Commercial Electrical Load Calculation Worksheet by zvn20195

VIEWS: 142,890 PAGES: 18

More Info
									Architectural Engineering Calculations
 Discipline              Type Description                                                      Web           Ref:                    By
 Acoustic                Load       Reverberation Time                                     MC Squared Ching p228-232                 JEM
 Architecture            Load       Building Gross & $ from Net                            Arizona State                             JEM
 Architecture            Load       Building Occupancy or Size Estimate                                  Butler 58-59                JEM
 Architecture            Load       Building Size                                                                                    JEM
 Electrical              Load       Building Watts Required Estimate                                     Ching 74-79                 JEM
 HVAC                    Sizing     Air Flow Required & Duct Sizing                         Online Calc Ching 117-127                JEM
 HVAC                    Load       Basic Wall Conduction                                               Ching 117-127                JEM
 HVAC                    Load       Infiltration and Ventilation Heat Load                                                           JEM
 HVAC                    Sizing     Seasonal Fuel Usage and Cost                                                                     JEM
 Lighting                Load       Lighting Fixture Requirements                                            Ching 142-150           JEM
 Plumbing                Load       Building Water Requirements                                               Butler 584             JEM
 Properties                         Conversion Factors                                                                               JEM
 Properties                         Material Properties                                                                              JEM
 Structure               Load       Floor Load Estimates                                                     Ching 238-245           JEM
 Structure               Stress     Simple Beam - Stress & Deflection                                        Ching 238-245           JEM
 Structure               Load       Tributary Area Load Estimate                                             Ching 238-245           JEM
 Workbook                           Contributors                                                                                     JEM
 Workbook                           Future Work                                                                                      JEM
 Workbook                           Revision History                                                                                 JEM

 This spreadsheet gives a number of basic Architectural Engineering (AE) calculations to allow initial quick estimates of loads and sizes for some
 of the major systems. It is a work in progress and will be updated and corrected. It is not exact and should not be used for a building after initial
 estimates. Use the professional-level programs for that purpose.

 The Calculation column shows how the cell was calcuated using named variables - it should help you understand the logic. In most cases it's just
 the application of basic math and physics although a few formulae are empirically derived. The hard part is often the units - which are carefully
 Be sure to look at the "comments" - usually in the "input" column or the description column on this page - you see them by putting the cursor
 over any cell that has a small red triangle in the upper right corner. They will explain meanings and give typical values.

 - To use it click on the hyperlink to the calculation you're interested in (you may make suggestions for future ones on the "Fu tureWork" sheet).
 - In each worksheet the white boxes are ones you're intended to modify - "reasonable" default values are provided.
 - You may "unprotect" the workbook and modify anything you wish.
 - The "Return to Index" button will bring you back to this sheet.
 - Note the "grouping" indicators at the top of each sheet. By clicking on the "1" or the horizontal line you may hide the calculations - probably
 better for printing.

 Users are urged to make corrections and additions and send the revised sheet back to J. Mitchell.

                                                               f14e591e-d65f-4c6e-8023-91990c39c59d.xls - Index - Printed 1/5/2011 2:23 PM - p.1 of 18
Architecture Calculations
Gross Area & Cost from Net                                                                                  Function Breakdown
                                                                                                                                     Allocation Offices

  Input                                Value              Units    Calculation                                                       Allocation Meeting Room    User Comment
  Allocation Offices                             4,000    SF                                            #NAME?                       Allocation Storage
  Allocation Meeting Room                        2,600    SF                                            #NAME?
  Allocation Storage                             1,500    SF                                            #NAME?                       Allocation Eating Area

  Allocation Eating Area                         1,250    SF                                            #NAME?
                                                                                                                                     Allocation Lobby
  Allocation Lobby                                 400    SF                                            #NAME?
  Allocation Work Area                           6,000    SF                                            #NAME?                       Allocation Work Area

  Allocation Athletic Area                       1,200    SF                                            #NAME?
                                                                                                                                     Allocation Athletic Area
  Allocation Mechanical Electrical               1,500    SF                                            #NAME?
  Circulation & Structure Factor                  32%                                                                                Allocation Mechanical
  Building Cost Per SF                 $          130 $/SF

  Named Areas Total                             18,450    SF                                            #NAME?
  Circulation & Structure                       5,904     SF                                            #NAME?
  Building Gross Area                          24,354     SF                                            #NAME?
  Building Cost                        $    3,200,000     $                                             #NAME?
  CircStr Percent of Gross                        24%                                                   #NAME?
  Building Efficiency                             76%                                                   #NAME?
  When designing a building a critical number is the building size because it affects both the building cost and issues like
  siting the building and zoning coverage requirements. While this number can be determined a number of ways one
  "usual" starting point is to add up the individual areas for each "function" that must happen in the building - this
  produces the "Named Areas Total". The calculation shown takes some typical functions (be sure to check the comments)
  then shows how to determine the Building Gross Area, and thus the cost.

