Behavoiural Management Theory - PDF

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					UNIT 5 IMPORTANCE AND ROLE OF
       MANAGEMENT
Structure
       Objectives
       ~ntroduction"
       Fundamental Principles of Management
       5.2.1   Concept of management
       5.2.2   Evolution of management thought
       5.2.3   Managerial levels and skills
       Importance of Plantation Management
       5.3.1  Plantation management - A unique profebsion
       5.3.2   Role of management principles in plantations
       5.3.3   Importance of plantation management principles
       Functions of Management
       5.4.1   Planning
       5.4.2   Organising
       5.4.3   Staffing
       5.4.4   Leading
       5.4.5   Controlling
        Plantation Management in the Global Perspective
        Let Us Sum Up
        Glossary
        Check Your Progress: Possible Answers
        Suggested Readings

5.0 OBJECTIVES
              this
After studyi~lg unit, you should be able to:
     define the concepts in plantation management;
     describe the qualities and skills required for managers at different levels;
     identify the management principles and their importance in plantation
     management;
     identify the functions of a manager; and
     apply professionalism in managing plantation activities with suitable
     principles of management.

5.1 INTRODUCTION
 In the previous block, comprising an overview of plantation sector, you have
,learned the fundamentals of plantation industry. Do you know what
 management is? Why and how a separate discipline called Management did
 evolve? And why does the present plantation industry require sound knowledge
 on the concepts of management? This unit will introduce you with the concept
 of management, the evolution of management thought, the levels of
 management and skills required for managers at different levels. It also tells
Principles of Plantation   you about the role and importance of plantation principles, the functions of a
Management
                           manager and the challenges for managers in the plantation sector.
                                                                                                              *
                                      Activity 01
                                      Before reading this unit, please visit a nearby plantation office and
                                      observe the activities of the plantation managers related to
                                      management of estate or garden.

                           5.2 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF
                               MANAGEMENT
                           The word 'management' you would have heard and used very frequently;
                           haven't you? Then what does it mean? Different authors define management
                           in different ways. Some say it is nothing but decision making. Another author
                           defined it as the art of getting things done through others. Koontz defined
                           management as "the process of defining and maintaining an environment in
                           which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected
                           aims". F.W.Taylor defined management as knowing exactly what you want
                           rnen to do and then seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest w:.~y."To
                           manage is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and
                           control" is the definition given by Henry Fayol.
                                                    +6




                           In this section, you will study meaning and definition of management and
                           clualities a& skills required for managers and the evolution of management
                           thought.

                           5.2.6      Concept of management
                           We may define the meaning of management in a simple way. "Management is
                           a problem solving process of effectively achieving the organizational goal
                           through the efficient use of scarce resources in a changing environment". If
                           you look at the definition, you will find some key words and characteristics
                           that require further explanation and the concept of management will be clear
                           to you.        4




                                   Firstly, management is a 'problem solving process' : Problem here refers
                                   to any issues that need to be sorted out with correct decisions. Every day
                                   manager wili face many problems. The problems may be related to
                                   labours, customers, suppliers, legal, andor social etc.

                                   Secondly, 'achieving organizational goal effectivelly' :Every organization
                                   will have goals or targets both long term and short term. It could be on
                                   profit, sales, customer satisfaction, recruitment, labour turnover, etc.
                                   Achieving these goals effectively is not easy. Do you know why? If you
                                   have 100 people working under you, all of them will also have their
                                   goals and these goals differ from person to person. Therefore, it is the
                                   managers' job to integrate the individual goals with the organization's
                                   goal and ensure that tne ultimate goal of the organization is achieved.

