The 2010 Census, ACS, and other demographic surveys Census 2010 Short Form Questionnaire 10 Questions Name Sex Age Relationship (to Household Head) Hispanic Origin Race Owner/Renter Status Plus Whether each member sometimes lives/stays elsewhere Total number living in residence Probe for unreported persons Telephone contact Census 2010 Short Form Questionnaire Product Release Schedule Redistricting data – February-April 2011 SF 1 – June – August 2011 SF 2 - Dec 2011 – April 2012 The American Community Survey • Replacement for the “long form” of the decennial census. • HH sample fully implemented in January 2005, annual sample of around 3 million. • Multi-mode: mail, CATI, CAPI ACS: Sampling Frame • Master Address File (MAF) – Official inventory of known living quarters – Linked to TIGER • Housing Units – Based on Census 2000 MAF and updates from the USPS’ Delivery Sequence File • Group Quarters – … and updates from the administrative records and the FSCPE – Excluded from ACS are domestic violence shelters, soup kitchens, commercial maritime vessels,… ACS: Design of the Sample • Annual Sample Size of 3 million addresses • Series of Monthly Samples of 250,000 addresses • HU sample in each of the 3,141 Counties • Areas with smaller populations sampled at higher rates than those with larger populations • HU Address sampling rate set by Block • Final sampling rate varies between 1.6% and 10% • No HU address can be sampled more than once in 5 years ACS: Sample Design • GQ facilities sample for each state • Two stratum – Small (15 or fewer residents) – Large ( more than 15 residents) • Small – Data collected on all residents – Facility eligible once in 5 years • Large – Groups of ten residents sub-sampled – Number of groups determined by size of facility – Facility eligible every year ACS: Data Collection • HU addresses by three modes – Mailout of paper questionnaire in 1st month – Telephone (CATI) non-response follow-up in 2nd month – Personal visit (CAPI) non-response follow-up in 3rd month to a sub-sample • GQ – Personal visit within 6 weeks of sample selection Distribution Formats • Like former decennial census data, released in both aggregate and microdata formats • Because of change to continuous sampling, however, aggregate data released at different geographic levels with differing collection frames Multi-year estimates • Larger geographies have multiple options for estimates – 1 year, 3 year, 5 year • Comparing and interpreting overlapping multi-year estimates not intuitive: only differences come from the non- overlapping period. Replicate Weights • Census Bureau’s replicate weights are not handled by statistical packages (as an option, like JK or BRR) • SAS program that has the algorithm – https://ctools.umich.edu/access/content/group /34a72eab-daa4-4d14-80e0- 9150727aed6c/Technical%20- %20Statistical/sas_code_example.txt Census Bureau recommendations for replicate weights • Garrett, B. Dale and Michael Starsinic. 2008. “ACS Public Use Microdata Samples of 2005 and 2006 – How to Use Replicate Weights.” Presentation at AAPOR Conference, New Orleans, May 16, 2008. • https://ctools.umich.edu/access/content/group/3 4a72eab-daa4-4d14-80e0- 9150727aed6c/Technical%20- %20Statistical/How%20to%20Use%20PUMS%2 0Replicate%20Weights.ppt Demographic (Household) Surveys • Survey of Income and Program Participation • Survey of Program Dynamics • American Housing Survey • Current Population Survey • Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES) • And more….. Survey of Income and Program Participation The Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) program, initiated in 1983, is a longitudinal, multi-panel survey primarily of adults in households in the United States. • Sampled households are interviewed at least nine times at four- month intervals and followed over the life of the panel. New samples (panels) are drawn periodically, ranging in size from around 13,000 HHs to around 40,000 HH’s. (annually 1984-1993; 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008) • The SIPP attempts to interview all members age 15 and older in the household during the first wave of interviewing. Subsequent interviews may be in-person or by phone, with the same interviewer speaking to the same respondents. • New members who join the household are interviewed after they join; departing members are interviewed at their new address. Survey of Income and Program Participation • SIPP information falls into two categories: the core information, and other questions (found in "topical modules") that produce in-depth information on specific subjects and are asked at only one or two interviews. • SIPP core content covers demographic characteristics, work experience, earnings, program participation, transfer income, and asset income. Survey of Income and Program Participation: Topical Modules • Well-Being • Adult Well-Being: • Children’s Well-Being. • Extended Measures of Well-Being. • Earnings, Income, Assets, Liabilities, Taxes, Expenses • Annual Earnings and Benefits. • Annual Income and Retirement Accounts. • Property Income and Taxes. • Real Estate Property and Vehicles. • Selected Financial Assets. • Assets, Liabilities, and Eligibility. • Taxes. • Shelter Costs and Energy Usage. • Housing Costs, Conditions, and Energy Usage. • Labor Force related • Employment History. • Job Offers. • Reasons for Not Working/Reservation Wage. • Time Spent Outside Work Force. • Work Disability History. • Work-Related Expenses. • Work Schedule. Survey of Income and Program Participation • Support of Children • Child