Best Company to Work in India According Organizational Behaviour by gwk12915

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									              Corporate Culture in Libraries and
                  Information Centers to Promote
                       ‘Knowledge-Based Business’
                                                          in IT Era

                                                               By
                                                    Dr. K. C. Panda
                                            Reader, DLIS
                                  Sambalpur University, Orissa, INDIA
                                                        &
                                                 Mr. Manik Mandal
                                                  Librarian
                                      National Institute of Technology
                                             Durgapur, INDIA.
M. Mandal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India             6 January 2011
                                 Corporate Culture: The Concept


         „Corporate Culture‟ refers to a company‟s values, beliefs,
         business principles, traditions, ways of operating, and internal
         work environment.


         It is the basic assumptions and beliefs held by employees
         about the enterprise they work for.


         According to Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management, it is
         defined as „the set of common values, attitudes, and behaviors
         which are perceived as being those of the organization‟.


M. Mandal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India     6 January 2011
                           Corporate Culture: The Concept          Cont…




          Corporate values and attitudes include ethical standards,
         flexibility of management, creativity of employees, concern for
         public welfare, and the need for compliance with the law.




M. Mandal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India   6 January 2011
                                               Organizational Culture

          Organization Culture expert, EdgarH. Schein defines „culture‟
         as “a pattern of basic group assumptions that has worked well
         enough to be considered valid, and, therefore, is taught to new
         members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel”.


         Organization culture became a business phenomenon in the
         early 1980s, triggered by the following four seminal books
             Ouchi‟s (1981) Theory Z: How American Business Can Meet the

               Japanese Challenge.
             Pascale and Athos‟s (1982) The Art of Japanese Management :

               Applications for American Executives
             Deal and Kennedy‟s (1982) Corporate Cultures: The Rites and

               Rituals of Corporate Life.
             Peters and Waterman‟s (1982) In search of Excellence: Lessons

               from America‟s Best Run Companies.
M. Mandal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India            6 January 2011
                                          Organizational Culture Cont…


          The first two books suggested that, Japanese business
         success could be attributed in large part to Japanese corporate
         culture.


          All four books suggested that, corporate culture was the key
         to organizational performance and that corporate culture could
         be managed to improve a company‟s competitive advantage.




M. Mandal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India             6 January 2011
                                          Organizational Culture Cont…
     The interest in organizational culture during the 1980s to
     practitioners and researchers alike – was stimulated by two factors.
                The first of these was the impact of Japanese enterprises in
                 international markets.
                Secondly the search to identify a possible link between national
                 culture and organizational performance.
      Smircich (1983) classifies the perspective of culture as falling into
     two broad camps.
                 The first perspective culture is seen as a product, something an
                 organization has and in such an approach, organizational culture is
                 deemed to be capable of classification and manipulation;
                 The second perspective organizational culture is regarded as more of
                 a process, some thing an organization is.

M. Mandal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India             6 January 2011
                             Why Corporate Culture in L & ICs?
     „corporatization‟ refers to „privatization‟ resulting in corporate
     ownership and / or control. While „corporatization‟ involves publicly-
     owned corporations, „privatization‟ denotes privately-owned ones.


      In the context of a Library and Information Center (L & ICs), being
     a non-profit motive service institution, which primarily aims to
     promote knowledge-based business (not like profit motives and
     having no shares in the stock market), the term, „corporatization‟ is
     to be understood to refer to the adoption of „corporate culture‟ and
     emerging changes, treating library services as „knowledge-based
     business‟ without profit and to make the information products and
     services of a library most clientele- friendly, either at no cost or on
     nominal charges (absolutely discarding the concept of profit).

M. Mandal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India   6 January 2011
                        Why Corporate Culture in L & ICs?                      Cont…




      The following forces make the corporatization of libraries and
     Information Centers (L & ICs) and adoption of corporate culture in
     libraries imminent:
                   Orthodox outlook
                   Less competence
                   Mushroom growth
                   A high percentage of major reference tools in both CD and Online
                    format
                   Information needs are increasingly complex.
                   Traditional reference services
                   Exponential growth information sources
                   The global economic recession




M. Mandal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India            6 January 2011
                        Why Corporate Culture in L & ICs?                              Cont…


       The most encountered phrases (answers) that come from conventional
     library staff heading different service desks are as follows:
                   Come tomorrow!
                   Let me see!
                   Ask somebody else!
                   I do not know!
                   Inadequate staff!
                   There is No staff at the moment (on-leave, or has gone for tea)!
                   System has gone defunct!
                   No fund!
                   Enquire in some other library!
                   I cannot say!
                   Traffic jam!
                   I have no time!
                   I am tired!
                   No power/current failure!
                   Document not available!
                   Library Staff are on strike!
                   Server down/ slow response!
                   He is unaware of the computer!
                   Wait for an hour! etc.
M. Mandal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India                   6 January 2011
                        Why Corporate Culture in L & ICs?                             Cont…


