Bias Worksheet in Science Name Kristina Szalay

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Bias Worksheet in Science Name Kristina Szalay Powered By Docstoc
					Name: Kristina Szalay                                         Date: April 2, 2007

                                        Dr. Vicki L. Cohen

                        SCIENCE PROCESSES WORKSHEET
  Based on Martin, Elementary Science Methods; A Constructivist Approach (Fourth Edition)

1.What is the scientific method? Is there a "right way" to do science? What is science and how
do scientists do science? (page 16, 17)
      *The scientific method is a body of techniques used for investigation and acquiring new
  knowledge. It is based on gathering observable, empirical, measurable evidence, subject to
  specific principles of reasoning.
        *There is no right way of doing science. Scientists need to identify and control variables
  they believe may contribute to an effect. They need to collect data and interpret this data
  through reasoning. They must also communicate the results.
        *Science is the process of obtaining and verifying knowledge. Scientists do science
  through the processes of science. They do science through careful and appropriate application
  of the scientific processes to questions that were generated as a result of wondering about

Define each of the scientific processes listed below and give an example of an activity that can
be used in a science lesson. Please use your own examples and not ones from the book.

Observing (p.69):
*It is the act of using all of our senses to investigate and gather information. Observation is the
essence of all science. Observation determines the procedures and the outcome of any scientific
inquiry. Observation is not only the expected things but also the unexpected things.
*An activity I have done in the classroom I am in requires students, as a group, to fill a cup with
water and accurately label the cup with ticks in ML. These cups then sit on the window sill for
one week and each day students observe how much water has evaporated.

Classifying (p.82):
*Classifying is the process of taking numerous items and then placing them into groups
according to the characteristics one would group them as. This is a skill needed by children to
put together facts to form concepts and is essential in identifying variables as children form
hypotheses and design.
*An activity for this process would be to have students write down their favorite animal and then
have them, in groups, classify these animals and give each classification a name/title.
Communicating (p.96)
*Communication is the way people express their thoughts and feelings and how they verbally
state them. Communication does not only qualify verbal language, it is also non-verbal language
as well. In fact, non-verbal language counts for more expression then verbal.
*Almost every activity includes communication. Whether it is working within a group and telling
your group members the information you have compiled or working independently and writing
the information in a report or verbally presenting it to the class. Communication is always
happening both in the class and out.

Measuring (p.101):
*Measuring consists of the following: length, volume, weight/mass, temperature, and time. These
measurements are calculated in terms of inches, feet, grams, pounds, speed, degree, etc.
Measurement is also when you estimate or determine the extent, dimension, or capacity, usually
in relation a unit of measurement.
*An activity for measuring would be to have 2 gallon size bowls. Pour a gallon of water into the
one bowl and have students measure how many 16.9fl oz. bottles it takes to fill the other gallon
bowl. This is also an integration of math!

Predicting (p.106):
*Prediction is a person’s best educated guess at something that will happen in the future.
Prediction is necessary and should be encouraged for students to do before conducting an
*An activity for prediction would be to show students a chart/timeline of the data history of
hurricanes and encourage them to make predictions about future hurricanes.

Inferring (p.122):
*Inference is a person’s best educated guess as to why something happened. This is when we
have to guess what caused an effect. This guess is not just a guess; it is based on any and all
evidence present.
*An Activity for this would be for students to have 2 plants; one watered with water and the
other watered with lemon or vinegar. Students will then have to infer why the plant with lemon
or vinegar died.
Define each of the integrated scientific processes listed below and give an example of an activity
that can be used in a science lesson. Please use your own example and not from the book.

Identifying and Controlling Variables (p.137):
*Identifying and controlling variables is when we make sure that the variable we think caused an
effect actually did cause the effect and it wasn’t done by some other variable.
*An activity for this would be to have students slide a toy car down a slope and determine what
is causing the car to not roll down the slope as quickly as it should. What are the possible
variables involved causing the car to not slide as quickly as it should?

Formulating and Testing Hypotheses (p.142):
*Formulating and Testing Hypotheses is when you try to figure out what would happen to an
experiment if you changed the variables involved.
*An activity for this would be to do a volcano eruption experiment. Rather ten using the
necessary vinegar in order for the volcano to erupt, there will be water replacing the vinegar.
Students will then have to figure out why the volcano wouldn’t erupt based on changing the one
variable; vinegar.

Interpreting Data (p.150):
*When we interpret data we decide what data we want to get. Then once it is in a form that you
can read, look at the numbers involved to see what the numbers say. Then if you wanted, you
should analyze the data. This data, in order to best interpret it, should be in the form of graphs
and charts. The main idea behind interpreting data is to find exactly what you are looking for in
the data.
*An activity for this would be to give groups of students a bowl of chex mix and ask them to
separate the chex mix according to the types of mix that re in the bowl. They must give the each
type a name, tell how many of each they have in their bowl, and put these recordings into the
form of a graph.

