Beef Production and Management by raq19807

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									          BEEF QUALITY ASSURANCE AND PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT
                    MONITORING IN THE PACKING HOUSE
                                       DEE GRIFFIN, DVM, MS
                  University of Nebraska, Great Plains Veterinary Educational Center

Table of Contents:

      Etiquette, manners and safety          ……………………………………………….. page 1

      What to know before you go to the packing plant ………………………..… page 1

      Equipment ………………………………………………………………………….. page 1

      Know your objectives …………………………………………………………….. page 2

      Mapping the plant …………………………………………………………………. page 3

      The Report ………………………………………………………………………….. page4

      Appendix:

      Inspection data collections forms ………………………………………                                page 6 & 7

      Inspection report form and inspection glossary ……………………..                        page 8-11

      Non-performing (Cull) data collection form …………………………… page                             12

      Understanding Common USDA-FSIS Condemnation Definitions ……..                     page 13-14

      A note about scoring lungs ……………………………………………….                                   page    15

      Lung Lesion Scoring Form …………….………………………………….                                    page    16

      Lung Lesion Photo Example …………..………………………………….                                   page    17

      4-S’s (Safety of self, animal, food and everyone else ……………….                    page    18
        BEEF QUALITY ASSURANCE AND PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT
                      MONITORING IN THE PACKING HOUSE
                                            DEE GRIFFIN, DVM, MS
                       University of Nebraska, Great Plains Veterinary Educational Center

Many approaches can be taken to monitor the disease status of herds. Inspection at packing houses performed
routinely on selected animals has long been an important addition to health monitoring in swine and poultry.
Prior to 1980 routine beef cattle inspections were typically limited to monitoring liver abscesses. This paper
describes the technique of conducting a routine health management inspection in a modern packing plant. This
technique, gathering information in a packing plant, has evolved over the past decade.

ROUTINE INSPECTION OF CATTLE FROM FEEDLOTS
It is crucial to the success of your inspection to establish a working relationship with the packing plant
management and personnel before trying to conduct a packing plant inspection. The management and
personnel should be expecting you on the day of an inspection. They should know what you want to
accomplish, and what information, data, and/or samples you are interested in collecting. If you and the packing
plant supervisors are not prepared for your objectives, your presence can jeopardize worker safety in a modern
packing houses processing over 300 finish fed cattle an hour. The "3 S's": Safety is your most important
objective: safety for your self, safety of the workers and safety of the product. Remember you are
working with food, and cleanliness in a packing plant is the most important mission packers face
everyday.. don’t screw it up. No gum, tobacco, jewelry, etc. CROSS CONTAMINATION MUST BE
PREVENTED… I recommend taking three coats/coveralls and changing as you move from ear tags to offal
table to rail-out area. If you have any questions about how to conduct your activities, DON’T start until you visit
with a supervisor (typically wearing a green hard hat).

One other important first thought: confidentiality is must be absolute. There is no faster way to lose the trust of
packers and producers.

It is important for the USDA-FSIS Veterinary Medical Officer (VMO) and his inspectors to be familiar with your
activities. If your activities interfere with the proper inspection of animals or cause contamination of animals,
you will not only lose your welcome in the plant, but you may be held liable for the product loss.

Establish a list of objectives for each set of cattle inspected. These will be influenced by the presenting history.

Standard pre-packer processing information:

        What is the description of the cattle?
        How many cattle will be involved in the inspection?
        From where did the cattle come?
        What was their background prior to feedlot placement?
        What is the history of performance in the feedlot?
        What is the history of problems in the feedlot?

If is useful to examine the cattle as a group and their records prior to presentation at the packing house. This
pre-processing examination allows you to formulate a specific approach to gathering the information you need.
It also allows you to have specific treatment information on individual animals you may need to look at, or
information you may feel is important to share with the VMO.


Standard equipment needed to conduct a packing house inspection.

Approved white hard hat (hard hat colors have meaning.. don't pick your school colors), hearing protection,
safety glasses, clean approved steel toed boots, multiple layers of clean protective clothing (remove outer layer
as you move to cleaner areas in plant), data collection forms/note pad, stopwatch, sample bags & marker.

Taking a knife in the plant is not recommended but if you do you must get approval from the plant and have the
appropriate safety equipment (approved protective glove, arm protection, and sheath).


                                                          1
Standard packing house inspection objectives:
        Variation in animal frame size.....……..percent +/- 25 cm

        Identification tags........…………………inspection verification

        Implant retention..................…………..rate

        Implanting technique assessment.......rate

        Hide defects (mud and brands).......…rate, location, & severity

        Carcass bruising...................………...rate, location, age, & severity

        Carcass contamination from hides.....rate

        Variation in carcass finish......………..estimated +/- one yield grade

        Abdominal adhesions................……...rate, etiology, and severity

        Liver abnormalities................………….rate, etiology and severity

        Lung abnormalities.................………….rate, etiology, and severity

        Heart abnormalities................………….rate and etiology

        Large/small intestinal abnormalities…..rate

        Rumen abnormalities................……….rate, etiology, and severity

        Abomasal abnormalities.............……...rate, etiology, and severity

        Reproductive abnormalities........……...pregnancy staging and rate

        Kidney abnormalities...............………..rate, etiology and severity

        Carcass trim caused by adhesions......severity

        Carcass trim caused by injections...…rate, location, severity

        Carcass retention...................………...rate

This list of objectives follows the order in which observations can be made as the animals progress through the
packing plant.




