Bee Pollination Contracts - PowerPoint by raq19807

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									Pollination
Pollination
                 Important Terms
 Pollination – transfer of pollen
    – Self or cross
 Fertilization – union of ♂ & ♀
  (ovule) nuclei
 Fruiting – development of
  fleshy part around zygote
 Seed dispersal – distribution
  of mature seeds from parent
               Flower Anatomy
           Pollination=
          Pollen transfer
stigma


  style




                                                  Connor photo



                       Fertilization = nuclei union
                            petals
                            sepals
      Flower variation
 Flowers may have pollen
   – Ripening w/ ovules or before
   – On anthers below flowers or outside
 Flowers may be staminate (pollen only) or
      pistillate (ovule but no pollen)
 Plants may be monoecious (2 flower types)
   – Corn (tassel at top = pollen; silk at ear =stigma)
 Plants may be dioecious (♀& ♂ plants)
   – Holly trees may have berries (♀) or pollen flowers (♂)
                  Pollinators
 Wind
 Water
 Animals
  –   insects     birds
  –   mammals     monkeys
  –   spiders     bats
  –   kangaroos   mites
  –   humans
  –   + others
           Human as pollinators
 Hand applied pollen
   – dates (since agriculture began)
   – vanilla
 Greenhouses
  (using vibrating toothbrushes)
 Apply temporary aids
   – pollen inserts
   – bouquets
 No „solution-in-a-bottle‟ yet
             Insect Pollination
   ants            flies/midges
   aphids          mosquitoes
   beetles         moths
   butterflies     thrips
   bees            wasps
   + many others


        The Big 3 underlined
       Insect-pollinated Flowers
   Produce lots of pollen
   Secrete sweet smelling, sugary nectar
   Come in colors
   Grow at conspicuous locations on plant
   Feature broken patterns
   Wave in the wind
                   Bee Pollination
 4 widely used bees in commercial pollination




Bumble Bee         Honey Bee          Alkali Bee       Leafcutting Bee


ALSO: BOB (blue orchard bee); hornfaced bee, carpenter bee; pollen bees
  Managing Colonies for Pollination
 Queenright
 Forager bee strong
 Expanding brood
  population
 Limited super space
 Minimum strength
 No swarming
 Dry & in sun
 Distributed in crop
 Moved in & out promptly
                 How many?
 Varies w/ crop
 Varies w/ beekeeper
 75%+ col minimum strength
  – For example cucumber in eastern US
     1 col for every 3-4 acres (small fields near woods)
     1-3 col/acre (larger fields in agricultural area)
     2 col/acre (high density)
     1 bee/100 flowers
     1 col/50,000 plants (w/ appropriate ♂/♀ ratio)
                Pollination Contracts
 Number & strength of colonies
 Plan of colony distribution
 Time of delivery and removal
 Beekeepers right of entry
 Degree of protection from
  pesticides
 Plan for payment(s)
 Penalities for poor
  colonies/service
 Bonus for excellent service
                        Pollination
 4 “major” crops
    –   Alfalfa seed
    –   Almond
    –   Fruits apples, berries, etc)
    –   Vegetables (+ seeds)
   Over 90 crops
   Value . $14 billion annually
   1/3rd of our diet from bee pollinated crops
   Increasing, not diminishing, demand
                Fruit trees
 Traditional rental income
  – Pears
  – Apples
  – Cherries
  – others
 Early bloom in season – set of „king‟ bloom
 Bees often insurance for bad weather year
 Other fruit major nectar source
  – citrus
      Pollination




Poor Pollination


                   Desired Pollination
                            References:
Images:
http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3400/3573675917_ace3fc0e28.jpg?v=0
http://www.bio.miami.edu/muchhala/Bat-Flower%20Photos/A_geo_Meriania.jpg
http://williamthecoroner.files.wordpress.com/2009/05/bumblebee-onpavement.jpg
http://sarahmeyerwalsh.files.wordpress.com/2008/06/honeybee.jpghttp:/
www.everythingabout.net/articles/biology/animals/arthropods/insects/bees/leafcutting_b
    ee/
http://www.jimirving.com/images/galleries/beeboxes-3.jpg
http://www.biology-blog.com/images/blogs/10-2006/Pollinator-2-Raspberry.jpg
http://biology.unm.edu/ccouncil/Biology_203/Images/FloweringPlants/Angiolifecycle.jpeg
http://www.maine.gov/agriculture/pi/images/bee.jpg
http://www.plantstogrow.com/botany/fact_pages/images_2/anther-02crcm.jpg
http://www.northernimages.com/photos/242820235_n5tsi-M.jpg
http://208.113.167.239/wp-content/uploads/2007/06/bee-cherry-blossoms.jpg
http://www.ojibway.ca/p_leucop.jpg
http://illinois.sierraclub.org/calumet/Species/GrassPinkOrchid.jpg
www.gettyimages.com

								
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