through the underlying soil and finally into a         amplification factors in the NEHRP (National
                                     building. Along the way, interactions between the      Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program)
                                     soil, foundation, and structure modify the ground      Recommended Seismic Provisions; and
                                     motion, in some conditions increasing the motion       kinematic interaction and damping provisions
                                     that enters the building, in other conditions          in the widely used FEMA 440 guidelines for
                                     decreasing the motions. PEER innovations have led      simplified building analysis.
                                     to two major changes of national standards for
                                     building seismic analysis.




                                                                                                                                       12
CENTER                       TECHNOLOGY                PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                                MARKET IMPACT
                             Seismic hazard mapping    PEER developed a database on earthquake strong         The USGS Seismic Hazard Maps are used by
                                                       ground motion, collecting over 10,000 records from     structural engineers as the basis for seismic
                                                       significant earthquakes worldwide. These were used     designs of all buildings in the US. Thus, the
                                                       to calibrate mathematical models of how ground         new maps will have a major impact on the
                                                       motion attenuates with distance from the earthquake    future design of all buildings in seismically
                                                       source. Once the new attenuation models were in        active zones.
                                                       place, they were transferred in 2006 to the US
                                                       Geological Survey (USGS), which used them to
                                                       develop new US National Seismic Hazard Maps.


                             Earthquake Loss           PEER worked with the California Earthquake           Results of this research have been used by
                             Estimation Procedures     Authority (CEA) to calibrate earthquake loss         CEA to calibrate home earthquake insurance
                                                       estimation procedures. First, PEER used seismic      rates throughout California.
                                                       hazard maps to estimate the level of shaking
                                                       anticipated throughout California. Analytical models
                                                       of the housing stock were then subjected to the
                                                       ground motion estimates to determine anticipated
                                                       damage.
Mid-America                  Web-based software for    MAEviz resulted from collaboration between the
Earthquake Center            earthquake impact         MAE Center and the National Center for
(class of 1997; lead         assessment and decision   Supercomputing Application. This software package
institution, University of   making                    runs as a web service allowing users to estimate the
Illinois at Urbana-                                    impact of earthquakes, visualize losses, and
Champaign                                              undertaken decision analysis for mitigation options.
                                                       MAEviz is being used by Memphis Light, Gas and
                                                       Water, a major haulage company, and on FEMA-
                                                       DHS and IEMA projects, as well as in Pakistan and
                                                       Turkey. It is the Center’s single most important
                                                       deliverable.




                                                                                                                                                          13
CENTER                   TECHNOLOGY                     PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                               MARKET IMPACT
                         Three-dimensional soil-        The MAE Center is collaborating with Jacobs Civil,
                         structure-interaction (SSI)    Inc. to assess the inelastic seismic response of the
                         analyses using state-of-the-   Caruthersville Bridge on I-155, under contract to the
                         art analytical tools and       Missouri Department of Transportation.
                         methodologies
                         Deepsoil software for     Nearly 300 engineering researchers are using
                         analysis of ground motion Deepsoil in Missouri, Arkansas, Tennessee,
                         during seismic activity   California and Alaska.

                         Contributions to building      MAE Center work on the vertical earthquake motion
                         design codes:                  effect has been incorporated in two foreign-
                                                        government seismic design codes: the European
                                                        seismic design code ―Eurocode 8‖ and the Egyptian
                                                        seismic design code. The same work has been
                                                        requested by two US-based regulations committees
                                                        for inclusion in future guidance for design.

MCEER (class of 1997;    Scissor-jack brace system Architects Vasilis Pashiourtides and Eleftheria        Over 10 years of association with MCEER,
lead institution, The    for building reinforcement Stergidou designed the 3-story Olympic House          Taylor Devices reported doubling in sales of
University at Buffalo)                              building on Cyprus (completed in 2006), using 58      seismic products from $4M to $8M.
                                                    scissor-jacks. Expected to be the first of many
                                                    buildings to use this next-generation bracing system.