                           o       Thirdly, 'efficient use of scarce resources': The resources for manager
                                   includes, people, money, equipment, material, time, etc. These resources
                                                                                                       know
                                   are very limited. Using these limited resources as inputs oae sl~ould
                                   how to achieve the maximum output.
Finally, an important point you need to remember is that for better management,         Importance and
                                                                                    Role of Management
you should consider the environment under which your organization functions.
Environment includes labour, customers, technology, government, economical
and political. This environment keeps on changing. An approach you have
adopted to satisfy your customer today may not be accepted by the same
customer tomorrow. Therefore, manager needs to keep the same pace of speed
as that of the environment.

If you try to relate these concepts to plantation activities, you can understand
the meaning of plantation management. In a simple way, decision making on
activities related to plantation can be defined as plantation management. You
may not have common views on what plantation management precisely is,
and what are managerial functions in plantation management. But in general,
we can defjni. plantation managemeni as s unique continuous process (group
of inter-related and integrated activities) involving plant growth, pest, disease
and nutrient management, irrigation, weeding, pre and post harvest activities,
labour management, office administration, collection and marketing of
plantation produce etc., by utilizing the limited available resources through a
set of managerial functions in order to accomplish set plantation goals or
objectives, e.g. increasing the productivity of plantation employee; customer
satisfaction performed with and through people in an ever changing and distinct
plantation environment.

You can understand from the above definition that plantation management has
the following characteristics:
     It has a set of activities,
     It is a continuous process throughout the year,
     It is unique process or activity and has specific goals,
     Co-ordination of people and scarce resource is the central point of
     plantation management,
     It is an art of getting things done through people and plantation resources
     i.e. it is a socio-economic process,
     It follows planning-action-control-feedback system of operations,
     Plantation management role is performed by the managers or executives
     or supervisors, and
                         is
     Plantation manageme~~t a special field of study having a professional
     character.
Having understood the concept of management, now let us see how the
discipline management has emerged.

5.2.2 Evolution of management ,thought
The concept of management is originated as a result of World War I and World
War 11. The result of these wars was destruction of lot of resources in general
and military materials in particular. So resources were made very scarce. People
started thinking of making optimum use of available resources. This led to the
need for professional thinking in resource allocation and utilization. The
scientific and technological developments, industrial revolutions, competitions
Principles of Plantation   etc., has added the need for management discipline and made it more complex.
                           Plantation sector is not an exception to the application of management
                           discipline. Therefore, you need to know the early contribution to the field of
                           management in the form of principles and theories by different authors.

                           The management thought in the current economic situation can best be
                           understood in the light of its historical growth particularly since 1900. There
                           were different phases for the evolution of management thought. These can be
                           classified into three: as Classical Theory, Neo-Classical Theory and Modern
                           Theory. For understanding of these theories and principles it is more appropriate    .
                           to divide it as per the different schools of thought. They are a) scientific
                           approach, b) administrative approach, and c) behavioural approach.

                           a)   Scientific Approach
                           F.W.Taylor, Frank Gilbreth, Lillian Gilbreth, Gantt and others launched what
                           they called scientific management. According to these experts it was not proper
                           to just find a way of doing something. A manager had to find the one right
                           way. They used time and motion study for developing a right way. Among all,
                           F.W.Taylor (1856 - 1915) eventually acclaimed as the 'Father of Scientific
                           Management'. Some of the basic features of Taylor's contribution to scientific
                           management are:

