Incoming Fabric Inspection by imraniqbal

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									                        Syed Sohaib Hussnain Kazmi
                                      Asad Lakhani

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Visual examination or review of raw materials,
Partially finished components of the garments
And completely finished garments in relation to some
 standard, specifications or requirements, including
The measurement of the garments.
Satisfaction of the customer.

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Why fabric inspection?
  To ensure:
 Garment acceptability
 Garment quality
 Time management
 Prevention from material loss
 Increase in cutter’s productivity


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Fabric inspection procedure
 Fabric quantity to be inspected
 Selection of fabric rolls
 Check the shade variation by cutting 6-
  inch fabric across the width and
  matching it against middle and end of
  the roll.
 Speed should be slow enough to find the
  visual defects
 Check roll length as stated by the
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Fabric Inspection Procedure
 Check for bowing and skewing in the fabric
 If major defect is not stated by the supplier, it should
  be identified with a sticker while inspection so that
  corrective action can be taken at cutting stage
 Record the faults of the fabric on the fabric quality

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Tools for fabric inspection
Inspection frame with counter
D - 65 light source (sunlight) / TL - 84
 light source
Measuring tape & pair of scissors.
Stickers or masking tape to identify the
Pick glass

Tools for Fabric
Digital Camera for taking reference
Master fabric sample or customer’s
 reference sample
Inspection form

Types of Fabric Inspection
Raw Material Inspection
In-Process Inspection
Finished goods Inspection

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Inspection quantity
 A minimum 10% of the quantity of the fabric must be
  inspected, which should account for:
 Every color
 Every design
 Fabric width
 Fabric construction

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Avoids wastage of time and money.
Avoids the unnecessary use of resources
Helps in timely delivery of goods.
Guarantees Customer’s satisfaction.

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Types of Defects
Avoidable and unavoidable
Major and minor
Mendable and unmendable

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What are the Factors that could lead to
Fabric Defects?
Machine related Factors
Material related factors

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Machine related factors
Failure of spinning preparation to eliminate or
 minimize short
Long -term variation
Failure of opening and cleaning machines to
Eliminate contaminants and trash particles
Failure of the mixing machinery to provide a
 homogenous blend

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Machine related factors
Excessive machine stops particularly during spinning
Excessive ends piecing during spinning preparation
Poor maintenance and housekeeping
Weaving-related defects
Knitting-related defects
Dyeing and Finishing-related defects

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Material related factors
Fibres contaminants
 Excessive neps and seed coat fragments
 Excessive short fibres content
 Excessive trash content
 High variability between and within-mix

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Material related factors
 Clusters of unfavorable fiber characteristics
 Weight variation
 Twist variation
 Excessive Hairines

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Two types of material will be discussed along with their
Woven fabric defects
Knitted fabric defects

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Woven fabric defects
  Box mark
  Broken pattern
  Broken pick
  Cut weft
  Float stitches

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          Woven fabric defects
            Hand pick
            Loose warp end
            Hanging thread
            Missing end
            Reed mark
            Shuttle mark
            Defective selvedge

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Woven fabric defects
A width wise line showing stained or injured weft due
 to the rubbing of shuttle when rebound.
This defect may be due to wrong drawing of thread,
 inserting a pick in the wrong shed, incorrect lifting of
 warp thread.
A pick missing from a portion of the width of the
 fabric due to rough shuttle-eyes which snag the weft

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Woven fabric defects
A pinhole in the finished fabric caused by the use of
  weak weft with a strong warp
A place in the fabric where warp and weft yarns escape
  the required interlacement due to entanglement of
  warp threads.
Fibrous appearance of the cloth due to the presence of
  abraded yarns

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Woven fabric defects
 Loose warp ends which appear like a reed mark are caused
  by loose ends which start to feed in just a trifle faster than
  the rest of the warp.
 Ends loose on the face of the fabric because the
  short and long ends of the fabric are not
  removed by the weaver.
 Stains such as grease, rust etc occur due to poor material

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Knitted fabric defects
  Pilling effect
  Weak yarn
  Sudden snag
  Press off
  Cloudy fabric
  Mied yarn
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           Knitted fabric defects
           Soiled yarn
           Thick & thin yarn
           Thin end
           Holes or cracks in fabric
           Vertical line
           Drop stitches
           Needle line
           Oil stains
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Knitted fabric defects
Pilling effect
 Due to short fibers in the yarn short fibers balls are formed
  on the fabric
Weak yarn
 Logically, a stronger fiber produces a strong yarn than a
  weak yarn e.g. polyester and nylon etc
Sudden Snag
 Short fibers in the yarn accumulates the eye pot passage of
  the yarn which suddenly comes in the form of small balls
  and stuck in the feeder and hence result in the yarn

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Knitted fabric defects
Cloudy Appearance
Uneven yarn
Variation in yarn tension
Improper yarn winding off the cones
Mied yarns
Yarns of varying counts or lots contained within the
  same fabric
Foreign vegetable matters

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Shade variation
A noticeable difference in color within the same piece
 or from piece to piece within a given lot

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  Analysis of fabric defects
The methods employed for analysis of fabric
 defects are
First piece inspection
Grey inspection
Point rate system

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  First piece Inspection
The first piece of the newly gated
 loom is taken to the grey flooding
 departments and is inspected for
 design verifications.
The report is immediately sent to the
 weaving department and if there is
 any defect the necessary changes are

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  Grey Inspection
Fabrics are tested in grey state after
weaving and then after finishing
In the grey inspection the fabric defects
 are identified and mended if they
 are mendable.
In the final folding the fabric defects are
 examined and graded into the following
 six categories depending upon severity of
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Grey Inspection
Fresh or first quality: fabric with no major or
 objectionable faults.
Shorter length: piece of cloth having shorter
 length(less than 50 cm).
Seconds: cloth having minor defects.
Fents : The cut pieces of cloths measuring 90cm and
 more but less than 150 cm in length are graded as
Rags : The cut pieces of cloths larger than 25cm but
 less than 90 cm are regarded as rags.
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Point rate system
The two most commonly used point rate systems are
4-point rate system
10-point rate system

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  4 point system
Given by American standard ASTM, the
 test method describes a procedure to
 establish a numerical designation for
 grading of fabrics from a visual inspection.
This system does not establish a quality
Level for a given product, but rather
 a means of defining defects according to
 their severity by assigning demerit point

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4 point system

Total Defects per square yard are calculated and normally those fabric rolls
containing more than 40 points per square yards are considered rejected.

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10 point system
In this system the cloth defects are given demerits
 points range from 1-10 depending upon the variety of
Points to be taken care for 10-point grading are:
Not one metre of cloth is penalized more than 10
points even the defect is a combination of warp and
 weft threads.
Any defect occurring repeatedly throughout is marked
 as second.

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Grading in 10 point system
Grading of cloth, that is first and second
 quality depends upon the number of
 penalty points per piece.

Cloth is inspected on the face side only
Unless specified

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The person must be at least Graduate.
He or she must have a minimum of two year
 experience in the textile industry.
He or she must be well versed with the 4-
 point fabric inspection system.
He or she must be active and physically fit.
He or she must not be colorblind.

Indian Textile Journal
Book A.J Chuter (Quality Assurance)

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