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					Circulatory System Chapter
            46.1
 http://pennhealth.com/health_info/anim
        ationplayer/heart_tool.html
 http://pennhealth.com/health_info/anim
         ationplayer/heartbeat.html
46.1 A Circulatory System
             • A subdivision of the
               circulatory system is
               the _____________
                      cardiovascular
               ______________ -
                  system
               heart and the blood
               vessels.
             • Another subdivision is
               the
                   lymphatic
               _________________
               _________________
                    system
               -lymph vessels and
               lymph nodes.
46.1 B Heart Picture
46.1 C. a. Heart Functions and
        Characteristics
        • Pumps blood through an network of
           blood             vessels
          ___________ _____________.
        • Heart beats __________billion times
                          2.5
          in a lifetime.
                      fist
        • Size of a _______
        • between two lungs
        • behind the sternum in _________
                                   thoracic
            cavity
          ____________
        • membrane around it with fluid in it
                         pericardium
          called the ___________.
46.1 C. b. Heart Characteristics
           Continued
                • Two sides
                • _________ divides
                   Septum
                  the two sides
                • Four ___________
                         chambers
                • Two ______
                        atria
                  chambers at the top
                • Two _________
                        ventricle
                  chambers on the
                  bottom
46.1 D Heart Valves
      •    Four one way valves

      1.   tricuspid valve –a.k.a.
               atrioventricular
           __________________ on the right side
           Between the right atria and the right ventricle
      2.                          mitral
           bicuspid valve a.k.a. _________valve on
           the left side
           Between the left atria and the left ventricle
      3.    Pulmonary
           _______________ valve-Top right
           semilunar valve
           Between the right ventricle and the pulmonary
               artery
      4.     Aortic
           _______________ valve-Top left
           semilunar valve
           Between the left ventricle and the aorta
   Heart
Circulation
 Picture




 46.1 E Flow of Blood in the Heart
46.1 F Heart Beat
    • Heartbeat works like a ___________
                                wave
    • The first group of cells contracts an
      then the next closest cells contract etc.
      etc
    • __________ contract __________
         atria                  first
    • __________ contract __________
       ventricles               second
    • It is rhythmic
    • __________ (pace maker) starts
      S.A. Node
      contraction independent of the brain
    • Contraction travels through heart to
            A.V.Node
      the __________ which passes along
      the signal for contraction
    • Ventricles contract a fraction of a
      ________after the atria
       second
    • ~______ beats a minute
         70
46.1 G. a. Blood Pressure
                Systole
             • _________ -ventricles
               contract (highest
               pressure)
             • __________- ventricles
               Diastole
               relax (lowest pressure)
             • Opening and closing of
               valves makes the
               Lub-dub
               __________ sound
             • Heart _______ can be
                      mumurs
               from defective valves and
               makes a different sound
46.1 G. b. Blood Pressure cont.
                • __________ _________
                   Blood         pressure
                  is defined as
                  the_________against the
                       force
                  inside walls of the blood
                  vessels
                • Blood pressure is taken
                  by a professional with a
                  device called a blood
                  pressure cuff.
                • Normal female BP is
                     110/70
                  ~_______ male is
                     120/80
                  ~_______
                • High blood pressure is
                  called ______________.
                           hypertension
     46.1 G. c. Problems Related to
          High Blood Pressure
• Kidney damage. The kidneys filter wastes from our bodies. Over
  time, high blood pressure can narrow and thicken the blood vessels
  of the kidneys. Thus the kidneys can not do their job well, and
  wastes build up in the blood. When kidney failure occurs, medical
  treatment (dialysis) or a kidney transplant is needed.
• Heart attack. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart
  attack. If the heart cannot get enough oxygen because of narrowed
  or hardened arteries, chest pain (angina) can occur. If the flow of
  blood is blocked, a heart attack results.
• Congestive heart failure. High blood pressure is the number one
  risk factor for congestive heart failure, a serious condition where the
  heart is not able to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.

