DESCRIBE CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS OF THE ARMY REFERENCES: Ceremonial Manual STORES: METHOD: Theory LOCATION: Class room TIME: 40 min INTRODUCTION PRELIMINARIES: a. Course reports b. Attendance check c. Position trainees e. Allocate Materials REVISION not required APPROACH 1. History is something that happens in the past and in some cases can be carried through and used in present day, however unless the history has happened in the past 50 to 100 years it may not be relevant. On the other side of what history provides is the Customs and Traditions that can come as a result of history. 2. The reason you are taught this lesson is because as potential recruits into the Army this will give you an understanding of the Customs and Traditions of the Army so that you can pass these onto your subordinates. 3. At the end of this lesson you will have an understanding of the Customs and Traditions of the Army. BODY BRITISH GARRISON TROOPS 4. Arrived with Governor Phillip (1788) consisting of three companies of Royal Marine Light Infantry totalling 212 all ranks. Initial period was for three years, however this was extended to four years before they were replaced. All ranks had the option to return to England and take discharge or remain in Australia and discharge and settle in the country. 5. After the replacement the NSW Corp was formed in Jan 1790. Corp criticised for rum trafficking and quarrelling with the governors of the time. Redeemed themselves when they quelled a convict mutiny at Castle Hill in Mar 1804. 2 6. 1809 Macquarie became Governor and brought his own Regiment. Same year NSW Corp became 102 Regiment and returned to England in 1810. In 1818 the NSW Corp disbanded, reformed in 1825 returned to Australia, distributed throughout the Eastern seaboard, finally disbanded in 1833. Total number of British Regiments, which served in Australia (1809-1870), was 26. In 1870 at the intercolonial conference it was decided to remove all British troops from Australia and that all the colonies would be responsible for their military protection. ESTABLSHMENT OF AUSTRALIAN FORCES ARMY 7. 1788-1901 a Colonial Force then from 1901 under Federal Constitution defence became a Commonwealth matter. The Army was a mix of volunteers, militia and permanents. The Army has seen service in WW1, WW2, Malaya, Korea, Borneo, Vietnam and more recently the Middle East as part of the UN program and USA. NAVY 8. Navy (1821-1911) was a colonial Navy until 1911 when the Royal Australian Navy authorised by the King. The Navy has continued to grow and has seen service in WW1, WW2, Korea, Malaya Emergency and Vietnam and more recently the Middle East. AIRFORCE 9. 1912-1921 Air Corp established, 1921 Australian Air Corp ceased and the Australian Air Force was born, later in the same year permission was given to adopt 'Royal'. WW2-1970's RAAF came of age in 1939 (WW2). Additional service has been seen in Korea, Malaya Emergency and Vietnam. CONFIRM THE STAGE UNIFORMS AND ACCOUTREMENTS 10. From the earliest times military clothing had a tendency towards uniformity. Forces of the Australian colonies were clad in uniforms that followed British trend. WW1 Australian Army dressed in a less formal but comfortable uniform without the tradition, this continued through WW2. HEADRESS 11. Early British headdress was standard design for the colonies. The introduction of the khaki uniform (post 1645) saw an end of flamboyant headgear. The Slouch Hat was designed designed by COL Tom Price in 1885, originally turned up on the right hand side to enable troops to look the inspecting officer in the eye. It was first worn by the Victorian Mounted Rifles (VMR) and by 1890 whole of the Australian Force was wearing it. Brim was turned up so that the service rifle could be presented, not needed now but it is part of the tradition. 12. Puggaree - derived from the Hindu 'Pagre' meaning turban or thin scarf of muslin. It has been worn on the Australian slouch hat in various forms. The present issue seven- fold puggaree was introduced to indicate that the Australian Army consisted of members from the six states and the territories. 3 13. Berets - originated in the Basque district of France and the first British unit to adopt this form of headdress was the RTR in 1925. WW2 saw the adoption of coloured berets by special units. Australia followed the British principle and adopted coloured berets for some units and corps. 14. Badges - the Rising Sun began in early 1900's, name given to badge from a well known Jam manufactured in Melbourne. Badge has had a variety of design changes, current design and scroll introduced in 1949 and it is still the general service badge. After 1945 Corp and Regimental badges were introduced. Armoured and Infantry badges are Australian designed. 15. Colour Patches- first used by Australian as ID badges in latter stages of the Second Boer War. WW1 colour patches worn by all units of the First AIF, continued in WW2 and has been reintroduced today as evident by our current headdress accoutrements. 16. Formation Signs- introduced by the British Army in WW1 as a security measure. Some allocation of signs to certain Australian or partly Australian formations. Australian use limited use to vehicles, as the colour patch system considered adequate. Re-introduced in WW2 and more widely used than during WW1 but not worn on clothing. After colour patch system was abandoned formation signs were worn on uniforms. Discontinued in 1960 but still displayed on vehicles. 