MICRO/OPTOELECTRONICS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS




                                                                                                                                                         14
CENTER                       TECHNOLOGY                  PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                                  MARKET IMPACT
Center For                   Optical pattern recognition IRIS, the world leader in urinalysis systems, used       The IRIS instrument yields a 4-minute
Neuromorphic Systems         (neural net) technology     CNSE technology to develop an instrument that can        improvement in review time, a savings of 200
Engineering (class of                                    automatically identify particles in urine and flag for   min. per day per hospital. Extrapolating out
1994; California Institute                               human review only those specimens with                   from the cost of the skilled technologists’ time
of Technology)                                           characteristics set by the user.                         at all 357 of IRIS’ US installations, annual
                                                                                                                  savings of $10.7M are being realized.
                                                                                                                  Assuming half the US labor rate, an additional
                                                                                                                  $10M+ in savings are realized outside the US.
                                                                                                                  Thus, worldwide benefit of this technology is
                                                                                                                  currently more than $21 million per year.


                             Fingerprint identification   DigitalPersona, founded by two former CNSE              Currently about 30 million users worldwide
                                                          undergraduate students (1996), has become a leader      (half in the US). Revenues are substantial and
                                                          in biometric password management. This is a             growing. The company has about 90
                                                          completely new approach to password management          employees in Slicon Valley.
                                                          on PCs and corporate information systems. The
                                                          company’s technology and design are used in
                                                          Microsoft®’s Fingerprint Reader devices and many
                                                          other products. DP markets its own fingerprint
                                                          readers directly to consumers.
                             Object recognition using     Evolution Robotics, started with the help of 3 CNSE     Object recognition system is available on the
                             machine vision               faculty and students. Created first commercially        SONY Aibo since Dec 03; hundreds of
                                                          available object recognition system by vision. Also,    thousands of units sold. Soon to be deployed
                                                          created first low-cost robot navigation system.         on supermarket checkout counters.

                             Olfactory sensing            Cyrano Sciences, a startup co-founded by CNSE           Cyrano Sciences was recently bought by
                                                          faculty, developed the first "artificial nose," the     Smiths Detection, a large UK competitor of
                                                          Cyranose 320, a handheld unit containing 32 sensors     Honeywell, which is marketing the Cyranose
                                                          for odor detection, classification, and monitoring.     320. Initial markets are in quality control,
                                                                                                                  especially food freshness and packaging odor
                                                                                                                  detection.


                                                                                                                                                                  15
CENTER                     TECHNOLOGY                 PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                                  MARKET IMPACT
                           Tri-chromatic pixels for   Foveon, co-founded by CNSE faculty, developed the        Camera system currently geared to
                           image sensors              first tri-chromatic pixels for image sensors. Produces   professional photographers, a $4 billion
                                                      and markets the world’s most sophisticated digital       market, while X3 technology is being licensed
                                                      camera. The system can produce images 30‖x 40‖           to the digital imaging industry. Company is
                                                      that have the same resolution as film, while             40% owned by National Semiconductor and
                                                      providing increased creative control and better          30% by Synaptics, another CNSE-related
                                                      economics.                                               company.
Data Storage Systems       Data storage technology    The Information Storage Industry Consortium              INSIC sponsors over $135M in research
Center (class of 1990;                                (INSIC), a collective formed around research at this     annually through 11 collaborative programs
Carnegie Mellon                                       ERC in the 1990s, is the research consortium for the
University)                                           worldwide information storage industry.
                           Nickel-aluminum            The invention of the NiAl underlayer by researchers      The economic impact of small, large-capacity
                           underlayer on high-density at the DSSC made it possible to achieve high density     hard drives and the products they contain is in
                           media                      media on glass substrates, which was an enabling         the $100B’s worldwide.
                                                      technology for making high-capacity drives for
                                                      laptops and MP3 players, such as the iPOD.

ERC for Extreme            Extreme ultraviolet        The EUV ERC is playing a major role in the               When high-volume manufacturing of 20 GHz
Ultraviolet Science and lithography                   development and testing of EUV resists, mask defect      semiconductor chips starts in ~2011, these
Technology (class of                                  inspection metrologies, and EUV optical coatings;        EUV ERC technologies will have a major
2003; lead institution,                               provides the world’s leading and most useful EUV         impact on manufacturing processes.
Colorado State University)                            calibrations and standards capabilities; and is
                                                      developing compact coherent EUV sources that are
                                                      critically needed for use in a wide variety of
                                                      manufacturing on-site metrology tasks.