Building Gross Size - Measured
  Input                                Value              Units    Calculation
  Length Floor 1                                   80.0   Ft
  Width Floor 1                                    60.0   Ft
  Height to Next Floor 1                           11.0   Ft
  Length Floor 2                                   80.0   Ft
  Width Floor 2                                    60.0   Ft
  Height to Next Floor 2                           11.0   Ft
  Length Floor 3                                   80.0   Ft
  Width Floor 3                                    60.0   Ft
  Height to Next Floor 3                           11.0   Ft
  Length Floor 4                                   80.0   Ft
  Width Floor 4                                    60.0   Ft
  Height to Next Floor 4                           11.0   Ft

  Area Floor 1                                   4,800    SF                                            #NAME?
  Area Floor 2                                   4,800    SF                                            #NAME?
  Area Floor 3                                   4,800    SF                                            #NAME?
  Area Floor 4                                   4,800    SF                                            #NAME?
  Total Area                                    19,200    SF                                            #NAME?
  Volume Floor 1                                52,800    CF                                            #NAME?
  Volume Floor 2                                52,800    CF                                            #NAME?
  Volume Floor 3                                52,800    CF                                            #NAME?
  Volume Floor 4                                52,800    CF                                            #NAME?
  Total Volume                                 211,200    CF                                            #NAME?
Calculating the total Area and Volume is straightforward. You can add as many more floors or pieces of floor as you
The "Height to Next Floor" is often called the "Floor-to-Floor" height.

Building Occupancy Estimate
  Input                                Value           Units       Calculation
  OC Building Type                              Office
  Oc SF per Occupant                               160 SF/Occ
  Oc Building Gross Area                        19,200 SF

                                                                                                     f14e591e-d65f-4c6e-8023-91990c39c59d.xls - Architecture - Printed 1/5/2011 2:23 PM - p.2 of 18
Oc Number of Occupants                            120 Occupants                                     #NAME?

Oc Known Occupants                                120 Occupants
Oc Building Size from Occupants                19,200 SF                                            #NAME?

Knowing how many people will be in a building is important in many other calculations (HVAC and Plumbing
particularly). This calculation assumes that you know the building gross size and want to know how many people it will
accommodate for a particular use.

You can go the other direction equally well.

                                                                                                 f14e591e-d65f-4c6e-8023-91990c39c59d.xls - Architecture - Printed 1/5/2011 2:23 PM - p.3 of 18
Structures Calculations
Floor Load Estimates
  Input                                 Value       Units                       Calculation                                                                                 User Comment
  Space Width                                    20 Ft
  Space Length                                   35 Ft
  Space Floor to Floor                           12 Ft
  Space Floor Thickness                           8 Inches
  Max Furniture Weight                        2,400 Lb                                                               #NAME?
  Max Floor Equipment Weight                  2,400 Lb                                                               #NAME?
  Max People Weight                           4,000 Lb                                                               #NAME?
  Built-In Cabinet Weight                     8,000 Lb                                                               #NAME?
  Hung Equipment Weight                       1,600 Lb                                                               #NAME?
  Floor Weight per CF                           150 Lb/CF                                                            #NAME?
  Ceiling Weight per SF                           3 Lb/SF                                                            #NAME?
  Partition Weight per SF Vertical Face           5 Lb/SFV                                                           #NAME?

  Space Area                                       700   SF                                                          #NAME?
  Space Volume                                   8,400   CF                                                          #NAME?
  Space Perimeter                                  110   LF                                                          #NAME?
  Partition Area                                 1,320   SF                                                          #NAME?
  Built-In Equipment Weight                      9,600   Lb                                                          #NAME?
  Floor Assembly Weight                         70,000   Lb                                                          #NAME?
  Ceiling Assembly Weight                        2,100   Lb                                                          #NAME?
  Partition Weight                               6,600   Lb                                                          #NAME?
  Live Load Weight                               8,800   Lb                                                          #NAME?
  Dead Load Weight                              88,300   Lb                                                          #NAME?
  Total Load                                    97,100   Lb                                                          #NAME?
  PSF Live Load                                     13   Lb/SF                                                       #NAME?
  PSF Dead Load                                    126   Lb/SF                                                       #NAME?
  PSF Total Load                                   139   Lb/SF                                                       #NAME?
  Total Load/CF                                     12   Lb/CF                                                       #NAME?
 The most basic task in structural analysis is to find out how much load is applied to a building. This calculates the "grav ity" load for a given area -
 typically a building "bay" bounded by four columns or a "tributary area" spanning from the midpoint of one bay to the midpoin t of the next and the
 full length of the bay.

