Basic Entrepreneurial Attitudes and Skills by yfh72790

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									  A European Perspective
- Putting Ireland in Context

   Dr Thomas M. Cooney
               Research Fellow
         Dublin Institute of Technology

      European Council for Small Business
Education Philosophy

“Young minds are not vessels to be filled,
   but fires to be ignited” (Alexander Pope)
European Commission
EC Policy Documents (1)
•   Lisbon Strategy 1 (2000)
     – „fostering an entrepreneurial mindset as well as the relevant skills
       among young people – starting from basic education‟
•   Green Paper – Entrepreneurship in Europe (2003)
     – „Education and training should contribute to encouraging e/ship by
       fostering the right mindset…and skills‟
•   Response to Green Paper (2003)
     – „All young people should get a chance to learn about
       entrepreneurship, acquire entrepreneurial skills and business skills‟
•   Action Plan: The European Agenda for E/ship (2004)
     – Strategic Policy Area 1 (of 5) „Fuelling Entrepreneurial Mindsets‟
       in which „the Commission calls upon Member States to integrate
       entrepreneurship education into all schools‟ curricula‟
    EC Policy Documents (2)
•   Fostering Entrepreneurial Mindsets Through Education and
    Learning (2006)
     – „National authorities should establish co-operation between different
       departments leading to developing a strategy with clear objectives and
       covering all stages of education‟
     – „Curricula for schools at all levels should explicitly include
       entrepreneurship as an objective of education‟
•   Lisbon Strategy 2 (2006)
     – „underlines the need of creating an overall entrepreneurial climate ….
       and therefore invites Member States to strengthen respective
       measures, including through entrepreneurship education‟
•   Lifelong Learning and Youth in Action (2006)
     – Objectives encouraging creativity and spirit of initiative and enterprise
EC Policy Documents (3)
•   Small Business Act – Think Small First (2008)
     – Principle 1 (of 10): Create an environment in which entrepreneurs
       and family businesses can thrive and entrepreneurship is rewarded
     – Member States are invited to:
          • Introduce entrepreneurship as a key competence in school curricula
          • Ensure that the importance of entrepreneurship is reflected in teacher
          • Step up cooperation with business community….for e/ship education at
            all levels
•   Best Procedure Project on Education and Training for
    Entrepreneurship (2002)
•   „Making Progress in Promoting Entrepreneurial Attitudes and
    Skills Through Primary and Secondary Education‟ (2004)
•   Progress Report on the Implementation of the Education and
    Training 2010 Work Programme (2004)
•   „Helping to Create an Entrepreneurial Culture‟ booklet (2004)
•   „Mini Companies in Secondary Education‟ (2005)
•   Commission Communication on Entrepreneurship Education
•   „Oslo Agenda for E/ship Education in Europe‟ (2006)
•   „Entrepreneurship in Higher Education, Especially Within Non-
    Business Studies‟ (2008)
•   „Survey of Entrepreneurship in Higher Education in Europe‟
What Does All Of This Mean?
  •   EC believes that Europe is not fully exploiting its entrepreneurial
  •   Serious recognition being given by EC to the importance of
      entrepreneurship education in building European economy and
  •   Entrepreneurship is seen as a mindset with broad societal
      implications (not just about new venture creation)
  •   Many initiatives being undertaken by EC through policy and
  •   Member States are encouraged (but cannot be forced) to
      introduce entrepreneurship education at all school levels and
      across all disciplines
  •   Funding available to help – e.g. Call for Proposals through
      "Entrepreneurial culture of young people and entrepreneurship
  •   Needs action at national, institutional and individual levels
National and HEI Initiatives
Country Strategies - Finland
 •   Entrepreneurship education is a thematic entity, not a subject
 •   Ministry of Education Policy produced an Action Plan for
     Entrepreneurship Education (2004) that covered all levels of education
 •   Ministry of Education along with Ministry of Trade and Industry
     appointed a working group "From Higher Education Institutes to
 •   Ministry of Education also appointed a Entrepreneurship steering group
 •   Challenges include:
      –   Entrepreneurship education is available as a part of teacher's basic education as a optional