                                                                                                                                                            16
CENTER                  TECHNOLOGY              PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                                   MARKET IMPACT
Optoelectronic          Wavefront coding        Startup CDM Optics was founded in 1996 by OCS             The ERC gained $800,000 in 2005 from the
Computing Center (class                         faculty to commercialize this technology, which           sale and another $200,000 in subsequent
of 1987; University of                          increases the performance of a camera system by           years, with a royalty flow of several tens of
Colorado/Colorado State                         increasing the depth of field and/or correcting optical   thousands per year.
University)                                     aberrations of a photographic image. CDM was sold
                                                in mid-2005 to OmniVision Technologies, a
                                                company that makes CMOS detector arrays for
                                                digital cameras.
Microsystems Packaging All packaging research   Direct impacts of the PRC on the State of Georgia         Between 1994 and 2004, the state of Georgia
Research Center (class of outputs               include jobs created and spin-off companies, license      invested $32.5 million in the PRC. An SRI
1994; Georgia Institute of                      fees and royalty income from PRC inventions,              International study showed that the direct
Technology)                                     sponsored research, consulting income to PRC staff        benefit of these investments to the Georgia
                                                and faculty, and the value of PRC workshops and           economy was nearly $192 million—a 6:1
                                                short courses to Georgia firms.                           return on investment.

                        System-on-a-Package     A total of 167 companies to date have taken parts of      The PRC expects that companies throughout
                        (SOP)                   the SOP technology pioneered by the PRC and               most industries involving microelectronics
                                                applied them to their automotive, computer,               will soon be driven by the market to design
                                                consumer, military, and wireless applications. These      and fabricate their products using the SOP
                                                companies include IBM, Intel, Samsung, Sony,              approach.
                                                Panasonic, TI, Motorola and Amkor. For example,
                                                Motorola uses parts of SOP technology in two
                                                models of its GSM/General Packet Radio Service
                                                quad-band cellphones to gain about a 40 percent
                                                reduction in board area.




                                                                                                                                                          17
CENTER   TECHNOLOGY                    PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                              MARKET IMPACT
         Integrated circuit and        RF Solutions was started in 1998 by four PRC         Anadigics wireless LAN power amplifiers are
         package design services       students and a Georgia Tech professor to provide     the best-selling in the world, with shipments
         for wireless                  integrated circuit and package design services for   totaling over 100 million units, and are
         communications; power         wireless communications markets. The company was     responsible for approximately 25% of
         amplifiers                    acquired by Anadigics in 2002 and now produces       Anadigics revenue.
                                       power amplifier products for notebook and handheld
                                       applications.
         High throughput and low- Ardext Technologies was started in 2000 by a PRC          Ardext has licensed the technology from
         cost testing of mixed-   faculty member and several students to                    Georgia Tech, has obtained $3M in venture
         signal electronics       commercialize this technology.                            capital, and has several major joint
                                                                                            development projects with customers to
                                                                                            demonstrate product capabilities.
         Packaging integration of      Quellan was started in 2001 by a PRC faculty         Quellan has raised $25M in venture capital
         high-speed circuits,          member and is based on the integration and           and currently has 50 employees.
         optical, and signal           convergence of these technologies for broadband
         processing technologies       communications applications. The technology is
                                       used in products where it increases bandwidth,
                                       lowers costs, and reduces time-to-market for
         High density, large area      customers.
                                       Engent originated in 2001 as a startup by a PRC     Engent’s annual revenue growth rate is
         flip-chip on flex assembly;   faculty member Dan Baldwin and several PRC          approximately 13%.
         fine pitch wirebond           students along with staff from Siemens’ Advanced
         packaging; system-on-         Assembly Technology Center. The company
         package solutions; and 3D     provides electronics packaging manufacturing
         wafer-level packaging         services and packaging/process technology solutions
         technology                    to over 140 customers.