17. ADF Sign- a woven 'Rising Sun' badge worn on the left sleeve of field dress. Introduced in Malaya and was worn by Australian troops in Borneo and Vietnam. 18. Shoulder Titles- they serve to indicate the wearers corps or in the case of Armoured and Infantry Corps, the wearers unit. 19. Emu Plumes- were worn by Light Horse Regiments. Satirically known as Kangaroo feathers. Sir Henry Chavel credited with the design during the great shearers strike in QLD in 1891. QMI called out to aid the civil power, the Gympie Sqn were first to wear the feathers, a fashion followed by the Regiment. 1915 Minister for Defence ruled that the whole of the ALH might wear the plume. Today the plumes are worn with the slouch hat and emu tuffs worn with the beret. 20. Lanyards- originally thought to have been introduced by Mounted Regiments who used cords when foraging to attach the hay etc to the saddle. Suggested that troopers on setting out on a foraging expedition looped the cord over their shoulders as a convenient way of carrying it and that a custom started of colouring these cords according to a regimental fancy. This custom has been re-introduced in recent years by the wearing of lanyards of various colours. 4 21. Titles 'Australia'- a metal title AUSTRLIA is issued to all troops to wear outside Australia and its territories. Introduced in WW1 and has been worn by Aussie soldiers when overseas ever since. 22. Inf Combat Badge- instituted in 1970 for recognition of Infantry service in battle. Badge is awarded to any serving member of the PMF or the active ARES who has given 90 days satisfactory service either continuous or aggregate, as an infantryman in operations in an Australian infantry unit or sub-unit at any time during his service since the institution of the award. 23. Badges of Rank- evolved from a confusing array of embroidery and braiding to a straightforward emblem used in different arrangements to denote differing degrees of seniority. Dress regulation appeared in the British Army in 1832, from this regulation we able to trace the evo0lution of rank badges in use by the Army today. Aust badges of rank are the same as the British except the WO1, which bears the Aust Coat of Arms instead of the Royal Arms. 24. Medals- Australian Honours and Awards instigated by Aust Govt 1975, additional award introduced called the CGS Commendation, precedence of Honours and Awards total of 73 (British and Australian), order of precedence VC through to War Medals. 25. Aiguillette- a rich plaited cord of gold and silver ending in two solid metal points. Worn by officers to distinguish special and senior appointments ie, Aide-de-camp. 26. Bandolier- General design based on the WW1 Light Horse Pattern, with five ammunition pouches to the front and four to the rear. Worn as ordered by RAAC WO/NCO and OR's with ceremonial orders of dress. 27. Canes- introduced as an item of commissioned rank equipment in the time of King Charles I, but was used for much more serious purpose than they are today. Junior officers were empowered to inflict punishment on the spot for minor offences ie, 'sneezing in the ranks' or 'spitting or scratching the head'. This earned an immediate punishment to the tune of twelve strokes across the back. When not on parade with troops, an officer, WO or SNCO may carry a cane. 28. Pace Sticks- Royal Regiment of Artillery lays claim to being the originator of the pace stick. Used by Field Gun teams to ensure correct distances between guns. It is suggested that the infantry developed the pace stick to its present configuration as an aid to drill. 29. Colours- (Infantry) symbol of the spirit of the regiment shows the battle honours and badges granted to the regiment. Display the heroic deeds of the regiment, carried into battle in the centre front rank, their presence in battle had a high morale effect. Originally carried by the youngest officer 'The Ensign', high mortality rate. Two types of Colours QUEENS and REGIMENTAL. 30. Guidons- counterpart of Infantry colours and carried by RAAC units. 1913 approval granted for the Light Horse Regiments of the Aust Army to possess and carry Guidons. Later amended to entitle Armoured units, which converted from LH units to carry a Guidon. 5 31. Banners- presented to non-infantry units, the only Corps that still parades its banner is the Royal Regiment of Australian Artillery. Three types of banners, SOVEREIGN, GOVERNOR GENERAL'S and BANNER. SALUTES 32. Origins of Salutes- and exchange of greeting since the earliest times. Hand Salute knights (right hand) gesture of friendship modern day (mutual trust with no loss of dignity). Rifle Salute wpn held, not carried at night. Sword Salute hilt kissed before battle. Gun Salute royalty and officers of high rank, guns rendered defenceless. COMPLIMENTS AND COURTESIES 33. Saluting- it is customary to salute officers, ladies at all times, as a matter of courtesy, when the national anthem is played but not sung as a hymn, when uncased Standards, Guidons or Colours pass or are passed, when the Australian National Flag is raised or lowered, when a funeral cortege passes or is passed, when entering or leaving a War Cemetery or when passing a Cenotaph, when the Last Post is played as part of a ceremony; but not for the Rouse or Reveille, when a Royal Salute is given; except those under command. 34. Courtesies- are afforded to senior or junior ranks by 'Sir' or rank or appointment. CONCLUSION a. Clear up doubtful points. b. Test of objective. N/A c. Summary / main points. d. Statement of relevance. e. Preview of next instruction. f. Dismissal.