• While high blood pressure can't be cured, in most cases, it can
  be prevented and controlled with a healthy lifestyle and
  medication.
46.1 H Pulse
      • __________ __________
         Pressure      waves
        from ventricles
                          pulse
        contracting is a ________
      • Normal place to take your
                       thumb
        pulse is the _________
        side of the wrist
      • The _________ of your
              stretching
        arteries is your pulse you
        feel.
      • Average pulse is
        _______ beats per
        70-90
        minute.
46.1 I Closed System
          • Blood is either in the
             heart or the blood vessels
                                under
             at all time and is _______
              pressure
             _________
           --This is a closed system
          • Closed circulatory
             systems keep blood
             flowing in _________
                          one
              direction
             ___________
          • Some animals have an
             open system where blood
             travels through around all
              body        cells
             ________ __________.
     46.1 J Arteries
•      Arteries
    _________ are large muscular vessels
•   They have three layers
                         endothelial
    1. inner layer of _______________tissue (like
       skin)
    2. middle muscle layer of __________ muscle
                                  smooth
                        connective
    3. outer layer of _______________ tissue
•   Arteries are _______ and _________
                    strong            elastic
•   Buildup of hard deposits which can lead
    to blockage in the arteries and blood
    vessels is called _________________
                         arteriosclerosis
46.1 K Flow of Blood from the
           Heart
          • Blood from the heart goes to
                         arteries
            the aorta___________
                        arterioles
            then to ______________
            then to ______________
                       capillaries
            then to ______________
                        venules
                         veins
            then to ______________
            then back to the heart
                     46.1 L Capillaries
                         • Capillaries is where the action
                           is  delivering _________ and
                                             oxygen
                           nutrients and picking up
                              waste
                           ___________ and __________.
                                                CO2
                         • ___________ how this
                             Diffusion
Ca standard 9a.            happens- because each
Students know how          molecule travels from an area of
the complementary
activity of major body
                             high
                           _______ concentration to an
systems provides           area of ________
cells with oxygen and
                                      low
nutrients and              concentration.
removes toxic waste
products such as
carbon dioxide.
46.1 M Veins and Venules
       • Veins are similar to arteries with the
         same three layers
            Endothelial      tissue
          -______________ _____________
              smooth
          -______________ muscle
             connective
          -______________ tissue
       • veins differ from arteries in they have
         _________ __________ and they are
          less            strength
         ___________.
            thinner
       • There is ______ ____________ in
                   less        pressure
         veins
       • Veins carry ________________ blood
                          deoxygenated
       • Veins run through __________
                                skeletal
         muscles and as they move, this can
         push the blood toward the heart
       • Veins have _______ to prevent
                       valves
         backflow
         46.1 N Chart of Blood Vessels
             Arteries                   Capillaries                       Veins
Carry        away from the heart       from arteries to veins             towards the
blood:                                                                    heart


Pressure:    high                      low                                very low


Walls are:   thick and muscular with   very thin and leaky - one cell     thin
             elastic fibers            thick

Blood is:    oxygenated                exchanging nutrients and           de-oxygenated
             (except pulmonary         gases with cells, drop off sugar   (except
             artery)                   and oxygen, pick up CO2 and        pulmonary
                                       waste products such as urea        vein)