                                                          2
KNOW YOUR OBJECTIVES
It is important to understand that cattle move past an inspection location at the approximate rate of five animals
per minute and the typical processing line holds less than 150 animals. When inspecting a group of 150
animals, the first animal processed will be in the cooler before the last animal enters the processing line. At
certain inspection locations it will be possible to gather information on only a portion of the animals being
processed. Based on your pre-processing examination and evaluation of the cattle, you should be able to
prioritize the appropriate objectives. While you will be able to collect data on all of the listed objectives, targeting
specific objectives based of the clinical history is important.

Before you can establish the number of observations to be taken associated with each objective, you must
estimate the rate of occurrence of each defect you expect to find. If the incidence rate of the defect you are
recording is low you will be required to take more observations to accurately evaluate the occurrence. Analysis
of your observations should consider animals do not come through the processing line in random order.

For general quality assurance inspections it is best to follow the first 30 to 60 animals from beginning to end of
processing. This allows an overview of all possible defect areas. With the exception of implants and hide
defects you can back track and make extended observations of other areas where quality defects may have
been noted.


MAP THE CHAIN SPEED AND INSPECTION LOCATIONS IN A PACKING PLANT

It is important to know exactly where your inspection locations will be in a plant, exactly how many animals are
between inspection locations and exactly how long it will take an animal to get from one location to another. To
collect data on specific targeted objectives you must know exactly where each animal will be in the packing
plant during processing.

It is even more important to know where to stand and how to stay out of the way of inspectors and packing
plant workers. It is in your best interest to get to the packing plant one to two hours early. You will have time to
establish the proper inspection locations and note how to avoid interfering with inspectors or plant workers. You
may also benefit if the packing house schedule changes. It is not uncommon for packing plants to change the
processing order on groups of cattle, but seldom will they move the processing time up more than two hours.
By being early you are less likely to miss the cattle you need to observe.

You can accurately determine the rate cattle are being processed (chain speed) by using your stopwatch. For
example, the plant maybe processing an average of 270 animals per hour (4.5/minute), but if they are
processing 280 animal per hour (4.7/minute) during the time you are inspecting you could miss important
information because you overestimated the time you would have between inspecting implants and inspecting
lungs. You must know how many animals will be on the rail between inspection locations, and how long it takes
for an animal to get from one location to another. For example, if 23 animals will be on the rail between the
location you inspect lungs and the location you inspect larynxes, being off by 0.1 animals per minute could
cause you to miss an important observation by six seconds.

Having made your plant speed and location map, and knowing the number of cattle in the group you are to
inspect, you can establish how many animals you have time to observe at each location. Start your stopwatch
when you begin inspecting, record the number of defects, and calculate the rate of defects based on the
observed defects per time. For example, if the chain is moving 5.2 animals per minute past you and you
observe 5 implants abscessed in 12 minutes the rate would be [5/(5.2*12)] or [5/62.4] 8 percent. During an
inspection you only need to record the defects per location and the time at the location.

If you are organized and have some experience, there are many objectives you can collect data on at the same
time. For example, variation in frame size, implant technique, implant retention, and verification of animal
identification can be collected at the same time. By getting to the packing plant early you can establish which
objectives you can group at each location.

Additionally, the USDA-FSIS inspectors keep track of selected defects. For example, the USDA-FSIS
inspectors count liver defects. If critical evaluation of the severity of liver abscess is not of concern, recording
the beginning and ending liver abscess count on the cattle you are inspecting will provide you with the liver
abscess rate for the cattle you inspected.


                                                           3
(A form for collecting observation is included in the appendix.)


THE REPORT
It is very important to remember, the data belongs to the packing house, however most packers do not want
copies of the data collected. They are concerned that the information is held in strict confidence. It is the
packers good will and interest in improving the quality of product produced by the industry that allows access to
animals as they are processed.

It is best for your next call to be to the feedlot from which the cattle came and have a conference with the
manager to discuss your findings.
An example of a typical report is included in the appendix. All data is summarized on the first page. This is the
data that will be included in the feedlots data base. Comparative data from other cattle collected during the
same time period can be included, (BASELINE DATA). Additional discussion detailing the analysis for each
objective follows the summarized data.

Feedlot managers find this portion useful in their discussions with cattle owners.
(a copy of the report form and explanation in included in the appendix)


PUTTING INSPECTION RESULTS TO WORK

Using the inspection technique described, and analyzing the reports allows adjustment in management to
improve carcass quality/decrease carcass defects, and properly assess sub-clinical disease.. The most
dramatic of these is specifically locating carcass bruises and adjusting animal handling to control this costly
problem. Validation of disease occurrence allows focused management on specific problems.


NON-PERFORMING CATTLE / CULLS

Populations of “Non-performing” cattle, cattle that do not gain weight at a rate similar to their pen mates, and
“Normal-performing” cattle must be evaluated separated. Because the industry is paid for most non-performers
based on the animal’s grade, yield, and final weight taken from the carcass rail following inspection, the terms
“grade and yield” or “railers” are frequently applied to information gathered on non-performing feedlot cattle.