                                Separation of planning function from doing function. He said planning
                                function to be given to managers and doing to the workers,
                                Scientific selection and training of workers,
                                Time and motion studies to determine standard of work,
                                Differential piece wage rate system. That is wage based on output by a
                                labour,
                                Functional foremanship. That is labours should be allotted to the
                                supervisor based on his specialization, and
                                Standardization of methods, procedures, tools and equipment.
                           The five basic principles contributed by F.W.Taylor are:
                                Replacing the rule of thumb with science. For instance, if you want to
                                put fertilizer to your crops, the scientific method should be soil testing,
                                and deciding about the type of fertilizer, quantity and time. It is not based
                                on trial and error method.
                                Harmony in group action rather than discord.
                                Cooperation rather than chaotic individualism.
                                Working for maximum output rather than restricted output.
                                The development of each individual to his greatest efficiency and
                                prosperity.
                           b)   Administrative Approach
                           Henri Fayol, a French industrialist is considered as the father of modern theory
                           of general and industrial management. He divided the industrial management
activities into six groups and contributed fourteen principles to management.         Importance and
                                                                                  Role of Management
Following are the six activities:
      Technical activities - method of doing work.
      Commercial activities - buying and selling.
      Financial activities - use of capital.
      Security - protection for property and persons.
      Accounting activities - statistics and records.
      Managerial activities -planning, organizing, command, coordination and
      control.
These six functions had to be performed to operate successfully any kind of
organization. There is no doubt that Fayol established the pattern upon which
our modern concepts of management are built.

In 19 16, Henri Fayol in his book described 14 management principles. These
principles constitute the theory of management or administration of business
enterprises. They are enumerated below briefly.

i)    Division of work: Specialization alone can give maximum productivity
      and efficiency.
ii)   Authority and responsibility: Authority is the power in the position and
      the right to give orders, responsibility is the obligation to perfom. He
      said there should be parity between authority and responsibility.
iii) Discipline: The objectives, rules and regulations, the policies and
     procedures must be honoured by each member of the organization.
iv) Unity of command: In order to avoid any possible confusion and conflict,
    each member of an organization must receive orders and instruction only
    from one superior or boss.
v)    Unity of direction: All members of an organization must work together
      to accomplish common goals.
vi)   Subordination of individual interest to general interest: Common interest
      of the organization is given priority and not the individual interest.
vii) Remuneration: Fair pay to the labours is the best motivator.
viii) Centralization: Power to take decision must be decentralized. Extreme
      decentralization or centralization must be avoided.
ix)   Scalar chain: Hierarchy of command linking all members from top to
      bottom.
x)    Order: Proper system alone can create a sound organization. Disorder
      leads to chaos and confusion.
xi)   Equity: Justice and kindness must be given to everyone.
xii) Stability of tenure: Employees must be given job security and sufficient
     time to adjust with new work.
xiii) Initiative: Creative thinking and capacity to take initiative can give as
      sound managerial planning.
xiv) Esprit de corps: It means unity is strength.
                                                                                                  9
Principles of Plantation   c)    Behavoiural Approach
Management
                           Behavioural or human relations approach is built on the base of classical theory.
                           It pointed out the role of psychology and sociology in the understanding of
                           individual as well as group behaviour. It advocates the importance of human
                           values in business. Among those who contributed to behavioural approach,
                           the contribution made by Elton Mayo and his associates found to be more
                           appropriate and interesting. Mayo and his associates conducted a famous study
                           in General Electric Company at Hawthorne between 1927 and 1932. Based on
                           their study to find out the reasons for low productivity, they formulated
                           following principles.
                                 To meet the socio-psychological need workers form informal groups.
                                 This influence their group conduct and behaviour.
                                Mental attitudes and emotions influence considerably employees'
                                behaviour.
                                 Freedom at work to take decision will develop sense of belongingness.
                                 Human and social motivation can play even a greater role than monitory
                                 incentives.

                           5.2.3 Managerial levels and skills
                           The management of a large organization may have different levels. The
                           functions, skills and qualities required by the managers vary with the levels of
                           management. First let us discuss about the levels of management.