                                                                                                                                         18
CENTER                    TECHNOLOGY                PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                             MARKET IMPACT
                          Multi-Layer Organic       Jacket Micro Devices (JMD) was started in 2003 by JMD currently has raised $20M in venture
                          (MLO) radio frequency     a PRC faculty member, two PRC staff members, and capital funding and has 33 employees.
                          (RF) modules              a student. The company produces the industry's
                                                    smallest high-performance modules for emerging
                                                    wireless and broadband applications such as 802.11n
                                                    and 802.16.
Engineering Research      Radar systems engineering Founded by an ERC undergraduate student in 2005, Dynamic Sensing has contracts with a
Center for the                                      Dynamic Sensing Technologies provides radar          growing number of organizations, including
Collaborative Adaptive                              systems engineering support services to the research CASA and NASA.
Sensing of the                                      and operational radar communities.
Atmosphere (class of
2003; lead institution,
University of
Massachusetts Amherst)

ERC For Wireless           Sensor technology for    Startup Sensicore develops smart sensors and sensor     In 2005, Sensicore raised $12 million in
Integrated Microsystems water chemistry             networks that automate water testing, data collection   Series C round funding. Sensicore was named
(class of 2000; University                          and analysis for both drinking and wastewater           as one of the ―Michigan 50 Companies to
of Michigan)                                        applications. In 2005, it introduced the                Watch‖ in April 2006.
                                                    WaterPOINT, a hand-held device for point-source
                                                    testing and the first lab-on-chip water profiler. In
                                                    2006, it introduced the WaterNOW system, which
                                                    manages data collected by the WaterPOINT.




                                                                                                                                                      19
CENTER   TECHNOLOGY              PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                                MARKET IMPACT
         CMOS MEMS resonator     Founded in 2001 by a WIMS researcher, Discera’s        Discera is selling product worldwide. In
         technology              broad portfolio of PureSilicon resonators offers a     December 2006, Discera and M-RF Co., Ltd.,
                                 significant breakthrough in technology that is being   a major distributor of microwave devices,
                                 used to create the industry’s most advanced and        components, and subsystems in Japan,
                                 economical frequency control and RF circuits.          announced a partnership to distribute
                                                                                        Discera's CMOS MEMS resonator-based
                                                                                        timing products. M-RF will represent Discera
                                                                                        and distribute its products to Japanese
                                                                                        customers focusing on wireless
                                                                                        communication markets. In January 2007,
                                                                                        Vectron announced it was shipping Discera
                                                                                        products to replace quartz crystal oscillators
                                                                                        for high-volume applications. The worldwide
                                                                                        timing market is $3.5B.

         All-silicon clock       Founded in 2004 by a WIMS student, Mobius              Mobius was an FSA 2006 "Start-Up Company
         generation technology   Microsystems develops clock generation products in     to Watch" nominee. In May 2005, they
                                 standard CMOS processes. Mobius' products enable       received the Michigan Governor’s Award for
                                 lower power consumption and lower total product        Largest Job Creation by a High-Technology
                                 cost through greater levels of circuit integration,    Company. Mobius has design centers in
                                 improved performance and faster time-to-market.        Detroit, MI, and Sunnyvale, CA. Its designs
                                                                                        offers more accurate and cheaper alternatives
                                                                                        to ceramic oscillators, which represent a
                                                                                        $300M market in the US alone. The
                                                                                        Michigan Economic Development
                                                                                        Corporation estimates that Mobius could
                                                                                        eventually employ 500 people and generate
                                                                                        1,100 spin-off jobs.