The information from these two populations of cattle typically comes from two different sources. Most large
packing plants are designed to process 300 animals per hour and are not capable of humanely handling cattle
that weigh less than 500 lbs. Non-performing feedlot cattle frequently fit this constraint and are processed by
smaller packers that have more flexibility in the size animal it processes. Additionally, non-performing feedlot
cattle frequently have scars from a previous disease. These scars require more time to properly trim the
carcass before it can be considered acceptable for marketing. Larger packing plants do not have time to devote
to properly handle this class of cattle.

It is very important to check the production and health record of the non-performing animals to insure all with
drawal times have been met before sending them to a packer. Check urine sample for antibiotics is an
excellent practice.

The form used for non-performing cattle is included in the appendix.




                                                         4
FINAL THOUGHTS

The confidence gained gathering useful information from packing house inspections of beef cattle was vital to
the development of the first “Verified Production Control” program certified by the USDA-FSIS.

The packing houses involved in the early surveys were not fabricating carcasses. The identification of
additional product loss associated with injection site damage in the population of normal-performing animals
that has been identified since 1988. The awareness of this problem is in part due to the increase number of
modern packing houses fabricating carcasses into wholesale cuts, “boxed beef” .This problem points out the
value consulting feedlot veterinarians may serve to their feedlots and the beef feeding industry by establishing
inspection protocols appropriate to the fabrication process.

Monitoring cattle at packing plants is extremely useful, not only to the feedlot, but the practicing veterinarian
and nutritionist. It is the best way to identify sub-clinical disease, both infectious and management, assess
health performance, and monitor beef quality. Routine inspections provide useful information to the feedlot from
which management decisions can be improved. It also provide the veterinarian with information which is useful
helping improve disease management. Total Quality Management seems a popular phrase in the 90’s .Few
veterinary techniques will allow you to participate any better than packing plant inspections of cattle.

Don’t forget the basics: Safety, Safety and Safety. Your are working with food. Don’t contaminate or cross
contaminate … I recommend taking three coats/coveralls and changing as you move from ear tags to offal
table to rail-out area. If you have any questions about how to conduct your activities, DON’T start until you visit
with a supervisor (typically wearing a yellow or green hard hat).




                                                         5
     PACKER INSPECTION FORM (Finish Feeding) (CHECK THE RAIL OUTS)

Plant: _____________ Date:____________ FL:_________________ Lot#:________
 Chain sp:___.__/M,            _____.__/6M                                 ______ /hr
 Unique’s                   Id & # _____/______                Line-up # _________
 IN PIT
 #______                    Start time:
 HIDE:DIRT = +1to+3
 +1=difuse, +3=strip                              ----------------
 BRANDS (Rump/Colo-rib)      R:                           / C:
 IMPLANT(M,B,A) L/R             M                         /B                    /A
 VFS / MUS (1-3: avg+var)                       ----------------
 #_____ & eta _____         time:         VFS_____ MUS (avg_____: var________)
 TRAC’ / TngHair / AGE                            /                         /
 #_____ & eta _____         time:
                                          L                              R
 BRUS’ (F,B,S) L/R          F:                             /
                            B:                             /
 VCF / VCM                  S:                               /
 #_____ & eta _____         Time:             VCF_____ VCM (1-3)
 LUNG A / G / P / F-O / E            A (ln) | G (cc) | P (adh) | F-Other | E
   +1 = <1%, (< ½ sm lobe)   +1             |             |            |           |
   +2 = 1-5%, (½-1 sm lobe)  +2             |             |            |           |
   +3 = > 5%, (> 1 sm lobe)  +3             |              |           |           |
   Missing = +3
  #_____ & eta _____        time:                       m=_____
HEART’
KIDNEY’ WhiteSpots (WS)                                 |
       Nephritis (N)        WS                          | N
#_____ & eta _____                                      |
ABOMAS’                     ULS:
#_____ & eta _____          PARA:
RUMEN’                      Scars:
#_____ & eta _____          Fungus:
PREG’                       #:
#_____ & eta _____          est wt:

#__ L ABS (pre)____         Trims:                      Cont:
#__ L DIS (pre)____
#__ L TEL (pre)____
#__ L PAR (pre)____
#__ L CAR (pre)____
#__ L CIR (pre)____
#__ MISC (pre)____

                            (CHECK THE RAIL OUTS!!!)


                                         6
    PACKER INSPECTION FORM (Non-Fed Culls) (CHECK THE RAIL OUTS)

 Plant: _______________ Date:____________ FL:_____________ Lot#:________
Chain sp:___.__/M,          _____.__/6M                     ______ /hr
Unique ID’s              Id & # _____/______ Line-up # _________
IN PIT #______           Start time:
HIDE:DIRT = +1 to +3
                                                            ----------------------------------------------
BRANDS (Rump/Colo)                                /
FEET: Lami, Pod, Sole         (L)       /         (P)         /                                                     (S)               /
EYES (1-2-3) L/R              (1)       /         (2)         /                                                     (3)              /
JAWS L/R                                     ----------------
#_____ & eta _____       time:          JAWS (L)                                                             ®
MAST: +1 to +3              (1)         /         (2)         /                                                     (3)              /
Tongue / AGE                                          /
#_____ & eta _____       time:
Joints: +1 to +3            (1)         /               (2)                  /                                      (3)              /
Condition Score:         (<2):              (2-4):                      (4->6):                                      (<6):
BRUS’(F,B,S) L/R         (F):       /                (B):                  /                                     (S):                /