                                Levels of Management

                           The levels of management can be broadly divided into three. They are top-
                           level management, middle-level management and low-level management such
                           as supervisors.
                           a)    Top-level management
                                 -   Require an extensive knowledge of management roles and skills.
                                 - They have to be very aware of external factors such as markets.
                                 -   Their decisions are generally of a long-term nature.
                                 -   Their decisions are made using analytic, directive, conceptual and,
                                     or behavioraYparticipative processes.
                                 - They are responsible for strategic decisions.
                                 - They have to chalk out the plan and see that plan may be effective in
                                     the future.
                                 - They are executive in nature.
                           b)    Middle-level management
                                 - Mid-level managers have a specialized understanding of certain
                                     managerial tasks.
                                 - They are responsible for carrying out the decisions made by top-
                                     level management.
c)    Lower-level management                                                            Importance and
                                                                                    Role of Management
      - This level of management ensures that the decisions and plans taken
        by the other two are carried out.
      - Lower-level managers' decisions are generally short-term ones.
     Managerial Skills

To be an effective manager, it is necessary to possess many skills. Different
levels of management in the organizational structure also require different
types of management skills. Generally, managers need to have communication
skills, human skills, computer skills, time-management skills, and technical
skills.

Communication Skills: Communication skills fall into the broad categories of
oral and written skills, both of which managers use in many different ways. It
is necessary for a manager to orally explain processes and give direction to
workers. It is also necessary for managers to give verbal praise to workers.
Managers are also expected to conduct meetings and give talks to groups of
people. They should be good listeners also. Managers are expected to listen to
their supervisors and to their workers. A manager who doesn't listen is not a
good communicator. Managers are also expected to write reports, letters,
memos, and policy statements. Managers must write clearly and concisely.
Good writing requires good grammar and composition skills.

Human Skills: Relating to other people is vital in order to be a good manager.
Workers come in about every temperament that can be imagined. It takes a
manager with the right human skills to manage this variety of workers
effectively. Diversity in the workplace is commonplace. The manager must
understand different personality types and cultures to be able to supervise these
workers.

Computer Skills: It is necessary for managers to have computer skills in order
to keep up with the rapid changes. Many of the processes that occur in offices,
manufacturing plants, warehouses, and other work environments depend on
computers and thus necessitate managers and workers who can skillfully use
the technology.

Time-Management Skills: Because the typical manager is a very busy person,
it is important that time be managed effectively. This requires an understanding
of how to allocate time to different projects and activities. Good time-
management skills can be learned, but managers must be willing to prioritize
activities, delegate, deal with interruptions, organize work, and perform other
acts that will make them better managers.

Technical Skills: Different from computer skills, technical skills are more
closely related to the tasks that are performed by workers. A manager must
know, what the workers who are being supervised are doing on their jobs or
assistance cannot be provided to them. For example, a manager who is
supervising accountant's needs to know the accounting processes; a manager
who is supervising a marketing of agricultural commodities must know the
marketing practices and a manager who supervises the estate must be familiar
with the activities related to plantation.
                                                                                                   11
'rinciples of Plantation
danagernent                 Q) Check Your Progress 1
                            Note: a) Use the space below for writing your answers.
                                   b) Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit.
                            1) Define plantation management.
                                ..................................................................................................................
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                            2) Give at least two principles of F.W. Taylor and Henry Fayol.
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                           5.3 IMPORTANCE OF PLANTATION
                               MANAGEMENT
                           Plantation management principles are the vital part of plantation management.
                           Success of plantation organization depends on effective management of
                           plantation workers and other plantation resources. Gradual increase in overall
                           productivity in plantation operations is the key to the development and
                           prosperity of plantation business in the competitive commodity trade. Only
                           effective application of plantation management principles can provide gradual
                           growth in productivity of all plantation resources. The quality of plantation
                           management will depend on the utilization of its principles in practice.

                           Plantation industry is a unique profession which requires application of
                           management principles. The role of management principles and their
                           importance in~lantation management are discussed in this section.

