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									PTSD: “The Soldier’s Heart”
  Diagnostic and Statistical
 Manual for Mental Disorders

• Standardized definitions
  and created checklists
• 1952: 1st publication
• 1980: PTSD included in
• 2000: DSM IV-TR
                Brief History
• “Soldier‟s Heart” (Civil

• “Shell Shock” (WW I)

• “Battle Fatigue” (WW II)

• “Post-Vietnam
  Syndrome” (Vietnam
         Returning Soldiers
• 1.5 million soldiers
  deployed in war on

• 1/3 served at least 2
  combat tours

• 20-25% (Army studies
  reported by NPR in

• 16% (2004 Study in New
  England Journal of
• Combat Stress Control
  Teams and Telemedicine

• Post-Deployment
  and Medical Screening

• Support and Advocacy

• Psychotherapy, Exposure
  Therapy, and/or Drug
Virtual Reality Therapy

• Redeployment

• Stigma and “Military

• Lack of Resources
     “No one notices as Schrumpf, 31, a
  former Marine sergeant who served in
Iraq, scans the rows for moviegoers who
may be wired with explosives under their
jackets. No one pays attention as a man
     who appears to be Middle Eastern,
wearing a long coat with bulging pockets,
   takes a seat in the same row…No one
 listens as Schrumpf instructs his wife to
   „get as low to the ground as you can if
  something happens‟…Schrumpf hears
metal jangling…Convinced he is a suicide
bomber about to strike, Schrumpf lunges
    at him. The man jerks away and his
deadly weapon falls to the floor: a can of

  ~From US News and World Report~
“For some soldiers, simply talking about what happened
  to them can be therapy enough. When Zachary Scott-
 Singley returned from Iraq in 2005, he was haunted by
   the image of a 3-year-old boy who had been shot and
 killed accidentally by a fellow soldier. With a son of his
  own, Scott-Singley couldn't get the picture of the child
    and his wailing mother out of his head and became
increasingly paranoid about his own child's safety. „I was
    constantly thinking about how people were going to
   attack me and take him,‟ he says. Scott-Singley twice
sought mental health care from the Army. The first time
he says he was told that since he wasn't hurting anybody,
  he didn't have PTSD. The next counselor suggested he
 buy some stress-management tapes on the Internet and
         practice counting to 10 whenever he felt
     overwhelmed…Ironically, Scott-Singley found his
  therapy on the Web anyway, with his blog A Soldier's
 Thoughts ( „It feels so
          much better to know I am not alone.‟”

          ~From US News and World Report~
               Fort Carson, CO
“Soldier Tyler Jennings says that
 when he came home from Iraq
  last year, he felt so depressed
and desperate that he decided to
  kill himself. „You know, there
  were many times I've told my
  wife -- in just a state of panic,
 and just being so upset -- that I
  really wished I just died over
there [in Iraq],‟ he said. „Cause if
you just die over there, everyone
    writes you off as a hero.‟”

~From NPR December 2006~
Fort Carson, CO
           “Corey Davis, who was a
        machine gunner in Iraq, says
       he began „freaking out‟ after he
         came back to Ft. Carson; he
        had constant nightmares and
        began using drugs. He says he
       finally got up the courage to go
       to the Army hospital to beg for
       help. „They said I had to wait a
       month and a half before I'd be
          seen,‟ Davis said. „I almost
         started crying right there.‟”

      ~From NPR December 2006~
               Fort Carson, CO
“Alex Orum's medical records showed that
he had PTSD, but his officers expelled him
    from the Army earlier this year for
„patterns of misconduct,‟ repeatedly citing
  him on disciplinary grounds. In Orum's
 case, he was cited for such infractions as
 showing up late to formation, coming to
work unwashed, mishandling his personal
    finances and lying to supervisors --
   behaviors which psychiatrists say are
          consistent with PTSD.

Doctors diagnosed another soldier named
  Jason Harvey with PTSD. At the end of
May this year, Harvey slashed his wrists in
a cry for help. Officials also kicked Harvey
   out a few months ago for „patterns of

    ~From NPR December 2006~
Fort Carson, CO
      “Sergeant Nathan Towsley told
       NPR, „When I'm dealing with
           Alex Orum's personal
        problems on a daily basis, I
          don't have time to train
      soldiers to fight in Iraq. I have
      to get rid of him, because he is
       a detriment to the rest of the

      ~From NPR December 2006~
         A Step Forward…
• “We are afraid that statements made about
  PTSD in the NPR piece by two Ft. Carson-based
  sergeants embody the misconceptions that must
  be changed if we hope to ensure the mental
  health of our country‟s brave service members.”
  ~Press Release from Senators Boxer, Bond, and
            Obama on December 7, 2006~

• Pentagon‟s Task Force on Mental Health Study
  (May 2007)
       Update on NPR Report
• Similar reports from Fort Knox, KY (March
• New program @ Fort Carson to teach military
  leaders to identify and help soldiers w/ PTSD
• Senate bipartisan group calls for investigation
  by Government Accountability Office (April
Pentagon Task Force’s Findings
          May 2007
 “The system of care
   for psychological
     health that has
   evolved in recent
     decades is not
sufficient to meet the
    needs of today‟s
    forces and their
  beneficiaries, and
will not be sufficient
 to meet the needs in
      the future…”
     Not only a problem for war
•   Natural Disasters
•   Terrorist Incidents
•   Serious Accidents
•   Violent Personal
    “Estimated 7.8% of Americans will
  experience PTSD at some point in their
lives, with women twice as likely as men to
              develop PTSD.”

    ~From National Center for PTSD,
    Department of Veterans Affairs~
Off to War: From Rural Arkansas to Iraq
  Filmmakers Brent and Craig Renaud
Off to War: Episode 9 Summary
“As their deployment in Iraq nears its end, the men begin to count
the remaining days, as do their families on the home front. Back in
Arkansas, the Hertleins and the Jacksons eagerly prepare for the
return of Matt, Ronald and Tommy, but wonder how much their
loved ones have changed and what the future will hold. Sergeants
Curtis Rohrshceib and David Short are already plagued by
nightmares of men they have lost in combat, and they worry about
how their experiences will affect them later on. But the soldiers
aren‟t home yet, and they have to survive one more convoy to Kuwait
on the most dangerous highways in Iraq. When they arrive back in
the States, members of the Guard are sent to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, to
debrief, and are warned of the difficulties they will face readjusting
to life as civilians. Clarksville is festooned with yellow ribbons as the
men finally return to Arkansas to a heroes‟ welcome back in the
arms of their families.”

              From Discovery Times Channel Online
Off to War: Episode 10 Summary
“After returning home from Iraq, the soldiers of the Arkansas
National Guard try to settle back into their civilian lives. Sergeant
Ronald Jackson rejoins his wife on the turkey farm that she
managed to keep afloat in his absence. Suzanne Hertlein helps her
son Matt get ready to take his high school girlfriend to the prom.
Matt Hertlein and Tommy Erp left Arkansas for Iraq as teenagers
almost two years ago. Now they have to figure out how to start their
lives as young men changed by war. After taking three months off to
get to know his wife and children again, Sergeant David Short
returns to duty as a police officer. Sergeant Curtis Rohrscheib
spends every day getting to know his baby boy Garrett, and
continues to battle with nightmares that followed him home from
Iraq. All of the citizen soldiers struggle with how different they feel
now — after an 18-month deployment in a combat zone and a set of
experiences to which few back home can relate.”

              From Discovery Times Channel Online
•   NPR

•   PBS: Frontline

•   US News and World Report


•   Washington Post

•   National Center for PTSD

•   Discovery Times Channel

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