Care. • Child Support Agreements. • Child Support Paid. • Education/Training • Education and Training History. Collects information about respondent's highest level of school completed or degree received, courses or programs studied, and dates of receipt of high school and postsecondary degrees or diplomas. The module determines if the respondent attended a public or a private high school. • School Enrollment and Financing. • Benefits • Employer-Provided Health Benefits. • Retirement Expectations and Pension Plan Coverage. • Health/Medical • Medical Expenses and Work Disability. • Functional Limitations and Disability. • Health and Disability. • Health Status and Utilization of Health Care Services. • Home Health Care. • Long-Term Care. Survey of Income and Program Participation • Demographic • Household Relationships. • Family Background. Obtains family characteristics at the time of the respondent's 16th birthday, including how many brothers and sisters the person had, with whom the person lived, the highest grade of school completed by the parents, and the occupations of the parents. • Fertility History. Asked only of females 15 years of age and older and males 18 and older. Men are asked about the number of children they have fathered, and women are asked about their birth histories. • Marital History. • Migration History. • Program Participation • Recipiency History. • Welfare History and Child Support. • Welfare Reform. NOT ALL MODULES ASKED IN ALL PANELS: see http://www.census.gov/sipp/top_mod/topical.html Current Population Survey • The Current Population Survey (CPS) is a monthly survey of about 50,000 to 65,000 households conducted by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The survey has been conducted for more than 50 years. • The CPS is the primary source of information on the labor force characteristics of the U.S. population. The sample is scientifically selected to represent the civilian noninstitutional population. • Households are in the survey eight times: four consecutive months, eight months off, and then a final four months. • Estimates obtained from the CPS include employment, unemployment, earnings, hours of work, and other indicators. They are available by a variety of demographic characteristics including age, sex, race, marital status, and educational attainment. They are also available by occupation, industry, and class of worker. • Supplemental questions to produce estimates on a variety of topics including school enrollment, income, previous work experience, health, employee benefits, and work schedules are also often added to the regular CPS questionnaire. Current Population Survey • Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) – (formerly called the Annual Demographic Survey or March Supplement) • Voting and Registration (November) • School Enrollment (October) • Food Security; every year since 1995 • Computer Ownership • Fertility and Marital History • Fertility and Birth Expectations • Contingent Workers and Alternative Employment • Displaced Workers • Job Tenure and Occupational Mobility • Race and Ethnicity • Tobacco Use • Work Experience • Work Schedules Current Population Survey • Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) • Larger sample • Source of official poverty estimates • Contains family and household information, annual income, health insurance, migration, ethnicity and nativity American Housing Survey • Provides information on the size and composition of the housing inventory in the United State, neighborhood characteristics, characteristics of occupants. household characteristics, income, housing and neighborhood quality, housing costs, equipment and fuels, size of housing unit, and recent movers. • The AHS returns to the same housing units year after year to gather data; therefore, this survey is ideal for analyzing the flow of households through housing. • Sample of ~ 65,000 • Collected for HUD • Separate national (fixed sample for ~50,000, followed since 1985) and metropolitan samples (~3,200 – 4,800 per area, every 6 years, 12-14 areas/year) • More detailed data, less geographic detail, than census Consumer Expenditure Survey • The Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES) provides information on the buying habits of American consumers and also furnishes data to support periodic revisions of the Consumer Price Index. A new sample is drawn annually, and includes about 60,000 households. • The survey consists of two separate components: (1) a quarterly Interview Survey in which each consumer unit in the sample is interviewed every three months over a fifteen-month period, and (2) a Diary Survey completed by the sample consumer units for two consecutive one-week periods. • The quarterly interview gathers retrospective data on purchases, and focuses on regular and large expenses. • The Diary Survey contains consumer information on small, frequently-purchased items such as food, beverages, food consumed away from home, gasoline, housekeeping supplies, nonprescription drugs and medical supplies, and personal care products and services. Participants are asked to maintain expense records, or diaries, of all purchases made each day for two consecutive one-week periods. Selected Other Data • National Crime Victimization Survey – 48,000 addresses in 809 PSU’s in US – Operating since 1972 – 7 interviews over 3 ½ year period • National Corrections Reporting Program – Prison Admission and discharges. Variables include incarceration history, current offenses, and total time served. Background information