                           5.3.1 Plantation management - A unique profession
                           Plantation manage&ent mostly has the character of social science, which reflects
                           the main charactedstics of a body of knowledge on plantation management.
                           Plantation manager is a creative personality in-charge of preparing the blend
                           of resources, processing plantation activities and achieving the plantation goals
                           and objectives which was set by top management. It also requires a professional
                           character demanding specialized knowledge, experience and competence in
                           plantation.
12
    Modem plantation management proposes system based contingency approach                      Importance and
    to plantation organizations due to fundamental changes in the plantation                Role of Management
    business environment. This business environment can be classified into two
    separate entities which are called as Internal Business Environment and External
    Business Environment. Organization structure, plantation processes and
    technology adopted in the estate or garden are considered in the internal
    environmental forces. Social, economic, technological, legal and political
    factors are considered in the external environment. Principles, theories and
    concepts of plantation management are highly influenced by internal and
    external environment of the plantation organisation. Situation circumstances
    and environmental factors determine appropriate techniques of plantation
    management. Hence, there are no universal principles for plantation
    management. You must be open and adaptive to the managerial requirement
    of plantation sector.

    5.3.2 Role of management principles in plantations
    If you are a manager of a plantation field, your role and key responsibility will
    be to prepare and implement the plantation organisation's plan to achieve the
    set objectives and goals. Before and during the managerial process, you will
    need to ensure that there is a supportive environment for completing the required
    work. To create this kind of supportive environment, you need a scientific,
    systematic and professional plantation skills. The professional managerial skill
    is acquired while you learn the fundamentals, principles and theories of
    plantation management. It requires the following qualities in you:
         a firm commitment to the work assigned,
         a concern for the human element of subordinates,
         a focus on problem solving to improve the works in the plantation field,
         respect for staff and their abilities, and
         a willingness to improve plantation processes.
*
    You will also need to develop strategies for the organization, continually          .
    motivate people to support managerial process and market change.

    The plantation management principles play a vital role in accomplishing the
    above set goals, acquiring the required managerial skills and qualities for
    plantation field. The management principles also help you to manage your
    authority which enables you to specify and allow you to access the resources
    that are required to accomplish your assigned tasks.

    5.3.3 Importance of plantation management principles
    At all levels of plantation organization teamwork is required for the sustainable
    growth of the estate o r garden.
    Following characteristics tell you the importance of management principles in
    plantation:
         Plantation management principles are the essential input for creating and
         sustaining such good teams.
         Plantation Management principles will help you to raise standards of
         living to the plantation community.                                                               13
Principles of Plantation        It can offer value added life style to plantation labours and executives.
                                It helps the plantation managers for the smooth running of estate.
                                It is a source of powerful innovative thoughts.
                                It is the guide for our effective governance of plantation administration.
                                It can strengthen our viability of our plantation operations.
                           Experts of plantation development have pointed out that even the most modern
                           plantation technology, best input materials, plantation resources and plantation
                           facilities, liberal and cheap finance may not be able to achieve stated plantation
                           objectives (plantation productivity and quality of plantation working life)
                           without effective and efficient application of plantation management principles.
                           The greatest hurdle and the limiting factor for the plantation sector is the quality
                           of plantation management. Professional and Competent managerial personnel,
                           who are really required for the development and recovery of plantation sector,
                           are molded with these fundamental plantation management principles.

                           It may be argued that plantation management represents a relatively small
                           segment of specialized study in management education. But India's plantation
                           sector plays a key role in the national economy. It employs nearly two million
                           people. India is the largest producer of tea in the world. We are the fourth
                           largest producer of natural rubber, and the sixth largest in coffee.
                           Notwithstanding to the above unpleasant fact that the average cost of production
                           of a kilogram of tea is the highest in India compared to those in other countries
                           has to be addressed. The case of faulty, improper or inadequate soil management
                           leading to poor productivity in coconut plantations is perhaps similar. Such
                           issues can be resolved with these plantation management principles also.