 A basic distinction is between "live" and "dead" load. It's much easier to predict the "dead" than the live load because the designer has control over
 it whereas they have to guess at the worst case for live load.

 This calculation is a good approximation - but should not be used for a real design. It does NOT take into account factors of safety, code
 requirements and other important ingredients. Take the structures class first.

 Note how very much bigger the dead load is than the live load in most cases.

Tributary Area Load Estimates
  Input                                Value      Units                         Calculation
  Trib Length Beam                            24 Ft
  Trib Width to Next Beam on Right              8 Ft
  Trib Width to Next Beam on Left             10 Ft
  Trib Floor Thickness Estimated                6 in
  Trib Beam Width Estimated                   10 in
  Trib Beam Depth Estimated                   18 in                                                                  #NAME?
  Trib Uniform Floor Live Load                50 Lb/SF
  Trib Wall Height over Beam                 11.5 Ft
  Trib Wall Material Thickness over Beam      8.5 In
  Trib Density Floor Material                135 Lb/CF
  Trib Density Wall Material                  90 Lb/CF

  Trib Width Tributary Area                          9 Ft                                                            #NAME?
  Trib Floor Slab Volume                           108 CF                                                            #NAME?

  Trib Wall Volume Resting on Beam               195.5 CF                                                            #NAME?

  Trib Beam Volume                                   30 CF                                                           #NAME?

  Trib Floor Slab Load per Foot Beam               608 Lbs/LF                                                        #NAME?
  Trib Beam Load per foot                          169 Lbs/LF                                                        #NAME?
  Trib Wall Over Beam Load per foot                730 Lbs/LF                                                        #NAME?

  Trib Live Load per foot                          450 Lbs/LF                                                        #NAME?

                                                                                                                      f14e591e-d65f-4c6e-8023-91990c39c59d.xls - Structure - Printed 1/5/2011 2:23 PM - p.4 of 18
   Trib Subtotal Dead Load per foot                 1,510 Lbs/LF                                                       #NAME?

   Trib Total Dead Load for Beam                  36,200 Lbs                                                           #NAME?
   Trib Total Live Load for Beam                  10,800 Lbs                                                           #NAME?
   Trib Total Load for Beam                       47,000 Lbs                                                           #NAME?

   Trib Symmetrical Reaction Load                 23,500 Lbs                                                           #NAME?

  When designing a beam (or girder) it's essential to find how much load is applied to it. To do so one must define the "tribu tary area" that the beam
  is supporting. A conservative approach (neglecting the fact that girders at the end may carry some load too) defines the tri butary area as the length
  of the beam times the tributary width. The tributary width is best estimated as the distance from halfway to the beam on the left TO halfway to the
  beam on the right. (Note that where the widths are constant then this is just the distance from one beam to the next - edges are where life usually
  gets more interesting.)

  In this case we've also assumed a wall resting on the beam - a fairly typical situation in buildings, especially for fire separation.

  We've shown the load per linear foot (Lbs/LF) as well as total loads because that is often used in beam calculations.

  This calculation is a good approximation - but should not be used for a real design. It does NOT take into account factors of safety, code
  requirements and other important ingredients. Take the structures class first.

Beam Stress & Deflection
  Input                                     Value           Units                 Calculation
  Bm Beam Shape                                  B
Beam Geometry
   Bm Beam Depth -"d"                               20.00   inches
   Bm Flange thickness                               0.00   inches
   Bm Flange width                                   2.63   inches
   Bm Web Thickness                                  0.00   inches
Material Properties
   Bm Modulus of Elasticity                   1,600,000 psi
   Bm Density                                        32 lbs/ft3
   Bm Max Tension/Compression Stress              1,800 psi
Loading Geometry
   Bm Beam Length - "L"                             20.00   ft
   Bm Beam Spacing - "s"                            18.00   in
   Bm Point Load1 X coord. - "Px1"                   5.00   ft
   Bm Point Load2 X coord.. - "Px2"                 10.00   ft
Live Loading
   Bm Uniform Load - "w"                               80   lb/SF
   Bm Point Load 1 - "P1"                            500    lb
   Bm Point Load 2 - "P2"                            500    lb
   Bm X Position Evaluated - "x"                    10.00   ft

Beam Unit Properties - Calculated
  Bm Web Height (calc)                              20.00 inches                                                       #NAME?
   Bm Area                                             53 in2                                                          #NAME?

   Bm Moment of Inertia                             1,750 in4                                                          #NAME?

