Berlin Brand Strategy by efv15496

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									    4.2. Strategic Brand Management




Institute of Marketing - Strategic Marketing Management   1
4.2. Strategic Brand Management



What is a Brand?

A brand is a distinguishing name and/or symbol (such as a logo,
trademark, or package design) intended to identify the goods or
services of either one seller or a group of sellers, and to
differentiate those goods or services from those of competitors.

                                                          (Aaker 1991, p. 7)




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4.2. Strategic Brand Management


Brand Equity                     Perceived quality
       Name awareness                                    Brand associations

      Brand loyalty                  Brand                   Other proprietary
                                     equity                  brand assets

                                     Name
Provides value to firm by                            Provides value to customer
enhancing
                                    Symbol           by enhancing customer„s
- Efficiency and effectiveness                       - Interpretation / processing
  of marketing programs                                of information
- Brand loyalty                                      - Confidence in the
- Prices / margins                                     purchase decision
- Brand extensions                                   - Use satisfaction
- Trade leverage
- Competitive advantage                                   Aaker (1991), p. 17
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4.2. Strategic Brand Management

            Semantic Network for
         Brand Knowledge of „Milka“




                                                Esch, Wicke (1999), p. 48

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4.2. Strategic Brand Management



  Basic Brand Types
   1. Individual brand: Brand that has been restricted to
      essentially one product category.
   2. Family brand: Brand that is used in more than one
      product category but is not necessarily the name of
      the company or corporation itself.
   3. Corporate (or umbrella) brand: Brand that is used
      for the entire product / service program.



Institute of Marketing - Strategic Marketing Management     7
4.2. Strategic Brand Management

Procter &
Gamble -
Major
Brands




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4.2. Strategic Brand Management

Beiersdorf - Brands




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4.2. Strategic Brand Management

Tesa




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4.2. Strategic Brand Management

Corporate Brands




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4.2. Strategic Brand Management


What is a Strong Brand?
  “[If customers] continue to purchase the brand even in the
  face of competitors with superior features, price, and
  convenience, substantial value exists in the brand.”
                                               Aaker (1991), p. 39

   „Eine starke Marke erkennt man daran, dass sie in der
   Lage ist, einen höheren Preis in ihrem Markt zu erzielen
   als ein ansonsten gleichwertiges Konkurrenzprodukt.“
                         Prof. Erichson, Universität Magdeburg

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4.2. Strategic Brand Management


Brand Values of Top 10 Brands
                      Coca-Cola         67,394 Mrd. US $
                      Microsoft         61,372
                      IBM               53,791
                      GE                44,111
                      Intel             33,499
                      Disney            27,113
                      McDonald„s        25,001
                      Nokia             24,041
                      Toyota            22,673
                      Marlboro          22,128
                                           Business Week (2004)

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4.2. Strategic Brand Management

Brand Values/Company Values




Institute of Marketing - Strategic Marketing Management   14
4.2. Strategic Brand Management


Use of Brand Values
      Internal:
      • Allocation of the marketing budget
      • Management of brand equity and control
      External:
      • Buying/Selling brands
                                      Transfer of brand rights
      • Licensing
      • Credit security
      • Compensation for the violation of brand rights
      • Accounting
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4.2. Strategic Brand Management



Approaches for Measuring Brand Value
           Non monetary                              Monetary
           • Aided and unaided recall                • Price premium
           • Perceived quality                       • Revenue premium
           • Brand loyalty                           • Conjoint analysis
Short term • Product benefit not explained by        • Hedonic price functions
             objective product characteristics,
             short term advertising effects, price
             (Kamakura & Russel 1993)

                                                     • Historical cost data
                                                     • Replacement costs
Long term                                            • Separation of brand value from tangible
                                                       and other intangible assets based on the
                                                       market value of the company
                     Adapted from Sattler (1995)       (Simon & Sullivan 1993)
                                                     • Scoring models (Sattler 1999)
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4.2. Strategic Brand Management


Short-term Brand Value:
Revenue Premium
      Revenueb = (volumeb)(priceb) - (volumepl)(pricepl)


      b = branded good
      pl = private label


                               Ailawadi, Lehman & Neslin (2003)


Institute of Marketing - Strategic Marketing Management
4.2. Strategic Brand Management

Revenue Premium – 4 Possibilities




                                                          Ailawadi, Lehman &
                                                          Neslin (2003), p. 5


Institute of Marketing - Strategic Marketing Management
4.2. Strategic Brand Management