                           Widening of the global market and the simultaneous enhancement of production
                           and cost efficiency have to be systematically planned and implemented in view
                           of the potential for generating high income. Plantation operations have to be
                           linked to marketing possibilities. It needs modernization of the plantation sector
                           through professional plantation management education. The plantation
                           management principles will provide new techniques for effective handling of
                           managerial and operational issues in the plantation sector. It also optimizes
                           the full range of environmental, economic and social benefits to the plantation
                           community. The plantation sector in our region has experienced substantial
                           growth in the recent times. But it requires professional plantation managers
                           with substantial knowledge and skill in plantation management principles.
                            @      Check Your Progress 2
                            Note: a) Use the space below for writing your answers.
                                   b) Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit.
                            1) Mention at least two important roles of plantation management.
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                                                                              1
                                                                                        Importance and
    Write two factors which make plantation management important to                 Role of Management
    managers.




5.4 FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT
The functions of management provide a useful structure for organizing
plantation management activities. The functions of management can be
classified as planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. Each
fundamental function of management is influenced by innovation, decision-
making and co-ordination.
                         Functions of management
                                     I




Planning       Organizing         Staff~ng      Leading         Controlling

Let us discuss briefly all the functions of management in detail.

5.4.1 Planning
Planning involves selecting goals and objectives of your activity and setting
the action plans to achieve them which require decision making. The planning
bridges the gap from where you are to where you want to reach. Before the
commencement of the work, you should have a proper plan as to, What is to be
done?, where, when and how it has to be done. Following are some of the
specific characteristics of planning:
     Planning function acts as the foundation for all other functions. For
     instance when you want to recruit labours, you should first plan as to
     how many and what kind of labours you require.
     Planning exists in all levels of management. It is not only the function of
     top-level management, but also people at the bottom level.
     The type of planning may vary according to the time span. It may be long
     term, medium term or short term planning. Top-level managers normally
     do long term planning.
     Planning and controlling functions are inseparable.If you want to control
     your plantation activities, you should first plan the activities.
     The different types of plans are, purpose, objectives, strategies, policies,
     procedures, rules, budgets, etc.
     Failing to plan is as good as planning to fail.
    Principles of Plantation   Planning process undergoes various steps. The step by step process of planning
    Management
                               is listed below:

I
I
I
                                    Being aware of opportunities: in light of technology, market, labour etc.
                                    Setting objectives or goals: where we want to be and when.
                                    Considering planning premises: the environment in which our plans
                                    operate.
                                    Identifying alternatives to accomplish our objectives.
                                    Comparing alternatives in light of goals sought.
                                    Choosing of best alternative.
                                    Formulating supporting plans.
                                    Numberizing plans by making budgets.
                               The planning function is performed by the manager in the plantation field
                               also. He has to plan about number and kind of labour required, wage plan,
                               harvesting methods and post harvesting methods, etc. It also deals with setting
                               of goals or objectives for commodity profit realization, prescribing action plan
                               for it; on the basis of your past and present knowledge, policies, programmes,
                               schedules, procedures, budgets etc., of all planned work. Modify your plans in
                               the light of results and changes in the plantation business environment.

                               5.4.2   Organising
                               Organising is identifying the various activities required for the attainment of
                               goals, and grouping of these activities, delegation of power to various positions
                               to carry out the work and making provision for coordination and control. The
                               main features of the organising function are:
                                    It helps in bringing out clear organisation structure
                                    The reporting relationship among the members of organisation is made
                                    clear,
                                    The duties and responsibilities of every individual in the organisation are
                                    clarified, and
                                    The grouping of activities results in to departmentation.
                               Plantation is the sector which has high number of human employment. That is
                               most of the plantation activities are accomplished by human resource. Hence,
                               the harmony of human efforts towards the achievement of plantation activity
                               is the key for successful plantation management. This functional part of the
                               management is called as Organising. This function defines the roles of people
                               in the plantation organisation and connects them in a systematic way to produce
                               maximum results. This organising process channelises and structures human
                               efforts to make sure that people contribute in a specific way to group effort.
                               The concept of a "role" implies what people do in the plantation.