                                                                                                                                     20
CENTER                     TECHNOLOGY                PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                                   MARKET IMPACT
                           Neural probe technologies NeuroNexus Technologies (N2T) was formed in               NeuroNexus has received State and SBIR
                                                     2004 by a WIMS researcher to commercialize neural         support. It currently has 6-8 employees and is
                                                     probe systems for medical and scientific                  shipping product to the neuroscience
                                                     applications.                                             community worldwide.
                           Micromachined MEMS        Founded in 2005 by a WIMS researcher, Picocal is a        Picocal recently received SBIR funding and is
                           scanning thermal probe    technology-based venture whose objective is to            delivering product to customers, including the
                                                     provide novel measurement solutions to its                NIST.
                                                     customers. Products and services include a MEMS
                                                     scanning thermal probe, high speed probes, frictional
                                                     probes, microfabrication services, consultation, and
                                                     contract R&D.
Center for                 Computational design and A post-graduation spinoff center, the Center for           CAVS originated as part of a incentive
Computational Field        process simulation       Advanced Vehicular Systems (CAVS), has a                   package in which the State committed to
Simulation (class of                                research and development partnership with the              sponsor automotive-related R&D activities in
1990; Mississippi State                             Nissan Research Center in Japan and also                   support of Nissan's manufacturing facility
University)                                         coordinates an engineering extension facility near the     investment in Mississippi. To date the state
                                                    Nissan plant at Canton, Mississippi, which provides        has provided >$35 M for buildings and
                                                    engineering outreach services to a wide range of           equipment. CAVS has about 90 full-time
                                                    businesses in the state including suppliers to Nissan      employees, with an additional 140 faculty,
                                                    as well as Viking Range, EuroCopter, and Northrop          post-doc, graduate/undergraduate students and
                                                    Grumman Ship Systems.                                      visiting researchers providing part-time
                                                                                                               services. CAVS' research expenditures for
                                                                                                               2005-2006 were $14.7M, with 2006-2007
                                                                                                               expected to approach $20.0M.

Center for Advanced        High k gate dielectrics in   Two processes, both of which originated within         These processes have been commercialized
Electronic Materials       semiconductor device         AEMP, are key components of all the high k gate        and are now part of mainstream
Processing (class of 1988; manufacturing                stacks being used by industry. One is the growth of    semiconductor manufacturing at companies
North Carolina State                                    ultra-thin (~0.5 nm) interfacial oxides having         throughout the world.
University)                                             controlled amounts of nitrogen at the interface; the
                                                        other is the use of CVD processes using single-wafer
                                                        processing to deposit, rather than to grow, a
                                                        dielectric.

                                                                                                                                                           21
CENTER                       TECHNOLOGY                  PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                                  MARKET IMPACT
Gordon Center for            Arrayed Spectrometric       ASHERD is a highly effective detection system for        With the ASHERD device developed, a new
Subsurface Sensing and       High Efficiency Radiation   radiological and nuclear countermeasures, developed      team led by Raytheon Company (a Gordon
Imaging Systems (class       Detector (ASHERD)           by the ERC in collaboration with one of its industrial   Center industrial partner) won a $400 million
of 2000; lead institution,                               partners. It is an adaptive array of state-of-the-art    DHS contract to produce the Advanced
Northeastern University)                                 spectrometric neutron and gamma ray detectors,           Spectroscopic Portal (ASP) for U.S. ports of
                                                         chosen to maximize sensitivity and minimize false        entry. Currently, the ASP is being used by
                                                         positives. In 2005 the Gordon Center won a $4.5          DHS in the New York City Port Terminal in
                                                         million Department of Homeland Security (DHS)            Staten Island for cargo screening. As part of
                                                         contract to develop the ASHERD prototype.                the cost of a nationwide detection system,
                                                                                                                  DHS could spend more than $1 billion on
                                                                                                                  cargo-screening equipment alone.


                             New algorithm for        IMRT is a computer-controlled method of delivering
                             Intensity-Modulated      radiation tp tumors. It uses several beams from
                             Radiation Therapy (IMRT) different angles that can precisely irradiate a target
                                                      that has a complex 3-D shape, while avoiding healthy
                                                      tissues. Outlining all of the structures of interest and
                                                      determining a multiple-field radiation plan takes
                                                      several hours of the oncologists’ time. CenSSIS has
                                                      developed a segmentation algorithm that requires
                                                      only a few minutes of computation time and minimal
                                                      human intervention. The IMRT algorithm is
                                                      currently in use for prostate images at the Memorial
                                                      Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and for breast images
                                                      at Massachusetts General Hospital. This algorithm
                                                      allows radiation oncologists to see more patients in
                                                      the day, thereby increasing efficiency and reducing
                                                      costs.




