Basic Entrepreneurial Attitudes and Skills by yfh72790

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									  A European Perspective
- Putting Ireland in Context

   Dr Thomas M. Cooney
               Research Fellow
         Dublin Institute of Technology

                President-Elect
      European Council for Small Business
Education Philosophy


“Young minds are not vessels to be filled,
   but fires to be ignited” (Alexander Pope)
European Commission
     Initiatives
EC Policy Documents (1)
•   Lisbon Strategy 1 (2000)
     – „fostering an entrepreneurial mindset as well as the relevant skills
       among young people – starting from basic education‟
•   Green Paper – Entrepreneurship in Europe (2003)
     – „Education and training should contribute to encouraging e/ship by
       fostering the right mindset…and skills‟
•   Response to Green Paper (2003)
     – „All young people should get a chance to learn about
       entrepreneurship, acquire entrepreneurial skills and business skills‟
•   Action Plan: The European Agenda for E/ship (2004)
     – Strategic Policy Area 1 (of 5) „Fuelling Entrepreneurial Mindsets‟
       in which „the Commission calls upon Member States to integrate
       entrepreneurship education into all schools‟ curricula‟
    EC Policy Documents (2)
•   Fostering Entrepreneurial Mindsets Through Education and
    Learning (2006)
     – „National authorities should establish co-operation between different
       departments leading to developing a strategy with clear objectives and
       covering all stages of education‟
     – „Curricula for schools at all levels should explicitly include
       entrepreneurship as an objective of education‟
•   Lisbon Strategy 2 (2006)
     – „underlines the need of creating an overall entrepreneurial climate ….
       and therefore invites Member States to strengthen respective
       measures, including through entrepreneurship education‟
•   Lifelong Learning and Youth in Action (2006)
     – Objectives encouraging creativity and spirit of initiative and enterprise
EC Policy Documents (3)
•   Small Business Act – Think Small First (2008)
     – Principle 1 (of 10): Create an environment in which entrepreneurs
       and family businesses can thrive and entrepreneurship is rewarded
     – Member States are invited to:
          • Introduce entrepreneurship as a key competence in school curricula
          • Ensure that the importance of entrepreneurship is reflected in teacher
            training
          • Step up cooperation with business community….for e/ship education at
            all levels
               Publications
•   Best Procedure Project on Education and Training for
    Entrepreneurship (2002)
•   „Making Progress in Promoting Entrepreneurial Attitudes and
    Skills Through Primary and Secondary Education‟ (2004)
•   Progress Report on the Implementation of the Education and
    Training 2010 Work Programme (2004)
•   „Helping to Create an Entrepreneurial Culture‟ booklet (2004)
•   „Mini Companies in Secondary Education‟ (2005)
•   Commission Communication on Entrepreneurship Education
    (2006)
•   „Oslo Agenda for E/ship Education in Europe‟ (2006)
•   „Entrepreneurship in Higher Education, Especially Within Non-
    Business Studies‟ (2008)
•   „Survey of Entrepreneurship in Higher Education in Europe‟
    (2008)
What Does All Of This Mean?
  •   EC believes that Europe is not fully exploiting its entrepreneurial
      potential
  •   Serious recognition being given by EC to the importance of
      entrepreneurship education in building European economy and
      society
  •   Entrepreneurship is seen as a mindset with broad societal
      implications (not just about new venture creation)
  •   Many initiatives being undertaken by EC through policy and
      publications
  •   Member States are encouraged (but cannot be forced) to
      introduce entrepreneurship education at all school levels and
      across all disciplines
  •   Funding available to help – e.g. Call for Proposals through
      "Entrepreneurial culture of young people and entrepreneurship
      education”
  •   Needs action at national, institutional and individual levels
National and HEI Initiatives
Country Strategies - Finland
 •   Entrepreneurship education is a thematic entity, not a subject
 •   Ministry of Education Policy produced an Action Plan for
     Entrepreneurship Education (2004) that covered all levels of education
     system
 •   Ministry of Education along with Ministry of Trade and Industry
     appointed a working group "From Higher Education Institutes to
     Entrepreneur"
 •   Ministry of Education also appointed a Entrepreneurship steering group
 •   Challenges include:
      –   Entrepreneurship education is available as a part of teacher's basic education as a optional
          subject but it does not attract the students
      –   In-service training does not interest the teachers, even though the state has appointed budget
          resources for it
      –   The entrepreneurs also need pedagogical skills
 •   New „Policy programme for employment, entrepreneurship and worklife‟
     (2007)
 •   8 Government Departments involved
 •   Entrepreneurship education encompasses the entire school system in
     cross-curricular themes.
Country Strategies - Norway
 •   „See the Opportunities and Make Them Work: Strategy for
     Entrepreneurship in Education and Training 2004-2008‟ (revised
     2006)
 •   Three goals:
      –   Develop knowledge and competences related to entrepreneurial activities,
      –   Strengthen young people‟s belief in and capabilities of their own creative
          forces
      –   Foster a culture for entrepreneurship
 •   3 Government Departments involved (Ministry of Education and
     Research, Ministry of Trade and Industry and Ministry of Local
     Government and Regional Development)
 •   Entrepreneurship included in the curricula at all levels
 •   Co-operation between ministries and directorates
 •   Partnership agreement with business
 •   Partnership with JA-YE
 •   Co-operation with other important stakeholders
 •   Research and evaluation was included as part of the process
Institutional Performance
•   „Survey of Entrepreneurship in Higher Education in Europe‟
    (published December 2008)
•   Methodology
     – Survey of 2,899 HEIs from 31 countries
     – 664 responded (24.5%)
     – 46 in-depth interviews
•   Results show that the scope of entrepreneurship education across
    Europe is „worrisome‟
•   Estimated that 5 million of approximately 21 million students are
    currently engaged in entrepreneurship education in HEIs
•   Students attending a business school or institution with a business
    department more likely to receive entrepreneurship education
•   Geographical differences also as students in original EU15 more
    likely to receive entrepreneurship education
    Key Findings of Report
•   Acknowledgement by top management is probably the single
    most important factor in better performing HEIs
•   Focus is on early years of study (PhDs have limited access)
•   Institutional infrastructures support sustainability
•   Better performing institutions:
     –   Have entrepreneurship degrees
     –   Import entrepreneurial education from other institutions (best practice)
     –   Use experimental and innovative teaching methods (charity events in DIT)
•   General characteristics of all HEIs:
     –   Heavy use of classroom lectures
     –   Substantial use of case studies
     –   Teachers have little entrepreneurship experience
     –   Led by one champion within the institution
     –   Little evaluation and follow-up
     –   Limited dedicated funding
•   Biggest barriers:
     –   Depends on single person
     –   Not enough time
     –   Educator competence inadequate
Report Recommendations
   for Governments
•   Develop a policy programme on how to mainstream
    entrepreneurship into higher education and set aside resources
•   Ensure that HEIs are not restricted in their pursuit of the
    entrepreneurial agenda by rules and regulations
•   Track and evaluate the effects of entrepreneurship
•   Make sure that the focus is on the entire educational system, as
    one study level feeds into the other. The formation of an
    entrepreneurial mindset is a joint effort from primary education to
    tertiary education.
Report Recommendations
        for HEIs
•   Ensure that the highest levels of the institution support the entrepreneurial
    agenda
•   The goals and aspirations need to be very explicit and known throughout
    the institution
•   The vision should reflect a broad definition of entrepreneurship
•   HEIs should track the alumni and actively involve them in their efforts to
    promote entrepreneurial education
•   HEIs should set up an infrastructure that supports entrepreneurial
    education, entrepreneurial students and staff
•   Entrepreneurship courses should support and be aligned with the overall
    entrepreneurial goals and strategies
•   HEIs need to develop ways of evaluating the quality and relevance of
    their entrepreneurial teaching
•   HEIs need to be aware that entrepreneurial teaching staff act as role
    models for the students
•   HEIs need to allocate funds to promote the entrepreneurial agenda
  Ireland’s Performance
            in
Entrepreneurship Education
       Quotes from the
    Goodbody Report (2002)
•   “The school system does not support the idea of working for
    yourself”.
•   “The Irish education system was seen by entrepreneurs to have