                         (Mus 1-3)    1:                                        2:                                              3:
VCF (Mus & Fat (Y- W))   (Fat color: Y-W:                                        /                                          /
#_____ & eta _____       time:
                                  A : CC                :                   P                 :              FO         :        E
LUNG=A/G/P/FO/E
                                            /           /                                      /                    /

#_____ & eta _____       time:                                         m=_____
HEART’
PREG UT PATH:            #:         est wt:

#_                       Ov:                          Met:                                                       Adh:
____ & eta _____
KIDNEY’ ( ws / n )       ws                                                /n
ABOMASUM                 ULS:                                              PARA:
RUMEN'#____ & eta        Scars:                                                 Fungus:
_____
NEOPLASM
CONDEM: E, P, S, N____   E:         P:                 S:                                           N:                          O:
#__ L ABS (pre)____      Trims:                                        Cont:
#__ L DIS (pre)____
#__ L TEL (pre)____
#__ L PAR (pre)____
#__ L CAR (pre)____
#__ L CIR (pre)____
#__ MISC (pre)____
                          (CHECK THE RAIL OUTS!!!)




                                            7
THE REPORT

        Quality and Production Control Monitoring Inspection
        To:                                        From:    Dee Griffin
                                                            NU-GPVEC
                                                            PO Box 187
                                                            Clay Center, NE 68933
                                                            402-762-4500

Date:            ID #:                   #Cattle:          Sex:         Packer:


              INSPECTION RESULTS: PERCENT OF CATTLE OBSERVED
      (The numbers in parenthesis are the total number of cattle from the group examined.)
  Quality or Production Control Points Monitored        Percent # Observed Interpretation
Hide Defects (HIDE)                                                 No brands,
(Brand, Mud, and External Parasites)                                  clean
Implant Defects (IMPLANT)
(missing, bunched, cartilage embedded, abscessed)          5% Abs      (60),
Frame Size Variation (FSV)
                                                           15-20%      (60)
Carcass Finish Variation (CFV)
                                                            10%        (60)
Bruising (BRUISE)
                                                            0%          (60)
Injection Trim and Location (INJ-TRIM)                               Skimmed
                                                            0%       All Cattle
Tracheal & Tongue defects / Est.Age (TRAC-TNG)
                                                            0%         (40)
Lung defects (LUNG)
(active, adhesions/collapsed/consolidated/parasites)        10%        (40)
Heart lesions (HEART)
                                                            5%         (40)
Liver abscesses (LIV-AB)
(Total and Severe)                                          13%        (102)
Liver Flukes (LIV-FLU)
                                                            7%         (102)
Adhesions of the intestines or abdomen (ADHES)
                                                            4%         (102)
Kidney Defects (KIDNEY)
                                                            5%         (40)
Rumen lesions from previous acidosis (ACID)
                                                           less <      (20)
                                                            10%
Parasites in the abomasum (PARASITE)                                 25% (4)
                                                            25%
Pregnancies (PREG)                                                      ----



                                               8
Observations were made for hide defects from brands, mud and external parasites. Brands
will typically decrease the hide value by 10 to 15 dollars per CWT of hide weight. The
average feedlot finish cattle hide weights approximately 60pounds(+/- 10 lbs). Rump
brands cause far less damage to hide value than rib brands. Multiple brands cause
maximal loss in hide value. Mud can not only lower the value of a hide, but all less of mud
on hides make it more difficult for packers to remove the hide without contaminating the
carcass. Mud scores are recorded from 0 to 3 in this quality control inspection. Mud 0
indicates no mud damage to the hide. Mud 1 indicates fresh mud clinging to the legs and
underside if the abdomen. Much of the mud on a Mud 1 score could be washed off. Mud 1
does not cause severe hide damage, but may play a role in carcass contamination. Mud 2
indicates chronic mud on the legs and lower abdomen. The mud on Mud 2 scores typically
forms various size ball which tightly adhere to the hair. Mud 2 scores represent some hide
damage. Mud 3 indicates chronic mud which extends to the side of the cattle. The
extensive number of tightly adhered mud balls cause significant loss in hide value in the
range of five to eight dollars per CWT of hide weight. External parasite (lice and grubs) can
cause five to 20 dollars loss per CWT of hide weight.

Implants (absorbed, missing, abscessed, bunched, or embedded in cartilage) were
checked. Of the many implant defects that may be observed, abscessing is the only defect
that my data indicates a performance loss. With the exception of the silicone based
implants, missing implants at the packing plant may indicate total implant absorption. If a
missing observation is made in cattle implanted less than 100 days it is likely the implant
was not placed in the ear. Bunching and implant pellet skips are the most common defect
observed. There is no data that suggests bunching or pellet skips are costly defect unless
associated with more abscess formation.

Frame size variation (FSV) can be due to size sorting, genetic differences, and differences
in animal performance caused by disease. FSV will correspond to problems with uniform
quality and yield grading scores from the packer.

Carcass finish variation (CFV) is most often associated with genetic differences in cattle and
the number observed would be approximately the number of FSV. CFV can be associated
with animals sorting their ration. Animals that do not feel well may be more inclined to sort
rations.