                               This can be understood in a simple example of rubber sheet making. Everyone
                               could do anything one wanted to do but it would be more effective if people
                               divide the work among them as one person for collecting the milk, another for
                               mixing formic acid, another to look after coagulation, another for rolling of
                               sheets, another for washing and so on.
So, organising in plantation involves structuring of roles for people for making         Importance and
                                                                                     Role of Management
sure that all the tasks necessary to accomplish goals are assigned to people
who can do those best. The purpose of an organisation structure is to help in
creating an environment for human performance and motivations of the people
in the plantation activity. It is a management tool in plantation functions. In
other words, it answers the questions like who is to do what? What is the
authority and under what conditions?

5.4.3 Staffing
Staffing involves identifying the right people in order to fill the positions in
the organization structure which was created in the process of organising
function as discussed above. This is done by identifying the places from where
we can hire people, selecting them, deciding wage structure, giving proper
training, promoting, and appraising. Today identifying the right people for
rubber, tea or coffee plantations has become a major challenge.

5.4.4 Leading
Leading is the ability of the leaderlmanager to influence work force so that
they will contribute willingly and enthusiastically for the achievement of the
organizational goal. So, effective plantation managers also need to be effective
leaders. Always people tend to follow those who are satisfying their own needs,
wishes, and desires.

The Process of motivation of plantation work force depends on workers morale,
willingness to co-operative and the level of team spirit to achieve goals. Work
force participation in plantation management, proper communication to work
force, suitable plantation managerial style, financial and non-financial incentive
offered to the work force are some of the tools for best leadership and
motivation. It has to be seen in the light of control results.

As you are aware, plantation sector is highly people oriented. The success of
plantation management depends mainly on the ability of utilization of the human
resource. Hence, you need high level of leadership quality in order to attain
your plantation goal. Let us understand the concepts in leadership pertaining
to plantation. It is the ability to influence the people in connection with
plantation work relationship in which one person (the leader) influences others
(the led) in a given situation to work together on related plantation tasks to
achieve plantation goals as the leader desires.

5.4.5 Controlling
In controlling, you have to follow-up the assigned work to the worker and
measure the performance of the work force. You also have to check that the
planned work is being properly carried out.'If not you have to apply proper
control measures in order to bring the desired results. For the effective
controlling function, you have to set performance standards against the plans
and measure the actual work performed in the planning period. Then, you
compare the performance standard and work performed. If you find any
deviation in it, then you take corrective actions in order to ensure that the work
is performed as per the plan. Effective controlling makes the realization of
your plans and maximum efficiency.
Q)      Check Your Progress 3
Note: a) Use the space below for writing your answers.
        b) Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit.
             .