          subject but it does not attract the students
      –   In-service training does not interest the teachers, even though the state has appointed budget
          resources for it
      –   The entrepreneurs also need pedagogical skills
 •   New „Policy programme for employment, entrepreneurship and worklife‟
 •   8 Government Departments involved
 •   Entrepreneurship education encompasses the entire school system in
     cross-curricular themes.
Country Strategies - Norway
 •   „See the Opportunities and Make Them Work: Strategy for
     Entrepreneurship in Education and Training 2004-2008‟ (revised
 •   Three goals:
      –   Develop knowledge and competences related to entrepreneurial activities,
      –   Strengthen young people‟s belief in and capabilities of their own creative
      –   Foster a culture for entrepreneurship
 •   3 Government Departments involved (Ministry of Education and
     Research, Ministry of Trade and Industry and Ministry of Local
     Government and Regional Development)
 •   Entrepreneurship included in the curricula at all levels
 •   Co-operation between ministries and directorates
 •   Partnership agreement with business
 •   Partnership with JA-YE
 •   Co-operation with other important stakeholders
 •   Research and evaluation was included as part of the process
Institutional Performance
•   „Survey of Entrepreneurship in Higher Education in Europe‟
    (published December 2008)
•   Methodology
     – Survey of 2,899 HEIs from 31 countries
     – 664 responded (24.5%)
     – 46 in-depth interviews
•   Results show that the scope of entrepreneurship education across
    Europe is „worrisome‟
•   Estimated that 5 million of approximately 21 million students are
    currently engaged in entrepreneurship education in HEIs
•   Students attending a business school or institution with a business
    department more likely to receive entrepreneurship education
•   Geographical differences also as students in original EU15 more
    likely to receive entrepreneurship education
    Key Findings of Report
•   Acknowledgement by top management is probably the single
    most important factor in better performing HEIs
•   Focus is on early years of study (PhDs have limited access)
•   Institutional infrastructures support sustainability
•   Better performing institutions:
     –   Have entrepreneurship degrees
     –   Import entrepreneurial education from other institutions (best practice)
     –   Use experimental and innovative teaching methods (charity events in DIT)
•   General characteristics of all HEIs:
     –   Heavy use of classroom lectures
     –   Substantial use of case studies
     –   Teachers have little entrepreneurship experience
     –   Led by one champion within the institution
     –   Little evaluation and follow-up
     –   Limited dedicated funding
•   Biggest barriers:
     –   Depends on single person
     –   Not enough time
     –   Educator competence inadequate
Report Recommendations
   for Governments
•   Develop a policy programme on how to mainstream
    entrepreneurship into higher education and set aside resources
•   Ensure that HEIs are not restricted in their pursuit of the
    entrepreneurial agenda by rules and regulations
•   Track and evaluate the effects of entrepreneurship
•   Make sure that the focus is on the entire educational system, as
    one study level feeds into the other. The formation of an
    entrepreneurial mindset is a joint effort from primary education to
    tertiary education.
Report Recommendations
        for HEIs
•   Ensure that the highest levels of the institution support the entrepreneurial
•   The goals and aspirations need to be very explicit and known throughout
    the institution
•   The vision should reflect a broad definition of entrepreneurship
•   HEIs should track the alumni and actively involve them in their efforts to
    promote entrepreneurial education
•   HEIs should set up an infrastructure that supports entrepreneurial
    education, entrepreneurial students and staff
•   Entrepreneurship courses should support and be aligned with the overall
    entrepreneurial goals and strategies
•   HEIs need to develop ways of evaluating the quality and relevance of
    their entrepreneurial teaching
•   HEIs need to be aware that entrepreneurial teaching staff act as role
    models for the students
•   HEIs need to allocate funds to promote the entrepreneurial agenda
  Ireland’s Performance
Entrepreneurship Education
       Quotes from the
    Goodbody Report (2002)
•   “The school system does not support the idea of working for
•   “The Irish education system was seen by entrepreneurs to have