The location of bruising on a carcass can be used to evaluate handling facilities and
handling techniques. The flanks, back and shoulder were monitored for bruising. Flank
bruising is the most costly in terms of pounds of carcass trim and value of trim. Severe
flank bruises can cost 15 to 25 pounds of trim. Occasionally, severe flank bruises extend
into the loin and cause extreme devaluation of the carcass. Back bruises seldom cause
more than two pounds of trim. On rare occasions back bruises can extend into the loin and
cause carcass devaluation. Shoulder bruises may cause two to four pounds of trim.
Severe generalized bruising on individual cattle frequently is linked to the animal going
down during shipping.




Injections given intramuscularly (IM) can cause extensive trim during fabrication. Research
proves ALL IM injections will decrease the tenderness of the beef cut. Trim caused by
                                              9
subcutaneous (SQ) injections was monitored. Some trim from SQ injections is common,
but the trim is seldom extensive. It will remain important to continue to use only the neck
region injections, avoiding the hind quarters if at all possible. Continue the use of
subcutaneous injections for all animal health products when allowed by the F.D.A &
U.S.D.A.. approved labels. It is important to continue to use ONLY SUB Q CLOSTRIDIAL
VACCINES.

Observations were made for tracheal lesions caused by viral and bacterial infections. If
lesions are found the quality, handling or administration of the viral vaccines used in the
cattle should be investigated. Chronic tongue lesions are found in 3 to 5 percent of all fed
cattle. These lesions are frequently called Hair Sores because hair can be found in the
lesion. Presently the cause of these lesions has not been determined. Tongues with
lesions must be trimmed which lowers the value of the tongue two to three dollars. An
estimate of the age of the cattle is made using the eruption of the first two incisors and three
molars.

Five lung lesions are monitored; 1) Active, 2) Adhesions/Missing, 2)
Collapsed/Consolidated, 4) Fibrosis/Healed, and 5) Parasite. There are very few occasions
in which lung lesions cause condemnation of lung tissue. Active lesions as judged by
changes in the respiratory associated lymph nodes, can cause carcasses to be railed off for
additional USDA inspection and potential carcass condemnation. Active lesions are always
associated with a significant loss (greater than one pound ADG) in gain performance at the
feedyard. Adhesions of the lung lobes to each other or the ribs is associated with a
decrease in ADG in the feed yard of from 0.2 to 0.35 pounds. Collapsed/consolidated lung
tissue appears to be associated with only a minor loss in gain performance. Fibrosed lung
tissue occurs from previous pneumonia in which healing is adequate to leave no apparent
loss of function. Parasitic lesions are most often felt to be associated with migrating
carnivore (dogs, cats, raccoons, etc) parasite larva. Cattle would most likely be exposed
from carnivore feces in the cattle's feed. Presently the data does not indicate there is
performance loss associated with the last three types of lung lesions monitored. However
the potential cause of all lung lesions should be evaluated and good management practices
(GMP) instituted to minimize possible lung damage.

Heart lesions in finished cattle are rare. The most common lesion is pericarditis
(inflammation around the heart) caused by either hardware disease and a systemic
bacterial infection.

All livers with abscesses are condemned. Liver abscess are scored into three categories;
1+, 2+ and 3+. The total liver abscess rate of all categories in Nebraska feedyards is
generally less than 15 percent. The 3+ liver rate is generally less than five percent. The 3+
liver abscesses typically cause condemnation of all adjacent organs including the valuable
"skirt" (diaphragm). The 3+ liver abscesses also represent those cattle which suffer
significant loss of gain and feed efficiency performance during the feeding phase.

The USDA-FSIS reports the liver fluke infestation rate in finished cattle to be approximately
one and one-half percent. Cattle with flukes have them on arrival at the feedyard, however
experimentally no improvement in cattle performance or lowering of the liver condemnation
rate has been found following treatment of cattle for flukes at feedyards.




                                              10
Adhesions in the abdomen are always of particular interest due to the association with
severe liver abscesses and hardware disease from metal contaminated feed. Poor heifer
spaying technique can also be associated with abdominal adhesions.

Two kidney lesions are commonly found in finish fed cattle: 1) white spots and 2) nephritis.
Generally affected kidneys are condemned but the value of the kidneys is not significant.
White spotted kidneys may be associated with any generalized blood borne bacterial
infection (Acidosis, Salmonellosis, Leptospirosis, etc). White spotted kidneys will be found
in most sets of cattle, but the rate of occurrence seldom exceeds 10 percent. Nephritis is
associated either a localized bacterial infection or consumption of toxic substances. The
occurrence of nephritis seldom exceeds five percent.

The rumen lesions found in finished fed cattle are most likely associated with acidosis.
Three different lesions are common; 1) pigment loss scares, 2) raised scares and 3) fungal
erosive scares. The first two lesions are typically found within six inches of the cardia
(opening into and out of the rumen). The third type scare is frequently found associated with
the previous two scares but is felt to be associated with an earlier severe bout of acidosis.
Rumen scares are evaluated along with liver abscesses. A high rate of rumen scares
(greater than 1/3 of the cattle) suggest a bunk management problem may have developed
during the feeding period.

White spots in the folds of the abomasum (true stomach) caused by parasites is an
important observation. If there is an associated thickening of the folds a performance loss
during feeding should be suspected.