     The most such popular responses that often come from such staff
     members in hi-tech libraries are as follows:
                   May I help you!
                   Here is the information/ document you are looking for!
                   Let me help you right now!
                   Do not worry, I am here to help!
                   We have more information on this!
                   Would you like to have it?
                   We regret for inconvenience!
                   We have high power Generator/Inverter to counter load shedding!
                   Let me get the document/Information for you from other resource centre!
                   Are you satisfied?
                   Please feel free to express your need/or concern!
                   Here are the different information products and services, we offer!
                   Here are the few recent arrivals to our library!
                   Library started this new service and information product since yesterday!
                   Why don‟t you grab it?
                   Here is a latest research paper on your specialization! Would you like to
                    see? etc. etc.
M. Mandal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India                   6 January 2011
                              Corporate Culture and Traditional
                                 Library Culture: Distinction

        The Library Culture lies in,
              Apprehension of library‟s mission and assignment.
              Library‟s major goals recognized and shared by its
              employees.
              Values elicited from library‟s mission.
              The methods to be used by the library to achieve its goals.
              Accepted standards of power and responsibility sharing.
              Style of communication, both intra- library and inter- library.
              Attitude towards library‟s history, traditions, customs.
              The way to aggregate newcomers to library‟s values
              The scope of staff development



M. Mandal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India     6 January 2011
                       Corporate Market and Library Market :
                                   Distinction

       Marketing and the value of an organization depend heavily on
     ethics and culture in cases of corporate environment and also in
     library environment in order to survive in the competitive world.

      In case of library culture, marketing provides a clearing house of
     resources and ideas for sharing materials, skills and strategies to
     promote the library. It is intended to grow as more ideas and
     resources are added. In library culture, marketing is a job and
     function that include training and support for all staff of the library
     to be competent and skilled so as to make available its resources,
     services, and products to the readers in time. Marketing the value
     of a library is the responsibility of all who have a stake in the
     survival of the library facilities and the services and collections it
     offers to the community it serves.

M. Mandal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India    6 January 2011
                       Impact of Five Laws on Library Culture




     Ethics of librarianship denotes the conduct and behaviour of those
     who adopt the profession.



      The five laws of library science propounded by Dr. S. R.
     Ranganathan are the cardinal principles to be observed by a library
     professional in all his activities.




M. Mandal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India   6 January 2011
                       Impact of Five Laws on Library Culture
                                                                         Cont …




         According to Mike Steckel, Ranganathan‟s ideas greatly
         influenced every aspect of library science, and because he was
         such a complete and systematic thinker, he was gifted in the
         development of all areas of the field, including theory, practice,
         and management.

          The five laws of Dr. Ranganathan have formidable influence on
         the culture and class of a library which itself conserves and
         transmits culture; underpins education, both individual and formal
         in a wide spectrum of subjects.




M. Mandal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India     6 January 2011
                                  Corporate Culture in Libraries :
                                       Major Work Values
            The desirable work values of a library adopting corporate culture.
                      Service-bent of Mind
                      Zeal to Learn
                      Accountability
                      Adaptability to changes
                      Strong commitment
                      Courtesy and respect to customers
                      Continuous Quality Control
                      Autonomy to Staff
                      Effective and Excellent Communication
                      Flexible Procedure
                      Dedicated, Innovative, and Good Morale
                      Recognition and Reward for Excellence, Honest, and Productive
                       Mind;
                      Service Orientation, Training, Inter-section transfer at given
                       intervals;
                      Scholarships and Awards
                      Feedback and Treatment.
M. Mandal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India                6 January 2011
                               The Changing Culture in Libraries


          According to Bas Savenije, the first wave of library computerization
         took place in the seventies. Manual back-room activities, such as
         acquisition, distribution and cataloguing, became computer controlled
         activities. This period also witnessed the various electronic databases
         and the Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC).


           The second wave of library computerization, which began in the
         nineties, the focus was mainly on the deployment of computer networks
         providing access to remote electronic information. The library has
         become a gateway, referring users to information irrespective of the
         location where it is physically stored.



M. Mandal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India       6 January 2011
                               The Changing Culture in Libraries
                                                                                 Cont …




          According to Celestine Lau library embraces technology to enhance
         service. Technology has changed the ways information can be stored,
         organized and retrieved.


          According to Liz Pattison and Vicki Williamson, this changing
         process led library staff to value their skills in navigating and facilitating
         information access, rather than focusing on collecting, arranging and
         storing in-house documents. Their motto became “Helping our clients
         navigate the information universe”, with all library staff being
         information navigators.




M. Mandal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India             6 January 2011
                               The Changing Culture in Libraries
                                                                             Cont …




          According to Drucker, “…… the typical business will be knowledge-
         based, an organization composed largely of specialists who direct and
         discipline their own performance through organized feed back from
         colleagues, customers and head quarters”.


          The work culture of an organization is a product of its history,
         traditions, values, and vision. Organizational culture expert, Edgar H.
         Schein defines culture as, “a pattern of basic group assumptions that
         has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, is taught
         to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel.”




M. Mandal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India         6 January 2011
                                                               Conclusion

          The traditional Librarians will have to remember that, reliance on
         technology alone cannot ensure a successful organization, because
         the culture, structure, and management styles are fundamental
         attributes of any organization-including the libraries.


          The libraries must marry technology with human endeavour and a
         client – oriented focus, if they are to survive in the 21st century.


            Any deficiency in service or quality or delay is open to question.


          The libraries have no other option except to adapt to clientele-
         friendly culture and corporate culture, if they are to survive in the
         profession.

M. Mandal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India                6 January 2011
                                       THANK YOU



M. Mandal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India   6 January 2011

								
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