    played a very limited role in supporting entrepreneurship to date”.
•   “Currently the provision in this area is very fragmented”.
•   Recommendation – increase the focus on entrepreneurship within
    the educational system
      GEM Report (2005)
•   More education required at all levels on entrepreneurship
•   Develop an entrepreneurship agenda in the education system and
    have a stronger focus on the importance of entrepreneurship as a
    career option
•   Need to identify entrepreneurship as a career option through all
    levels of education
•   The education system needs to be overhauled: enterprise,
    entrepreneurship, risk taking and innovation are absent
•   Encourage creativity and innovation at all levels of the education
    system from primary through to third-level
•   Entrepreneurship education throughout all levels is critical if the
    culture is to be changed in terms of people willing to consider
    entrepreneurship as a career option
      Government Reports
•   Enterprise Strategy Group (2004)
     – Entrepreneurial skills should be included in the syllabus
•   Small Business Forum (2006)
     – Reinforce entrepreneurship in the education system
•   Towards Developing an Entrepreneurship Policy in Ireland (2007)
     – Full chapter on entrepreneurship education
•   Building Ireland‟s Smart Economy (2008)
     – Numerous Action Points (page 72) on fostering entrepreneurship in
       the education system
     – Only one Action Point actually deals with „entrepreneurship
          • “we will raise the profile of the Student Enterprise Awards…; we will
            encourage second level students to participate in an enterprise related
          Secondary Schools
•   School Curricula
     –   Junior Cert – Commercial section
     –   Transition Year – Mini-Companies
     –   Leaving Cert – Business Studies option
     –   Leaving Cert Applied (LCA) - Enterprise 1, 2 and 3
     –   Leaving Certificate Vocation Programme (LCVP) – Enterprise
•   Enterprise Competitions
     –   CEBs Student Enterprise Competitions
     –   Young Entrepreneurs Scheme (YES)
     –   Young Enterprise Ireland Project
     –   Enterprise Encounter Project
     –   Junior Achievement Initiative
     –   Gaisce Awards
     –   Young Entrepreneurs (Kerry)
                Third Level
•   Large number of undergraduate subjects/courses (mostly targeted
    at business students)
•   Some post-graduate subjects/courses
•   Enterprise Ireland and Newstalk Student Enterprise Competitions
•   Institutional Business Plan Competitions
•   Campus company programmes
•   Enterprise Platform Programmes
•   Centres for Enterprise / Innovation
•   Case study competitions and case books
•   Regular workshops and newsletters
•   Special Edition of the Irish Journal of Management on
    Entrepreneurship in Ireland
•   Entrepreneurship Track at IAM Conference
•   Partner in European research projects and with European
    organisations (holding key positions)
          Current Position
•   Large number of positive initiatives taking place across
    secondary and third levels of Irish education
•   Highly fragmented
•   Lacking clear sense of purpose and direction
•   Poor performers in terms of international research and
•   Not meeting the needs of the country
•   Need to provide entrepreneurship education to a wider number of
    students throughout the education system and also to non-
    business students
•   Need a coherent entrepreneurship education strategy that is
    integrated across all three levels and across government
•   A Working Group should be established to put forward proposals
    for delivering an integrated entrepreneurship education policy
•   Education system is primarily left brain orientated (particularly
    business students)
•   Need to re-imagine entrepreneurship education curricula
•   Must develop students who are entrepreneurial in their way of
    thinking and behaving
•   Department of Education resistance to change the current system
•   Budget cutbacks will place serious financial constraints on new
•   Teachers need to understand business and be trained
•   Resistance by teachers and Trade Unions to change in syllabii
•   Introducing new syllabii and culture is a difficult and lengthy
•   Need government, educational institutions, and individuals to
    take responsibility
•   Huge task ahead but we cannot be overwhelmed
       Final Thought

“Some people look at things and say why; I
   see things that never were and say why
               not !” (G.B. Shaw)

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