                                                                                                                                                              22
CENTER   TECHNOLOGY              PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                                  MARKET IMPACT
         Autonomous Underwater   The AUV is a research tool that allows rapid testing     Gordon-CenSSIS has begun building AUVs
         Vehicle (AUV)           of docking methodologies and imaging algorithms.         for outside users such as the Australian Center
                                 It performs change detection and quantification          for Field Robotics, where it is being used to
                                 surveys in areas such as sidescan sonar, photo           study coral reef systems at the Great Barrier
                                 mosaicking, 3-D image reconstruction, and multi-         Reef. Deeper vehicles also are being built for
                                 sensor fusion.                                           conducting multiple vehicle operations, as
                                                                                          well as for work under ice in the Arctic
                                                                                          Ocean.


         Tomosynthesis           Tomosynthesis is a 3D mammography screening              The impact of acceleration is to increase the
         Acceleration            method. One major bottleneck to its use is the length    throughput of radiological screening, which
                                 of time needed to reconstruct the image from the raw     allows patients to receive immediate answers
                                 x-ray data. Center researchers developed a new,          and treatment during the same visit, allows
                                 parallelized version of the reconstruction algorithm     the clinic to accept many more patients, and
                                 that reduced execution time from 2 hours to less than    reduces the costs of the procedure
                                 5 minutes. The parallelized code is now being used       significantly.
                                 in clinical trials of the tomosynthesis device at Mass
                                 General.




                                                                                                                                       23
CENTER                   TECHNOLOGY               PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                                MARKET IMPACT
                         Dual Bootstrap Algorithm The Dual Bootstrap Algorithm is used for aligning
                                                  two-dimensional images, including those with low
                                                  inter-image overlaps and substantial physical and
                                                  illumination changes between images. It has been
                                                  tested successfully on a wide variety of image pairs,
                                                  ranging from challenging retinal image pairs to pairs
                                                  of outdoor scenes when there are significant physical
                                                  and illumination changes, to brain MRI pairs and
                                                  underwater images. An executable version of this
                                                  algorithm is now part of the web-disseminated
                                                  Gordon-CenSSIS registration and mosaicing toolkit.
                                                  The algorithm is essential for widespread use of
                                                  computer vision-enabled retinal surgical tools in
                                                  routine clinical practice. It has also been applied to
                                                  defense and environmental assessment by the
                                                  Center's industrial and government partners.



Integrated Media         Augmented reality        Hollywood special effects house Rhythm and Hues
Systems Center (class of                          has already used ―Fastrack‖ augmented reality
1996; lead institution,                           software in several recent films.
University of Southern
California)
                         3D face modeling         Geometrix used IMSC’s 3D face modeling                  Hoya Corporation, the world’s second largest
                                                  technology to create a high-speed 3D face capture       manufacturer of eyeglass lenses and the
                                                  solution, FaceVision™, and a ―virtual eyeglass try-     largest supplier to Lenscrafters in the U.S.,
                                                  on‖ solution for the retail optical market, called 3D   adopted the 3D iView™ virtual try-on system,
                                                  iView™.                                                 deploying it in Japan under the name ―3D
                                                                                                          Best,‖ with planned implementation
                                                                                                          worldwide.




                                                                                                                                                     24
CENTER   TECHNOLOGY                 PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                             MARKET IMPACT
         Audio signal processing            TM
                                    MultEQ software automatically corrects frequency By December 2006, one million products had
         and optimization           response distortions to improve and equalize the    been shipped with Audyssey technology.
         technologies               audio experience for all listeners at different
                                    locations in a listening area. Spin-off company
                                    Audyssey Laboratories (2002) has licensed
                                            TM
                                    MultEQ and other technologies to several leading
                                    consumer electronics manufacturers in the US and
                                    Japan for use in home and car electronics products.


         Image recognition and      Startup Sentinel AVE LLC was founded in March         Sentinel currently has contracts with the US
         visualization              2005 and offers three products: a video fusion and    Navy, a major US defense company, Chevron,
                                    visualization system; software for creating 3D        Olympus, and Raytheon.
                                    models of terrain and buildings; and image
                                    recognition and retrieval software
         Geospatial data fusion     Startup Geosemble Technologies develops products Geosemble has had five government contracts
                                    and provides services for automatic fusion and       (AFRL, AFOSR, USGS, DARPA and DHS)
                                    alignment of different geospatial data types such as and two commercial customers.
                                    fusion of parcel vector data with orthoimagery.