    played a very limited role in supporting entrepreneurship to date”.
•   “Currently the provision in this area is very fragmented”.
•   Recommendation – increase the focus on entrepreneurship within
    the educational system
      GEM Report (2005)
•   More education required at all levels on entrepreneurship
•   Develop an entrepreneurship agenda in the education system and
    have a stronger focus on the importance of entrepreneurship as a
    career option
•   Need to identify entrepreneurship as a career option through all
    levels of education
•   The education system needs to be overhauled: enterprise,
    entrepreneurship, risk taking and innovation are absent
•   Encourage creativity and innovation at all levels of the education
    system from primary through to third-level
•   Entrepreneurship education throughout all levels is critical if the
    culture is to be changed in terms of people willing to consider
    entrepreneurship as a career option
      Government Reports
•   Enterprise Strategy Group (2004)
     – Entrepreneurial skills should be included in the syllabus
•   Small Business Forum (2006)
     – Reinforce entrepreneurship in the education system
•   Towards Developing an Entrepreneurship Policy in Ireland (2007)
     – Full chapter on entrepreneurship education
•   Building Ireland‟s Smart Economy (2008)
     – Numerous Action Points (page 72) on fostering entrepreneurship in
       the education system
     – Only one Action Point actually deals with „entrepreneurship
       education‟
          • “we will raise the profile of the Student Enterprise Awards…; we will
            encourage second level students to participate in an enterprise related
            programme;”
          Secondary Schools
•   School Curricula
     –   Junior Cert – Commercial section
     –   Transition Year – Mini-Companies
     –   Leaving Cert – Business Studies option
     –   Leaving Cert Applied (LCA) - Enterprise 1, 2 and 3
     –   Leaving Certificate Vocation Programme (LCVP) – Enterprise
         Education
•   Enterprise Competitions
     –   CEBs Student Enterprise Competitions
     –   Young Entrepreneurs Scheme (YES)
     –   Young Enterprise Ireland Project
     –   Enterprise Encounter Project
     –   Junior Achievement Initiative
     –   Gaisce Awards
     –   Young Entrepreneurs (Kerry)
                Third Level
•   Large number of undergraduate subjects/courses (mostly targeted
    at business students)
•   Some post-graduate subjects/courses
•   Enterprise Ireland and Newstalk Student Enterprise Competitions
•   Institutional Business Plan Competitions
•   Campus company programmes
•   Enterprise Platform Programmes
•   Centres for Enterprise / Innovation
•   Case study competitions and case books
•   Regular workshops and newsletters
•   Special Edition of the Irish Journal of Management on
    Entrepreneurship in Ireland
•   Entrepreneurship Track at IAM Conference
•   Partner in European research projects and with European
    organisations (holding key positions)
          Current Position
•   Large number of positive initiatives taking place across
    secondary and third levels of Irish education
•   Highly fragmented
•   Lacking clear sense of purpose and direction
•   Poor performers in terms of international research and
    publications
•   Not meeting the needs of the country
•   Need to provide entrepreneurship education to a wider number of
    students throughout the education system and also to non-
    business students
•   Need a coherent entrepreneurship education strategy that is
    integrated across all three levels and across government
    departments
•   A Working Group should be established to put forward proposals
    for delivering an integrated entrepreneurship education policy
                  Challenges
•   Education system is primarily left brain orientated (particularly
    business students)
•   Need to re-imagine entrepreneurship education curricula
•   Must develop students who are entrepreneurial in their way of
    thinking and behaving
•   Department of Education resistance to change the current system
•   Budget cutbacks will place serious financial constraints on new
    initiatives
•   Teachers need to understand business and be trained
•   Resistance by teachers and Trade Unions to change in syllabii
•   Introducing new syllabii and culture is a difficult and lengthy
    process
•   Need government, educational institutions, and individuals to
    take responsibility
•   Huge task ahead but we cannot be overwhelmed
       Final Thought

“Some people look at things and say why; I
   see things that never were and say why
               not !” (G.B. Shaw)

								
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