Pregnancy in feeder heifers can create a nightmare if heifers calve or attempt to calve in the
feedyard. Pregnancy management in feeder heifers is not as simple as attempting to abort
all incoming heifers. Proper pregnancy management may include palpation and staging of
pregnancy along with careful management of the abortion process. The complications
associated with late stage abortions in high stress heifers/heiferettes can be as costly as
calving them in the feedyard. If a heifer which has been on finish feed over 100 days
(potential carcass weight greater than 550 pounds) is noted bagging up consideration
should be given to immediately selling the heifer to a packer on a dressed weight basis.




                                             11
Non-Performing / Cull Data Collection Sheet
Date: _________ Packer: ____________________ FL: ____________________
ID:
                   OBSERVATION:                     COMMENT:
       GEN EXAM: Flesh (Thin, Normal), SKIN
       FEET(Fore-Hind-Medial-Lateral):
       Head, Sinus, Tongue, Larynx, est. age
       SUB Q: / MAMMARY GLAND: Infected
       Perivascular Injection
       TRACHEA/ ESOPHAGUS
       HEART
       LUNG/PLEURA: bi / un
       %Affected(<1/3,1/3-2/3,>2/3)
       Lesion Age(peria-acute-suba-chr )
       SM / LG INTESTINE / Lymph nodes
       MESENTERY-OMENTUM-PERIT
       LIVER-PANCREAS
       GALLBLADDER Casts-Bileducts-Flukes
       MUSCLE sc ore / injury / bruise
       Injection lesions
       Kidney (Lf /Rt)
       Uterus / Penis
       SPLEEN
       RUMEN RETICULUM-OMASUM
       ABOMASUM (para/ulcers):


       General comments &/or Dx:




                                               12
              Understanding Common USDA-FSIS Condemnation Definitions.

Overview
The following is a partial list of terms used by USDA-FSIS in describing causes for partial or
whole carcass condemnation. This is not an official USDA-FSIS list.

ABSCESS/PYEMIA literally means "pus in the bloodstream." Abscesses and their by-products
may be found in multiple locations. This condition is closely related to other systemic blood
conditions such as septicemia and toxemia. See pericarditis, septicemia, and toxemia.

ARTHRITIS refers to inflammation of the joints. Carcasses condemned for arthritis may show
evidence of blood poisoning.

CNS DISORDERS are detected on ante-mortem. Any animal exhibiting tremors, blindness,
paddling, inability to walk, tetanus, aggressive behavior, bellowing or other typical of a central
nervous system disease or condition that is due to infections, chemicals, nutritional imbalances
or tumors are condemned on ante-mortem inspection.

CONTAMINATION on carcasses may be trimmed or result in condemnation of part or the entire
carcass.

CYSTICERCOSIS, also known as "measles," is a rare condition where the beef is infested with
the cysts of the human tapeworm. In severe infestations, the carcass is condemned. If only an
isolated lesion is found, the unaffected portion of the carcass is passed and restricted for
cooking or freezing after condemnation of the affected tissue.

MISC. DEGENERATION & DROPSIC COND (DROPSY) refers to pale watery carcasses. They
are often seen in animals with liver or kidney problems. The carcass may show strong evidence
of anemia. The meat is dark and slimy. See toxemia.

EMACIATION is a condition often seen in cows or long-term injured animals. The carcass is thin
and watery. The animal is unable to sustain itself with food or starved and is near death.

EOSINOPHILIC MYOSITIS is an inflammatory condition of the muscle tissue. It often affects
apparently healthy and well-finished cattle and is not detectable on ante-mortem. Lesions are
often observed in the cheek, heart, diaphragm, weasand, surface muscles and primal cuts
depending on the severity. It appears in two types: 1) green speckled lesions and 2) the
"blotchy" form where entire muscle groups are involved. It has been suggested that the speckled
form is the result of migrating parasites that have died in transit and the latter form is a viral or
autoimmune infection that causes large muscle masses to degenerate.

EPITHELIOMA is also known as squamous cell carcinoma or "Cancer Eye." It is a cancerous
growth that originates most often around the eye and often spreads to the adjacent lymph nodes
and bony orbit of the eye.

ICTERUS, also known as "jaundice," is a condition where bile pigments leak into the blood and
tissues.

LYMPHOSARCOMA/MALIGNANT LYMPHOMA is a cancerous condition of the lymph glands.
It is often observed in the lymph nodes of the head, neck, lungs, body or thymus gland.

MISC. INFECTIOUS DISEASES/INFLAMMATORY DISEASES may be specified.

                                                 13
MASTITIS is inflammation of the udder.

METRITIS is inflammation of the uterus or womb. See nephritis.

MORIBUND is a condition diagnosed on ante-mortem. It refers to a beef in a comatose, dying,
or near-death condition. These beef are condemned on ante-mortem inspection.

MYIASIS is a condition where maggots have infested a wound.

NEPHRITIS/PYELITIS is the inflammation of the kidney or the tubes that drain into the bladder.
See Uremia, Metritis, or Toxemia.

PERICARDITIS is inflammation of the pericardial sack. Causes include bacterial infections in
lungs or the lung cavities including "hardware," viral infections, and/or nutritional imbalances.
See Pyemia.

PERITONITIS is the inflammation of the abdominal cavity and the abdominal organs.

PIGMENT CONDITIONS include melanosis, carotenosis, and other colored pigment.

PNEUMONIA is a common condition observed on the kill floor. All diseased animals are closely
examined for evidence of treatment and screened for antibiotic residue.