on individuals includes year of birth, sex, age, race, Hispanic origin, and educational attainment. • A variety of surveys for NCHS, e.g. – National Health Interview Survey – National Hospital Discharge Survey – National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery • National Survey of College Graduates – Baseline Survey based on Census • 1993 from 1990 census, 2003 from 2000 census • Follow-up surveys every 2 years (4 total per decade) Economic Data from the Census Census Terminology • Economic • data collected from businesses • Demographic • data collected from households Surveys vs Census Economic Surveys Economic Census •Annual, quarterly, •Every 5 years monthly (years ending in 2 & 7) •Limited detail •Industry/product detail •Mostly national •Detailed Geography Census •5-year intervals –Economic Census Economic –Survey of Business Owners Data •Annual –County Business Patterns for Local –Nonemployer Statistics –Annual Survey of Manufactures Areas –Statistics of U.S. Business ECONOMIC CENSUS • All domestic non-farm business establishments, other than those operated by governments. Most reports are confined to businesses with paid employees • Basic data obtained for all establishments including kind of business, geographic location, type of ownership, total revenue, annual and first quarter payroll, and employees in the pay period including March 12. Additional inquiries vary from sector to sector and, in some cases, industry to industry. • Every 5 years since 1967, for years ending in "2" and "7." Previous economic censuses were conducted for years 1963, 1958, and 1954 Increasing Census Coverage Economic Census Coverage Sector contribution to GDP Mining Manufacturing Construction Agriculture Governments Transp, Utilities Wholesale Not covered Retail Service Finance, Insurance, Real Estate Economic Census Table • Data classified by industry Standard Industrial Classification System • Developed in 1930's SIC • Updated every 10-15 years •Dominated by manufacturing New Numbering System Level Code Description Example Sector 51 Information Subsector 515 Broadcasting (except Internet) Industry Group 5151 Radio and Television Broadcasting Industry 51511 Radio Broadcasting U.S. Industry 515112 Radio Stations Economic Census Geography • U.S. • States • Metro areas • Counties • Places of 2,500+ Inhabitants • ZIP Codes Geographic Areas in the Economic Census Coun- Places ZIP Sector States MA's ties 2500+ Codes Mining X Utilities X X Construction X Manufacturing X X X X Wholesale Trade X X X X Retail Trade X X X X X Transportation and Warehousing X X Information X X X X Finance and Insurance X X Real Estate and Rental and Leasing X X X X Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services X X X X X Management of Companies and Enterprises X Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services X X X X X Educational Services X X X X X Health Care and Social Assistance X X X X X Arts, Entertainment and Recreation X X X X X Accommodation and Food Services X X X X X Other Services (Except Public Administration) X X X X X Coun- Places ZIP 2002 Economic Census by sector States MA's ties 2500+ Codes Comparative Statistics X Nonemployer Statistics X X X Survey of Business Owners (minority- and women-owned business) X X X X Coun- Places ZIP Current Economic Programs States MA's ties 2500+ Codes Annual Survey of Manufactures x Current Industrial Reports s New Residential Construction in Selected MSA's s Housing Units Authorized by Building Permits s s Statistics of U.S. Businesses x x County Business Patterns x x x ZIP Code Business Patterns x x Foreign Trade: Exports x Nonemployer Statistics P Businesses w/o paid employees account for 70% of all businesses 3.5% of all sales P Excluded from other census reports P U.S., State, county & metro data P Updated annually Survey of Business Owners Formerly the surveys of Minority- and Women-Owned • Women Business Enterprises • Black • Hispanic • American Indians and Alaska Natives • Asians and Pacific Islanders • Company Summary • Characteristics of Business Owners Principal Economic Indicators • Advance Monthly Retail Sales • Manufacturing and Trade: Inventories and Sales • Monthly Wholesale Trade • Manufactures’ Shipments, Inventories and Orders - Quarterly Services Survey [NEW] • Housing Starts • Value of New Construction Put in Place • Housing Completions • New Homes Sold and for Sale • US International Trade in Goods and Services • Quarterly Financial Report (two releases) • Housing Vacancies • Commodity Flow Survey • The Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) is the primary source of national and state-level data on domestic freight shipments by American establishments in mining, manufacturing, wholesale, auxiliaries, and selected retail industries. Data are provided on the types, origins and destinations, values, weights, modes of transport, distance shipped, and ton-miles of commodities shipped. The CFS is a shipper-based survey and is conducted every five years as part of the Economic Census. It provides a modal picture of national freight flows, and represents the only publicly available source of commodity flow data for the highway mode. The CFS was conducted in 1993, 1997, 2002, and most recently in 2007. • SURVEY OF BUSINESS OWNERS (Formerly known as the Surveys of Minority- and Women-Owned Business Enterprises) • PURPOSE • The Survey of Business Owners (SBO) provides the only comprehensive, regularly collected source of information on selected economic and demographic characteristics for businesses and business