Sattler 1999

Indikatormodell zur Ermittlung des
langfristigen monetären Markenwertes
 Grundidee:
 Befragung eines Samples von Experten zum langfristigen Wert (hypothetischer) Marken
 und anschließender Prognose des langfristigen Markenwertes.
 Vorteil gegenüber bisherigen Indikator- bzw. Scoring-Modellen (z.B. Interbrand):
 - Empirische Bestimmung der Verknüpfungs- und Transferfunktion auf der Basis
   eines Expertenpanels
 - Explizite Validitätsprüfung
 Expertenbefragung:
 - 78 Führungskräfte deutscher Konsumgüterhersteller
 - Zusammenarbeit mit GfK
 - Drei Warengruppen (Bier, Shampoo, Tafelschokolade)
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4.2. Strategic Brand Management


Ablauf der langfristigen
Markenwertbestimmung
  1. Ermittlung potentieller Markenwertindikatoren und
     Spezifikation der Rahmenbedingungen für die Bewertung
     durch Markenexperten
  2. Bewertung hypothetischer Marken durch Experten im
     Rahmen eines Experiments
  3. Validitätsprüfung
  4. Berechnung des langfristigen Markennutzens
  5. Transformation des langfristigen Markennutzens in einen
     langfristigen monetären Markenwert
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4.2. Strategic Brand Management

Indikatoren zur Beurteilung des
langfristigen Markenwertes




                                                          Sattler (1999), S. 638

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4.2. Strategic Brand Management


Rahmenbedingungen der Bewer-
tung von Biermarken (1)




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4.2. Strategic Brand Management


Rahmenbedingungen der Bewer-
tung von Biermarken (2)




                                                Sattler (1999), S. 639

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4.2. Strategic Brand Management




                                                Experimentell
                                                variierte
                                                Eigenschaften
                                                und deren
                                                Ausprägungen

                                            Sattler (1999), S. 640

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4.2. Strategic Brand Management


Gepoolte Regressionsanalyse für
den langfristigen Markennutzen
                                                          Sattler (1999), S. 643




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4.2. Strategic Brand Management

Berechnung des langfristigen
Markennutzens
 Beispiel: Langfristiger Markennutzen für Marke A
 • Konstante Marktstellung (letzte 5 Jahre)
 • Wertmäßiger Marktanteil 5%
 • Gewichtete Distributionsquote 70%
 • Gestützter Bekanntheitsgrad 70%
 • Starker Imagevorteil
 • Wiederverkaufsrate 45%
 LMNA = 51,62+11,51*1+5,47*1+3,06*0+2,11*(-1)+21,11*1+4,49*1
        = 92,09
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4.2. Strategic Brand Management



Brand Name Options with Respect
to New Products
1. Developing a new brand

2. Using an existing brand

3. Combination of new and existing brand

Brand extension: Established brand name is used to induce a new
product
                                                  Keller (1989), p. 451

Institute of Marketing - Strategic Marketing Management                   25
4.2. Strategic Brand Management

Examples




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4.2. Strategic Brand Management


Brand Strategy for a New Product
               Start

                           no                                                        Mono brand
       Brand strategy            Privat label
                                  strategy                                            strategy
                                                             no
                yes

                           yes                                                yes      Multiple
      New brand name             New brand             More than 1 brand in
                                  strategy                the category              brands strategy

                no

                           yes      Brand                                     no
      Company owning                                  1 umbrella brand for          Family brand
                                  extension
         the brand                                        all products                strategy
                                   strategy
                no
                                                            yes
    External acquisition                                                              Umbrella
       of the brand                                                                 brand strategy
                                        adapted from Sattler (2000)

Institute of Marketing - Strategic Marketing Management                                               27
4.2. Strategic Brand Management



Types of Brand Extensions
  1. Line extension: Parent brand is used to brand a new
     product that targets a new market segment within a
     product category currently served by the parent
     brand.
  2. Category extension: Parent brand is used to enter a
     different product category from that currently
     served by the parent brand.
                                             Keller (1998), p. 453


Institute of Marketing - Strategic Marketing Management              28
4.2. Strategic Brand Management


Brand Strategies Used by
Leading Consumer Product Companies
for New Products
                      1. Line extensions: 89%

                      2. Category extensions: 6%

                      3. New brands: 5%



Institute of Marketing - Strategic Marketing Management   29
4.2. Strategic Brand Management


Possible Advantages of Brand
Extensions (I)

                        new product acceptance


      Parent                                                New product
      brand                                               (brand extension)


                           feedback benefits


Institute of Marketing - Strategic Marketing Management                   30
4.2. Strategic Brand Management