1)      Name any three functions of plantation management.
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2)       Discuss the steps in controlling process.
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          Activity 02
          Please visit near by plantation office and collect what are the methods
          used for effective management of plantation operations.
    Inflation is stressing and straining the operation of plantation activity,       Importance and
                                                                                 Role of Management
    Investment in Research and Development will be necessary for the
    survival of plantation sector,
1   Growth of service economy and knowledge society, and
I   Greater concern for human and social values.
Principles of Plantation   Efficiency            :    Achievement of the ends with the least amount
Management
                                                      of resources or accomplishment of objectives
                                                      at the least cost or other unsought consequences.
                           Ethics                :    A system of moral principles or values dealing
                                                      with moral judgment duty, and obligation; the
                                                      discipline concerned with what is good or bad,
                                                      right or wrong.
                           Feedback              :    An informational input in a system transmitting
                                                      messages of system operation to indicate whether
                                                      the system is operating as planned; information
                                                      concerning any type of planned operation relayed
                                                      to the responsible person for evaluation.
                           Management            :    The process of designing and maintaining an
                                                      environment in which individuals work together
                                                      in groupsto accomplish efficiently selected aims.
                           Objectives or Goals   :    The ends toward which activity is aimed- the
                                                      end points of planning.
                           Operations Research   :    The application of scientific method in a
                                                      problem situation with a view to providing a
                                                      quantitative basis for arriving at an optimum
                                                      solution in terms of the goals sought.
                           Organisation          :    A concept used in a way such as system of any
                                                      set of relationships in any kind of undertaking,
                                                      cooperation of two or more persons, or a group,
                                                      and the intentional structure of roles in a
                                                      formally organised enterprise.
                           Organising            :    Establishing an intentional structure of roles for
                                                      people to fill in an organisation.
                           Planning              :     Selecting missi'ons and objectives and the
                                                      strategies, policies, programmes and procedures
                                                      for achieving them; decision making;the selection
                                                      of a course of action from among alternatives.
                           Principles            :     Fundainental truths, or what are believed to be
                                                      truths at given time, explaining relationships
                                                      between two or more sets of variables, usually
                                                      an independentvariableand a dependent variable;
                                                      may be descriptive, expl&ning what will happen,
                                                      or prescriptive (or normative), indicating what a
                                                      person should do: in the latter case, principles
                                                      reflect some scale of values, such as efficiency,
                                                       and therefor<, imply value judgments.
                           Productivity          :     The output-input ratio within a time period with
                                                       due consideration for quality.
                           Social Responsiveness :.    The ability of an enterprise to relate policies and
                                                       operations to the environment that is beneficial
                                                       to both the organisation and the society.
                           Strategy              :    The determination of the purpose (or mission) and
                                                      the basic long-term objectives of an enterprise, and   .
                                                      the adoption of courses of action and allocation of
 !O                                                   resources necessary to achieve these aims.
                                                                                            Importance and
I   CHECK YOUR PROGRESS: POSSIBLE ANSWERS .                                             Role of Management


1   Check Your Progress 1
         Definition: Plantation Management is a unique continuous process (group
    1)
         of inter-related and integrated activities) involving plant growth, pest, 1
         disease and nutrient maintenance, irrigation, weeding, pre and post harvest
         activities, labour management, office administration, assembling and
         marketing of plantation produce etc., by utilizing the available resources
         through a set of managerial functions in order to accomplish set plantation
         goals or objectives.
    2)   F.W.Taylor's Principles of Scientific Management:
            Dividing the planning function and doing function
            Scientific selection and training of workers
         Henry Fayol's Principles of Management
            Equity
            Esprit de corps
    Check Your Progress 2
    1)   The Plantation management principles play a vital role in accomplishing
         the set goals of the organisation, acquiring the required managerial skills
         and qualities for plantation field.
         The Plantation management principles also help you to manage the
         authorization of work, which enables you to specify and allow you to
         access the resources that are required to accomplish your assigned tasks.
    2)   Plantation Management will raise standards of living to the plantation
         community and can offer value added life style to plantation labours and
         executives.
         It helps the plantation managers for the smooth running of estate or garden.
         It is a source of powerful innovative thoughts.
    Check Your Progress 3
    I) Planning, Organising, Staffing, etc.
    2) Set performance standards,plans and measures the actual work performed
        and compare the performance standard and work performed.
    SUGGESTED READINGS
    Burton, Gene and Manab Thakur, (2007) "Mamgement Today - Principles
    and Practice ", 1" Edition, Tata McGraw Hill.
    Govindarajan, M. and S. Natarajan, (2007) "Principles of Management",lst
    Edition, Prentice-Hall of India.
    Tripathy, P.C. and P.N. Reddy, (2006) "Principles o Management", 31d
                                                       f
    Edition, Tata Mc Graw Hill.
    Koontz, Harold and Beizz Weihrich, (2007) "Essentials o Management, 7&
                                                           f
    Edition, Tata Mc Graw Hill.
    Weihrich, Heinz and Harold Koontz, (2004) "Management           - A Global
    Perspective ", 11th Edition, McGraw- hill.
                                                                                                       2

				
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