PYREXIA is a state of abnormally elevated body temperature observed on ante-mortem.

RESIDUE detected may result in condemnation. Be wary of all withdrawal times.

SARCOMA is a tumor originating from connective tissue such as bone, cartilage, lymphoid cells,
or other connective tissue. Malignant melanomas are in this category.

SEPTICEMIA is a condition describing bacteria and bacterial products in the blood stream. See
Pyemia and Toxemia.

TOXEMIA is the condition describing the effects of toxic by-products of infection, chemical or
metabolic toxins, in the blood damaging internal organs and exhibit a toxic condition in the
carcass. See Icterus, Septicemia, Pyemia.

TETANUS is the state of rigid paralysis due to infection or metabolic imbalance and is
diagnosed on ante-mortem.

TUBERCULOSIS is a condition associated with cattle and swine infected to the tubercle
bacteria.

UREMIA is the condition of urine wastes accumulated in the blood and tissues. See nephritis.




                                                 14
              Recording Data On The Lung Collection Form
   Date: ___________ Owner/ ID: __________________________ Fl tag: (color_______ (group#_________)

  Packer: ____________ Lot # _________ (Drv#_______) Line up #s: ______________ to ______________


S = Skipped or Missed observation (failed to view anterior ventral (AV) right side)
N = Normal … ½ view that included RIGHT side evaluation
    total affected area or volume involved less than one AV lobe (< 5% lung volume) with Mycoplasma like lesions (dark
1 =
    depressed purple areas) and/or adhesions (fibrin tags)
    adhesions (fibrin tags) affecting more than one AV lobe (>5% lung volume) and/or missing piece of lung … and/or
2 =
    … >10% affected with Mycoplasma like lesions (dark depressed purple areas)
    FUBAR: Missing lung > 15% of total lung area (> three AV lobes) and/or Active Tracheal – Bronchial Lymph Node
3 =
    (Inspectors will condemn lung … do not confuse with contamination condemnation or heart condemnation)


                    S      0       1      2      3
    Car Tag
  ___00             S      0       1      2      3

  ___01             S      0       1      2      3

  ___02             S      0       1      2      3

  ___03             S      0       1      2      3



  CODES Explained:

   S Skipped observation (due to confusion or active on the offal line) … Missed AV right side evaluation
   0 Normal / Negative (includes depressed healed areas), ½ = half views BUT evaluated AV right side
   1 5% or less of lung affected with a granular, dark, purplish & meaty: collapsed/consolidated – Mycoplasma like
     (Bronchiectasis - AV Broncho-Pneumonia), and/or minor adhesions / pleuritis (fibrin tags)
     adhesions / pleuritis (fibrin tags) and/or over 5% of lung affected with granular, dark purplish & meaty:
     collapsed/consolidated – Mycoplasma like (Bronchiectasis - AV Broncho-Pneumonia),
   2 Numerous adhesions (fibrin tags) affecting more than one AV lobe (>5% lung volume) and/or small missing piece of lung …
     and/or … >10% affected with Mycoplasma like lesions (dark depressed purple areas) including Bronchiectasis - AV
     Broncho-Pneumonia
   3 FUBAR: Large amount of missing lung tissue, Caused by pleuritis &/or adhesions greater than 15 % of the
     total lung volume and/or Active (inflamed tracheobronchial & mediastinal LN, may see acute to chronic
     inflammation …swollen tissue, new adhesions. Note: look for purple ink … Inspectors usually condemn these lungs
      … do not confuse with contamination condemnation or heart condemnation.
     You may note, but do not score other observation that may include eosinophilic (discoid hemorrhagic to greenish
     lesion. Most likely associated with migrating parasites) … these are not a considered in the lung scoring system.
  RO Rail Out (carcass railed out for additional inspection or trim from contamination)


    Car Tag = USDA Carcass Tag (sequence) - double check often,
                            ALWAYS "Check the Rail outs (RO)


                                                           15
   Date: ___________ Owner/ ID: _________________________ Fl tag: (color_______ (group#_________)

    Packer: __________________Lot # ________(Drive #_______) Line up #s: ___________ to_________
0 = Normal … ½ view that included RIGHT side evaluation S = Skipped or Missed observation (missed right side view)
    total affected area or volume involved less than one AV lobe (< 5% lung volume) with Mycoplasma like lesions (dark
1 =
    depressed purple areas) and/or adhesions (fibrin tags)
    adhesions (fibrin tags) affecting more than one AV lobe (>5% lung volume) and/or missing piece of lung … and/or
2 =
    … >10% affected with Mycoplasma like lesions (dark depressed purple areas)
    FUBAR: Missing lung > 15% of total lung area (> three AV lobes) and/or Active Tracheal – Bronchial Lymph Node
3 =
    (Inspectors will condemn lung … do not confuse with contamination condemnation or heart condemnation)
Car Tag          LS           Car Tag          LS           Car Tag          LS           Car Tag           LS
____00      S 0 1 2 3         ____25      S 0 1 2 3           ____50     S 0 1 2 3        ____75       S 0 1 2 3