Possible Advantages of Brand
Extensions (II)
  Facilitate New Product Acceptance
  • Reduce risk perceived by customers
  • Increase the probability of gaining distribution and trial
  • Increase efficiency of promotional expenditures
  • Reduce costs of introductory and followup marketing programs
  • Avoid cost of developing a new brand
  • Allow for packaging and labeling efficiencies
  • Permit customer variety-seeking

Institute of Marketing - Strategic Marketing Management       31
4.2. Strategic Brand Management


Possible Advantages of Brand
Extensions (III)
  Provide Feedback Benefits to the Parent Brand and
  Company
  • Clarify brand meaning
  • Enhance the parent brand image
  • Bring new customers into brand franchise and increase
    market coverage
  • Revitalize the brand
  • Permit subsequent extensions

Institute of Marketing - Strategic Marketing Management     32
4.2. Strategic Brand Management


Example




Institute of Marketing - Strategic Marketing Management   33
4.2. Strategic Brand Management

Hypothesen zu den Erfolgs-
faktoren von Markentransfers                                 Quelle: Völckner (2004), S. 1140

 Erfolgsfaktor       Inhalt der Hypothese: Der               Quelle
                     Markentransfer ist erfolgreicher,
 Qualität der        je höher die Qualität der Muttermarke   Aaker/Keller 1990,
 Muttermarke                                                 Nijssen/Bucklin 1998
 Markeninvolvement   je größer das Involvement der           DelVecchio 2000,
                     Konsumenten gegenüber der               Kirmani/Sood/
                     Muttermarke                             Bridges 1999
 Historie voran-     je erfolgreicher die Historie           Dacin/Smith 1994,
 gegangener          vorangegangener Markentransfers der     Smith/Park 1992
 Markentransfers     Muttermarke
 Marketing-          je größer die Marketingunterstützung    Nijssen 1999,
 unterstützung       für das Transferprodukt                 Reddy/ Holak/Bhat
                                                             1994

Institute of Marketing - Strategic Marketing Management
4.2. Strategic Brand Management

Hypothesen zu den Erfolgs-
faktoren von Markentransfers                                Quelle: Völckner (2004), S. 1140

 Erfolgsfaktor        Inhalt der Hypothese: Der             Quelle
                      Markentransfer ist erfolgreicher,
 Handelsakzeptanz     je höher die Handelsakzeptanz des     Nijssen 1999
                      Transferproduktes
 Fit                  je höher der Fit                      Aaker/Keller 1990,
                                                            Klink/Smith 2001

 Produktinvolvement   je niedriger das Produktinvolvement   Nijssen/Bucklin 1998,
                                                            Zatloukal 2002


 Innovativeness       je aufgeschlossener die Konsumenten   Hem/Chernatony/
                      gegenüber neuen Produkten sind        Iversen 2001,
                                                            Klink/Smith 2001


Institute of Marketing - Strategic Marketing Management
4.2. Strategic Brand Management

Beziehungsgeflecht der
Erfolgsfaktoren von Markentransfers
                                                     Quelle: Völckner (2004), S. 1140



                                                     MM: Muttermarke;
                                                     MT: Markentransfer;
                                                     n.s.: nicht signifikant
                                                     Sämtliche Beziehungen im
                                                     Strukturmodell sind auf dem 1%-
                                                     Niveau signifikant.

                                                     Quadrierte multiple Korrelation des
                                                     Markentransfererfolges: 0,785;
                                                     Größe Kalibrierungssample = 3081




Institute of Marketing - Strategic Marketing Management
4.2. Strategic Brand Management


Beziehungsgeflecht der
Erfolgsfaktoren von Markentransfers
                                                                    Quelle: Völckner (2004), S. 1140
Totale Effekte (indirekter + direkter Effekt) (1/2):

Qualität der Muttermarke                              0,11
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Historie vorangegangener Markentransfers 0,06 * 0,11 + 0,07 * 0,31 = 0,03
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Markeninvolvement                                     0,72 * 0,11 + 0,21 = 0,29
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Handelsakzeptanz                                      0,31
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Institute of Marketing - Strategic Marketing Management
4.2. Strategic Brand Management


Beziehungsgeflecht der
Erfolgsfaktoren von Markentransfers
                                                                        Quelle: Völckner (2004), S. 1140
Totale Effekte (indirekter + direkter Effekt) (2/2):

Marketingunterstützung                                0,55 * 0,31 + 0,38 * 0,48 + 0,38 *
                                                      0,23 * 0,31 + 0,14 = 0,52
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fit                                                   0,23 * 0,31 + 0,48 = 0,55
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Produktinvolvement                                    -0,26 * 0,05 + 0,07 = 0,06
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Innovativeness                                        0,05
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Institute of Marketing - Strategic Marketing Management

								
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