         Fiber Bragg gratings for   Founded in 1999, Phaethon Communications, Inc.,
         compensation of optical    raised $30 million in venture capital funding and
         fiber chromatic dispersion grew to a total employment of 75 before being sold
                                    to Teraxion of Canada in 2003. The company
                                    offered products in photonic technology.

         Information extraction,    Fetch Technologies, Inc., was founded in 1999,
         aggregation, and           originally as Dynamic Domain. Its original product
         integration                line consists of an Agent Builder and Agent Runner.




                                                                                                                                    25
CENTER                      TECHNOLOGY                  PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                             MARKET IMPACT
Center for Power            Multiphase Buck converter   The ERC developed a voltage regulator module with   This technology has developed into a multi-
Electronics Systems                                     a fast dynamic response to switch Intel             billion-dollar industry, and has given U.S.
(class of 1998; lead                                    microprocessors from sleep to power mode and vice   industry the leadership role in both
institution, Virginia Tech)                             versa. Today, every computer containing Intel       technology and market position. Without it,
                                                        microprocessors uses the multiphase VRM approach    U.S. industry would have lost the market for
                                                        developed at CPES.                                  providing power management solutions to the
                                                                                                            new generation of microprocessors to
                                                                                                            overseas low-cost providers.


                          Current sensing technique CPES patented a fast-transient response and minimal- This technology has been adopted by such
                          for multiphase converters sized regulator module using a novel current sensing companies as Intersil, ADI, ON
                                                    and current sharing technology that emulates the     Semiconductor, Semtech, Texas Instruments,
                                                    current going through the energy storage inductor.   International Rectifier, Maxim, National
                                                                                                         Semiconductor, and Primarion.

                          Multi-phase point-of-load With the introduction of the multi-phase voltage        Leveraging the infrastructure established for
                          converters                regulator module approach, CPES established the         the multi-phase voltage regulator for micro-
                                                    infrastructure to support a multi-phase point-of-load   processor applications has resulted in 15-25%
                                                    converter, gaining the full support of the computer,    cost savings for the next generation of
                                                    integrated circuit, semiconductor, and power supply     telecom and networking products, with market
                                                    industries.                                             size even greater than that of the VRM.




                                                                                                                                                       26
CENTER   TECHNOLOGY                PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                            MARKET IMPACT
         Wirebond-free packaging   CPES has developed a number of wirebond-free
         techniques                packaging techniques, such as flip-chip-on-flex,
                                   dimple-array, and embedded power technologies, all
                                   aimed at reducing the interconnect parasitics and
                                   improving the thermal management in the integrated
                                   package. In 2002, industry began to introduce a
                                   range of products that utilize similar packaging
                                   techniques, including Fairchild’s bottomless and
                                   BGA packaging, Renesas’s lead-free packaging
                                   (LFPAK), International Rectifier’s FlipFet and
                                   DirectFET, Siliconix’s PowerPAK, and
                                   STMicroelectronics’s FLAT package.


         Intelligent power modules For motor drive applications, CPES has developed a
         for motor drives          new class of integrated power electronics module
                                   (IPEM) that embodies several CPES technology
                                   advances. Key concepts embodied in the motor
                                   drive IPEM architectures developed by CPES are
                                   being adopted in new power module products
                                   produced by major power semiconductor
                                   manufacturers, including Fuji, International
                                   Rectifier, and Semikron




                                                                                                      27
CENTER   TECHNOLOGY        PROCESS /PRODUCT IMPACT                             MARKET IMPACT
         Nanoscale paste   Startup company NBE Technologies was founded by
                           a CPES faculty member in 2004. The company will
                           make and market nanoscale silver pastes to power
                           electronics and microelectronics manufacturers
                           worldwide for die-attachment and printed-circuit
                           board fabrication. The technology is expected to
                           achieve a 2X improvement in thermal conductivity,
                           over 6X improvement in electrical conductivity, and
                           2.5X improvement in connection strength.




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