Pulse:       Strong                    none                               none
46.1 O Pulmonary Circulation
                                     Pulmonary
                                  • _______________
                                    circulation-Circulation
                                    between the heart to the lungs
                                  • This circulation passes into
                                    arteries venules small
                                    capillaries which allow the
                                  • ________________________
                                     •exchange of CO2
                                    ________________________
                                     out of the blood
                                    ________________________
                                     and O2 into the
                                    ________________________
                                     blood through
                                    ________
                                     diffusion
                                  • Capillaries are flat one cell
Ca standard 9a. Students know       thick to allow easy _________
                                                          diffusion
how the complementary activity of • The body maintains
major body systems provides         homeostasis of the oxygen and
cells with oxygen and nutrients     CO2 levels with this combined
and removes toxic waste products    work of the lungs and the
such as carbon dioxide.             circulatory systems.
         46.1 P Systemic Circulation
                         • ______________ circulation is betweenall parts of
                            Systemic                                   ___ ____
                           the body and the heart except the lungs
                         • ______________ circulation subset which supplies
                            Coronary
                           the __________itself.
                                heart
                         • The body maintains homeostasis of the blood
                           pressure due to the combined efforts of the heart
                           muscle and the hearts own pumping action.
                         • _____________ portal circulation is a subset which
                             Hepatic
                                           liver
                           goes to the ____________ where nutrient sent from
                           digestion are picked up by the blood.
                         • The body maintains homeostasis of the nutrients
Ca standard 9a.            brought in by the digestion by the combined actions of
Students know how          the digestive and the circulatory systems.
the complementary        • _____________ circulation is a subset which diverts
                             Renal
activity of major body     ¼ of the blood to go through the___________ to filter
                                                              kidneys
systems provides           out waste material.
cells with oxygen and    • The body maintains homeostasis of the waste
nutrients and              products filtered into the blood during circulation and
removes toxic waste        the removal of the waste by the excretory system.
products such as
carbon dioxide.
Ca standard
9a. Students
know how the
                 46.1 Q Lymphatic System
complementar
y activity of
major body         • Excess fluid from around cells (_________)
                                                        lymph
systems
provides cells       goes into lymph vessels similar to capillaries
with oxygen
and nutrients
                     and into larger vessels similar to veins
and removes
toxic waste
                   • These vessels have ______ to prevent backflow
                                             valves
products such
as carbon
                   • This is a one ______ system which leads back
                                 ____ way
dioxide.             into the blood
                   • As lymph goes along lymph vessels they pass
                     through ______ _______ which store white
                                lymph nodes
                                   WBC’s
                     blood cells ____________
                   • Lymph nodes ________ the fluid and the white
                                      filter
                     blood cells _______ bacteria and kill it.
                                   attack
                   • Infection can lead to inflammation and _______
                                                               swelling
                     of the lymph nodes- example your tonsils
                   • The body can maintain the homeostasis of body
                     fluids, infectious agents, and white blood cell
                     count made by the skeletal system by the
                     combined action of the skeletal systems, cells,
                     and the lymphatic circulation.
                         Vocabulary 1
Lymphatic system              ________________ A one way “doorway” in the
Valve                           heart and blood vessels
Aorta                         ________________Large artery where blood
AV node (atrioventricular)      pumped from the heart first goes
Mitral valve (bicuspid valve) ________________The node which passes along
                                the signal to contract the heart
Lymph node
                              ________________Valve in between the left
                                atrium and the left ventricle
                              ________________an organ in the lymphatic
                                system where white blood cells are stored
                              ________________Systems which is made up of
                                lymph (bodily fluid from around the cells) and a
                                series of one way vessels that dump into the
                                blood ,with valves, with lymph nodes along the
                                way
            Vocabulary cont 2
Cardiovascular system   ________________valve between
SA node (sinoatrial)      the right atrium and right ventricle
Atrium (atria)          ________________lower chambers
Tricuspid valve           of the heart
Ventricle(s)            ________________the lowest
                          pressure in the heart and arteries
Diastolic pressure      ________________the highest
Systolic pressure         pressure in the heart and arteries
                        ________________the pacemaker of
                          the heart which start the signal to
                          contract the heart
                        ________________the system which
                          delivers oxygen and nutrients to
                          the body via the blood
                        ________________upper chambers
                          of the heart
                 Vocabulary cont 3
                  _____________________Medium sized blood vessel
Pulse               of the cardiovascular systems which contains
Artery              oxygenated blood
Capillary         _____________________Sac like membrane around
                    the heart filled with fluid
Heart murmur
                  _____________________pressure waves from the
Arterioles          ventricles contracting
Pericardium       _____________________The pressure against the
Blood pressure      wall of the arteries
                  _____________________ unusual sound from the
                    heart from defective valves
                  _____________________Blood vessels which lead
                    away from the heart and contain oxygenated blood
                  _____________________Small one cell thick vessels
                    which go between cells to deliver and take away
                    nutrients an waste
                  Vocabulary cont 4
Pulmonary valve       ___________________Blood
Aortic valve            vessels which lead toward the
                        heart and contain deoxygenated
Vein                    blood
Venules               ___________________Dividing wall
Septum                  inside the heart between the two
                        side of the heart
                      ___________________Valve of the
                        heart which leads to the aorta
                      ___________________Valve of the
                        heart which leads to the lungs
                      ___________________Blood
                        vessels which are medium in size
                        and contain deoxygenated blood
                  Vocabulary cont 5
                     __________________High blood
Pulmonary
                                               pressure
   circulation
Systemic             __________________Hardening of the
                                               arteries
   circulation
                     __________________Circulation
Lymph
                       between the body (no lungs) and the
hypertension           heart.
atherosclerosis      __________________Circulation
                       between the heart and the lungs
                     __________________Bodily fluid drained
                       from around the tissues
Blood Chapter 46 Section 2