Defining Operationally (p.158):
*This is when there is a variable that cannot be measured or seen easily in terms that everyone
understands in the same way. This is when you find alternate, but equivalent ways of measuring
something that can’t be measured directly.
*An activity for this would be taking each other’s pulse. When a person is in cardiac arrest
his/her pulse is taken for 15 seconds and then multiplied by 4. This is done to get the best
estimate of one’s pulse and it is done in cases like this where time is an essence. Waiting 60
seconds to take a person’s pulse is not convenient and therefore taking the average of 15 seconds
Experimenting (p. 1 6 2)
*This is when someone explores the effect a change in one variable has on the change in a
different interacting variable.
*An activity/experiment would be if you take a block of hot water and place it over a block of
cold water, then after a period of time the temperature of both blocks are equal due to heat

Constructing Models (p.166):
*Constructing Models are concrete representations of things that we can’t readily see. This does
not replicate something that we can see or downsize an object that we can readily see.

4. What does the constructivist believe? (p 180) What is the primary job of the teacher in a
constructivist approach? (p. 182)
*Constructivist believe that the information you are learning is being built upon and connected
to information that you already know. Students are encouraged to make connections with the
new information being learned. The primary job of the teacher in a constructivist approach is to
“include the widest breadth of experiences possible; to provide a rich experiential base for
children as they process their disequilibrations through assimilation and accommodation.”

5. Why are prior beliefs so important in science? How can they interfere with learning? When
does conceptual change take place? (p. 182)
*Prior beliefs are important in science because studies show that when students are able to make
connections with information that is already learned, the new information is easily and quickly
learned. This information is now given meaning. In the constructivist class students are
encouraged to make connections with prior knowledge so that schemata construction alone
doesn’t happen.
*Prior beliefs can interfere with learning in the respect that if a student does not have prior
knowledge one must either take the prior knowledge and expand upon it or somehow make a
connection with previous knowledge. This issue of a lack of previous knowledge can often hinder
the thought process especially when a student is dependent on this connection.
*Conceptual change takes place when “a scheme instead of producing the expected result, leads
to perturbation, and perturbation, in turn, leads to accommodation that establishes a new
6. Do you think there is gender bias in science education? What does your book say about it?
How can you avoid it? (280)
*Yes I believe there is a gender bias in science. The book states that through the primary
elementary grades boys have more access to science materials and opportunities to manipulate
it. Over the last few decades the growing number of girls enrolled in HS science programs and
majors in college have grown but in the end boys are still more likely to get a science degree. It
is also true that I have seen more doctors, astronauts, and scientists that are men.
*It is important for teachers to encourage and involve girls to participate and take part in
science activities, clubs, classes, etc. It also means giving the same opportunities for activities,
demonstrations, assistants, and recognition for a job well done. Teachers must always remember
to examine his or her own beliefs to determine whether there is a gender bias within one’s self.

7. How can teachers help English language learners with science? Give a few strategies teachers
can use in the classroom. (283)
*Teachers can help ELL with science by maintaining the same positive attitude towards those
learners as you would for the rest of your class. Also your teaching environment must be
encouraging, positive, and one with no anxiety to learn. Use basic processes. The more basic the
less confusing and complications ELL will have. Teachers should also try using concept maps
and other visual tools to steer away from massive quantities of text.
*A few strategies teachers can employ are:
             Consistency
             Multiple Intelligences
             Use engaging lessons
             Allow ELL to answer and participate in their own language
             Cooperative learning

8. Study Figure 7.1 on page 300-302 and Figures 7.3-7.5 on pages 305-307. Develop 5 stations
that assess 5 different process skills, modeled after Figure 7.3.
*Station #1: Evaporation of water in cups
     Activity: Determine the evaporation rate of water in cups.
        Process: Observing

Station #2: Tri-color mass/volume experiment
     Activity: Measure red or blue food coloring or corn oil to determine which has more
        Process: Measuring
Station #3: A collection of approx. 50 buttons
     Activity: Group the buttons and give a name or title for each of the groups.
        Process: Classifying

Station #4: Punxsutawney Phil's past Groundhog Day happenings
     Activity: Predict whether Punxsutawney Phil will see his shadow next year based on
        previous reports.
        Process: Prediction

Station #5: A drawn picture
     Activity: Tell what a classmate has drawn based upon his/her verbal description of the
        Process: Inferring
9. After reading the section on safety in the elementary science classroom on p. 348, list at least
5 rules you would have as an elementary teacher teaching hands-on science.
*If I was an elementary teacher teaching hands on science lesson my rules for the class would
     Conduct yourself in a responsible manner at all times in the laboratory.
     Safety goggles and aprons must be worn whenever you work in lab. Gloves should be
        worn whenever you use chemicals that cause skin irritations or need to handle hot
        equipment. Wear older clothes that cover the maximum amount of skin.
     Be alert and proceed with caution at all times in the laboratory. Notify the instructor
        immediately of any unsafe conditions you observe.
     Work areas should be kept clean and tidy at all times. Bring only your laboratory
        instructions, worksheets, and/or reports to the work area.
     Do not bring any drinks and/or food into the laboratory. There is NO eating and drinking.

10. Do you like science? Why or why not? What is your philosophy of science? How can
literacy be promoted through science? Write a brief paragraph or develop a concept map
answering these questions.
*Yes, I like science. I like it because I am very interested in some science areas such as the solar system. I
am also a bodily kinesthetic learner, and for me, I need to do hands on projects in order to enhance my
personal learning. These hands on projects/activities can be found greatly in science. A combination of
enjoyment and hands on activities allows me to truly enjoy science. Literacy can be promoted through
textbook readings, research assignments, research reports, lab reports, etc.

*My philosophy of science is attached*

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