____01      S 0 1 2 3         ____26      S 0 1 2 3           ____51     S 0 1 2 3        ____76       S 0 1 2 3

____02      S 0 1 2 3         ____27      S 0 1 2 3           ____52     S 0 1 2 3        ____77       S 0 1 2 3

____03      S 0 1 2 3         ____28      S 0 1 2 3           ____53     S 0 1 2 3        ____78       S 0 1 2 3

____04      S 0 1 2 3         ____29      S 0 1 2 3           ____54     S 0 1 2 3        ____79       S 0 1 2 3

____05      S 0 1 2 3         ____30      S 0 1 2 3           ____55     S 0 1 2 3        ____80       S 0 1 2 3

____06      S 0 1 2 3         ____31      S 0 1 2 3           ____56     S 0 1 2 3        ____81       S 0 1 2 3

____07      S 0 1 2 3         ____32      S 0 1 2 3           ____57     S 0 1 2 3        ____82       S 0 1 2 3

____08      S 0 1 2 3         ____33      S 0 1 2 3           ____58     S 0 1 2 3        ____83       S 0 1 2 3

____09      S 0 1 2 3         ____34      S 0 1 2 3           ____59     S 0 1 2 3        ____84       S 0 1 2 3

____10      S 0 1 2 3         ____35      S 0 1 2 3           ____60     S 0 1 2 3        ____85       S 0 1 2 3

____11      S 0 1 2 3         ____36      S 0 1 2 3           ____61     S 0 1 2 3        ____86       S 0 1 2 3

____12      S 0 1 2 3         ____37      S 0 1 2 3           ____62     S 0 1 2 3        ____87       S 0 1 2 3

____13      S 0 1 2 3         ____38      S 0 1 2 3           ____63     S 0 1 2 3        ____88       S 0 1 2 3

____14      S 0 1 2 3         ____39      S 0 1 2 3           ____64     S 0 1 2 3        ____89       S 0 1 2 3

____15      S 0 1 2 3         ____40      S 0 1 2 3           ____65     S 0 1 2 3        ____90       S 0 1 2 3

____16      S 0 1 2 3         ____41      S 0 1 2 3           ____66     S 0 1 2 3        ____91       S 0 1 2 3

____17      S 0 1 2 3         ____42      S 0 1 2 3           ____67     S 0 1 2 3        ____92       S 0 1 2 3

____18      S 0 1 2 3         ____43      S 0 1 2 3           ____68     S 0 1 2 3        ____93       S 0 1 2 3

____19      S 0 1 2 3         ____44      S 0 1 2 3           ____69     S 0 1 2 3        ____94       S 0 1 2 3

____20      S 0 1 2 3         ____45      S 0 1 2 3           ____70     S 0 1 2 3        ____95       S 0 1 2 3

____21      S 0 1 2 3         ____46      S 0 1 2 3           ____71     S 0 1 2 3        ____96       S 0 1 2 3

____22      S 0 1 2 3         ____47      S 0 1 2 3           ____72     S 0 1 2 3        ____97       S 0 1 2 3

____23      S 0 1 2 3         ____48      S 0 1 2 3           ____73     S 0 1 2 3        ____98       S 0 1 2 3

____24      S 0 1 2 3         ____49      S 0 1 2 3           ____74     S 0 1 2 3        ____99       S 0 1 2 3

                                                    CHECK RAIL OUTS                                 Page _____ of _____


                                                         16
Most of the lesions occur on the RIGHT lung …




                                                17
                                   The “4 S’ …
                                  Safety of yourself,
                     Safety of the people you are working with,
                             Safety of the animal(s) and
                             Safety of the food supply.

It is crucial to your success in working around livestock to establish a working relationship
with the operation’s and management and personnel early when beginning your work with
the operation. The management and personnel should be expecting you and it never helps
if you are late. You should know what they want you to accomplish and what to expect from
you. If you and the personnel are not on the same page, your presence can jeopardize
your safety, their safety, the safety of the animal(s) you are working with and/or the safety of
the intended food use of the animals you are working with.


The "4 S's"

Safety is your most important objective: safety for your self, safety of the people you
are working with, safety of the animal(s) you are working with and safety of the
intended food product from which the animals will are being raised to produce.
Remember you are working with food and there are three food safety targets in the
USDA-FSIS Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) food safety program.
These are biologic, chemical and physical safety defects. For our part, helping
producers and their workers to understand the importance of preventing CROSS
CONTAMINATION of feces, chemicals and metal to livestock feed will go a long way in
achieving the objectives. But HACCP can have a much broader application. HACCP has
been used by generations of people to protect their safety. Every generation has used the
principles to ensure their families safety. For example consider a physical hazard. If a
young child is playing in the front yard of a home, what is the hazard? Going in the street
and being hit by a car would be one hazard. What would be a critical control point?
Building a fence, sit in the yard with the child to catch it be for it got into the street … There
are several ways to address the potential hazard. But by taking time to figure out what
might go wrong, then figuring out how to prevent, reduce or eliminate the hazard will
complete the HACCP plan. Similarly, the system is applied in the home. What is a
chemical safety hazard in the home? Chemical under the sink … Controlled by a child
safety lock on the cabinet door. What is a biologic hazard? Bacteria contaminating food
before and/or during preparation … Controlled by washing preparer’s hands and cooking at
the proper temperature of the required time.

Taking time to evaluate the potential safety hazard(s) that exist when working with livestock
is an important “what can go wrong” first step. Figuring out how to avoid having something
that jeopardizes safety go wrong is the important next step. If these two items are
continually being evaluated in light of the “4 S’s” the likelihood of accidents will be
decreased.



                                                18

								
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