 http://pennhealth.com/health_info/anim
     ationplayer/red_blood_cell.html
46.2 A Plasma
                    straw    like
 • The ___________ ___________ liquid is called
   blood plasma
           90
   -____________% water
     proteins
   -____________
         -hormones
         -blood clotting factors
         -immune system antibodies
         -albumin-regulates osmotic pressure
     sugars
   -__________
   -__________
     vitamins
   -__________
     Amino acids
     metabolites
   -__________
     wastes
   -__________
     salts
   -__________
46.2 B Formed Elements
        • The formed elements are:
          -____ _____ _____
             Red      blood  cells

          -____ _____ _____
             White     blood  cells

          -_____________
            platelets
46.2 C Red Blood Cells
      • Red blood cells a.k.a.
        ___________
         erythrocytes
        -transport __________
                       oxygen
        -made in the red ______ _____
                               Bone     marrow
        -contain ______________ which is
                    Hemoglobin
        the transport molecule for oxygen
        -once fully made has no organelles
        and ____ ___________
               No       nucleus
        -lives about __________ days
                          120
        -three trillion red blood cells at any
        one time
        -two million die each second and
        get replaced at the same rate
        -replaced by ________________in
                           hematopoesis
        red bone marrow
46.2 D White Blood Cells
          •           defend
              Help __________ the body from disease
          •   Born in the red bone marrow
          •                   Lymph     nodes
              Mature in the _________ ________
          •   Ratio of red blood cells to white = 2
              million to 7,000
          •   Irregular shape
          •   Have different kinds of nuclei
          •   Live years longer than red blood cells
                                 phagocytes
          •   Some are called _______________ and
              can eat up bacteria
              http://pennhealth.com/health_info/animati
              onplayer/phagocytosis.html
          •                5
              There are _____ specific kinds of white
              blood cells
          •   White blood cells increase in number
              significantly when someone has a
                bacterial
              _______________infection.
       46.2 D cont. Five Kinds of White
                Blood Cells
•    Neutrophils
    ________________: The most numerous of the white blood cells,
    normally making up about 65-70% of the total white blood cell
    count. Neutrophils are granulocytes whose granules do not pick up a
    predominant color when stained with Wright Stain. Neutrophils fuction as
    phagocytes.
•    Lymphocytes
    ________________: Make up 20-25% white blood cell count, and are
    easily distinguishable by the large nucleus which takes up almost all of
    the cell. Lymphocytes are agranulocytes. Lymphocytes are involved in
    immune responses and are further differentiated into T-lymphocytes and
    B-lymphocytes.
     Monocytes
•   ________________: Large cells with a kidney-shaped nucleus that make
    up about 4-8% of the total white blood cell population. Monocytes
    function as phagocytes, and develop into macrophages.
•   ________________: Granulocytes that stain red with Wright
      Eosinophils
    Stain. Nucleus looks like a droopy figure 8. Eosinophils are involved in
    dissolving clots and also function in allergic reactions. Make up 2-5% of
    white blood cells.
•      Basophils
    ________________: Granulocytes that stain blue with Wright
    Stain. Basophils make up the smallest portion of the total white blood
    cells - 0.5 - 1%. They release heparin and later develop into mast cells
    which are involved in the inflammatory response. Basophils also release
    serotonin.
46.2 E Platelets
        • Platelets help form blood
          _________
            clots
        • They are small _________of
                            pieces
          large cells made in the bone
          marrow.
        • When there is a wound the first
          thing to clump at the site is
          ________________
            platelets
        • The platelets then release
          clotting __________ which
                    factors
          eventually lead to fibrin
          forming in the area to trap red
          blood cells and form a
          ________
           scab
        • ____________ is a disease
           Hemophilia
          where some of the chemical
          necessary for blood clotting
          are not made by the genes
46.2 Picture
46.2 F Blood Types
         • An ___________ is a
                    antigen
           substance on the surface
           of a cell or a protein or
           anything which stimulates
           an immune response in
           the human body.
         • Human blood cells have
           antigens on them which
           cause a response when
           exposed to
           ___________blood.
            foreign
 46.2 G ABO Blood Classification