owners by gender, ethnicity, and race. Title 13 of the United States Code authorizes this survey and provides for mandatory responses. • COVERAGE • Included are all nonfarm businesses filing Internal Revenue Service tax forms as individual proprietorships, partnerships, or any type of corporation, and with receipts of $1,000 or more. The SBO covers both firms with paid employees and firms with no paid employees. The SBO is conducted on a company or firm basis rather than an establishment basis. A company or firm is a business consisting of one or more domestic establishments that the reporting firm specified under its ownership or control. • The data are compiled by combining data collected on businesses and business owners in the SBO with data collected on the main economic census and administrative records. • Business ownership is defined as having 51 percent or more of the stock or equity in the business and is categorized by: • Gender: Male; Female; or Equally Male-/Female-Owned • Ethnicity: Hispanic or Latino Origin; Not Hispanic or Latino Origin • Race: White; Black or African American; American Indian or Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander • Data have been collected every 5 years since 1972, for years ending in "2" and "7" as part of the economic census. The program began as a special project for minority-owned businesses in 1969 and was incorporated into the economic census in 1972 along with the Survey of Women-Owned Businesses. • The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey - Insurance Component (MEPS-IC), also called the Health Insurance Cost Study, is conducted by the United States Census Bureau for the Department of Health and Human Services. It provides national and state level estimates on employer-sponsored health insurance coverage. The survey is conducted under the authority of Title 13, Section 8(b) of the United States Code and Section 913 of the Public Health Service Act (Title 42, U.S.C., Section 299b-2). • COVERAGE • The MEPS-IC collects data from a sample of private- and public-sector employers. The sample consists of approximately 40,000 private industry establishments and 3,000 state and local governments. • CONTENT • The MEPS-IC fields questionnaires to private and public sector employers to collect data on the number and types of private health insurance plans offered, benefits associated with these plans, premiums, contributions by employers and employees, eligibility requirements, and employer characteristics. • FREQUENCY • This survey has been conducted annually since 1996 with a new sample selected every year. • METHODS • The MEPS-IC uses multiple data collection methods. Establishments and government units are initially screened by telephone to confirm their mailing addresses and to establish a point-of-contact with a knowledgable respondent. If an establishment does not offer health insurance to any of its employees, the questions about establishment and firm characteristics are asked at that time, and the survey is completed by telephone. • Establishments that offer health insurance and those that do not respond to the telephone screening are mailed survey questionnaires. The mailing consists of an establishment-level questionnaire and separate questionnaires for each health plan offered up to four plans. A second mailing is sent if the first mailing is not returned within a three-week period. If the establishment does not return either mailing, it is called and interviewed over the telephone. Large companies and governments are occasionally interviewed in person due to the large amount of data being requested of them. • PRODUCTS • The MEPS-IC provides national- and state-level estimates by industry and firm size. Data for the private- and public-sectors are tabulated separately. Private-sector tables are posted to the MEPS website in July and the public-sector tables five months later in December. For the first time ever the MEPS-IC is collecting data in the current year. For example, data used to create the 2008 MEPS-IC tables are being collected in 2008, and the tables will be posted in July and December of 2009. All released data can be found at www.meps.ahrq.gov under the section entitled "Summary Data Tables." • USES • Accurate and timely health insurance data are critical given the rapidly-rising cost of health care. Data are needed to track industry trends and examine how these trends have changed health insurance coverage over time. These data are national benchmarking estimates of how Americans use and pay for their health care services. Policy makers at the national and state levels use the data to assess the status of employer-sponsored health insurance throughout the United States and to monitor the impact of the laws governing health insurance. • Annual national estimates of aggregate spending on employer-sponsored health insurance are used by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) to calculate employer contributions to group health insurance, which accounts for about one-half of "other labor income" in the calculation of U.S. Gross Domestic Product. BEA also uses these data to monitor trends at the national and state level and to support estimates for the National Health Accounts. • Researchers and policy analysts, both public and private, use these data to analyze a number of issues, such as the factors associated with a firm's decision to self-insure or offer more insurance, and to model the tax implications of proposed legislation.
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