• The system which classifies blood type by
  antigens is called the ________ blood type
                          ABO
  system.
               A
• There is an ____ antigen
              B
• There is a ____ antigen
 46.2 H RH +
• Another kind of antigen on blood cells is RH
  factor or RH antigen. You either have it or you
  don’t.
                         RH+
• If you do you are ________
• RH factor is important in having ____________
                                        children
  if a woman is RH- and the father is RH+ and
  the baby is RH+.
• During delivery a small amount of the RH+
  blood can get into the mother’s blood stream
  causing her to make _____________ against
                              antibodies
  RH+ blood. If the next child is RH+ then the
  antibodies will pass to the baby and most likely
  will cause it to die, a disease called
  erythroblastosis fetalis.
• There is an option to treat the mother right after
  the birth of the first RH+ baby. She is given a
  drug __________ to kill any RH+ blood cells
         Rhogam
  which might have gotten into her blood stream
  and therefore prevent the formation of
  antibodies against the RH+ blood.
 Multiple Alleles, Co-dominance and
            Blood Types
In the human population, there are 4 major
  blood types:
                    A
                    B
                   AB
                    O
           Antigens
Proteins on the cell membrane
                  Antigens
 RBC
      Blood Type A

             “A” Antigens
RBC
             =   IA Allele
      Blood Type B

             “B” Antigens
RBC          =   IB Allele
  Blood Type AB


       “A”Antigens
RBC
        “B” Antigens

          = IAIB
Blood Type O

        No antigens
RBC
         =   ioio
            Rh Factor

• Rh factor is a separate gene
• Codes for a protein on the rbc.
• You either have it = Rh + or
  you don’t = Rh-
      Rh Factor



Rh+               Rh-
 If R= Rh + and r = Rh -



Rh+             Rh-

RR, Rr          rr
            Antibodies

• Antibodies are
  proteins found
  in blood which
  bind to a
  specific
  antigen.
  Antibody-Antigen Interaction
• Antibody against the A antigen are
  called Anti A
• If you add Anti - A to blood with
  RBC with A antigens, the blood
  clumps = agglutination
• Same for Anti - B to blood with B
  antigens
   For the following pictures,
    identify the blood types




Anti A       Anti B      Anti Rh
         Answer = O -
   For the following pictures,
    identify the blood types




Anti A       Anti B      Anti Rh
         Answer = A-
   For the following pictures,
    identify the blood types




Anti A       Anti B      Anti Rh
         Answer = B+
   For the following pictures,
    identify the blood types




Anti A       Anti B      Anti Rh
         Answer = AB+
   For the following pictures,
    identify the blood types




Anti A       Anti B      Anti Rh
         Answer = O+
          Transfusions

• While you generally only
  develop antibodies against an
  antigen once you have been
  exposed to it, Antibodies
  against the blood proteins are
  the exception.
          Transfusions

• You have antibodies in your
  blood against what ever blood
  antigens you DON’T have.
• Eg if you have blood type A,
  you have Anti- B antibodies in
  your plasma
      Transfusions
Blood TypeAntibodies
  A              Anti B
  B              Anti A
  O         Anti A + Anti B

  AB             None
          Transfusions

• You can only receive blood
  against which you do not have
  antibodies
     Transfusions
Blood TypeCan Receive
 A              A, O
 B              B, O
 O                  O

 AB             A, B, O
          Transfusions

• Why do they call type 0 blood
  the universal donor?

				
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