  Bm Weight/Foot of Length                            12 lbs/linear-ft                                                 #NAME?
  Bm Section Modulus                                 175 in3                                                           #NAME?
Beam Total Properties
  Bm Beam Weight                                      233   Lbs                                                        #NAME?
  Bm Live Load Carried                              2,400   Lbs                                                        #NAME?
  Bm Total Load Carried                             2,633   Lbs                                                        #NAME?
  Bm Total Load/Ft                                    132   Lbs/Ft                                                     #NAME?
  Bm Moment UDL                                     6,583 ft-lbs                                                       #NAME?

   Bm Moment P1                                     1,250 ft-lbs                                                       #NAME?

                                                                                                                         f14e591e-d65f-4c6e-8023-91990c39c59d.xls - Structure - Printed 1/5/2011 2:23 PM - p.5 of 18
  Bm Moment P2                                    2,500 ft-lbs                                                        #NAME?

   Bm Total Moment at X                         124,000 In-lbs                                                        #NAME?
Stress Calculation
   Bm Maximum Fiber Stress at X                     709 psi                                                           #NAME?
   Bm Less Than Allowable                           OK                                                                #NAME?

Deflection Calculations
  Bm Deflection due to UDL                        0.169 in                                                            #NAME?

  Bm Deflection due to P1                         0.035 in                                                            #NAME?

  Bm Deflection due to P2                         0.051 in                                                            #NAME?

  Bm Deflection Total                             0.256 in                                                            #NAME?

  Bm Deflection Ratio                               937 :1                                                            #NAME?

   This document is prepared as a starting point for beam design It is important to realize that it is simplified for the sake of education. In particular:
   - shear is ignored
   - buckling is ignored
   - all stresses are assumed in the plane of symmetry.
   - the beam is assumed to be simply supported
   - factors of safety are built into the allowable stress.

   Warning: The calculation is only for point "x" along the beam. You must explore multiple "x" values to determine the 'worst case'. For
   symettrically loaded beams that is at the midpoint of the span, but for unsymettrical situations you must find the 'worst cas location. Excel's "solver"
   can be very handy for this.

   Reference: The specific terms used in this spreadsheet were derived from Timoshenko & Young - Elements of strength of Materials - 4th Edition
   A more recent reference (used in Drexel's courses) is: Gere & Timoshenko - Mechanics of Materials. - 3rd Edition 1990. The relevant chapter in that
   book for fuller understanding of the equations used here is: Chapters 5 (Stresses) & 7 (Deflections).

                                                                                                                        f14e591e-d65f-4c6e-8023-91990c39c59d.xls - Structure - Printed 1/5/2011 2:23 PM - p.6 of 18
HVAC Calculations
Conductive Heat Transfer Through a Wall & Roof
  Input                                     Value          Units                 Calculation                                                                               User Comment
  Temperature Outside                                 14   DegF
  Temperature Inside                                  68   DegF
  Cd Building Length                                  40   Ft
  Cd Building Wdith                                   30   Ft
  Cd Building Number of Floors                         3
  Cd Floor-to-Floor Height                            11   Ft
  Cd Window Spacing along Wall                        12   Ft
  Single Window Ht                                     6   Ft
  Single Window Width                                  5   Ft
  Number of Windows                                   35                                                              #NAME?

  Insulation Thickness                               2.5   in
  R-Value Insulation                                   6   SF-DegF-Hr/BTU-in
  R-Value Construction and Air Gaps                    2   SF-DegF-Hr/BTU-in                                          #NAME?
  R-Value Window                                       2   SF-DegF-Hr/BTU-in

  Wall Length                                       140    Ft                                                         #NAME?
  Wall Height                                        33    Ft                                                         #NAME?
  Delta-T                                           -54    DegF                                                       #NAME?
  Area Wall with Windows                          4,620    SF                                                         #NAME?
  Area Windows                                    1,050    SF                                                         #NAME?
  Area Roof                                       1,200    SF                                                         #NAME?
  Cd Building Area                                3,600    SF                                                         #NAME?
  Area Wall & Roof without Windows                4,770    SF                                                         #NAME?
  R-Insulation                                       15    SF-DegF-Hr/BTU                                             #NAME?
  R-Wall &Roof                                       17    SF-DegF-Hr/BTU                                             #NAME?
  Heat Flow Q Wall & Roof                       -15,152    BTU/Hr                                                     #NAME?
  Heat Flow Q Windows                           -28,350    BTU/Hr                                                     #NAME?
  Total Conductive Heat Flow                    -43,502    BTU/Hr                                                     #NAME?
                                                -12,750    Watts                                                      #NAME?

 In HVAC, as in structures, the most basic requirement is to calculate the "Loads" on a system. For HVAC the most important of these is
 the amount of Heat (Q) that the system must add to (heating) or remove from (cooling) a space.

 In a real building you must take account of not only the heat flow through the windows, but also the air leakage and the amounts of heat
 added by the appliances, people and sunlight coming into the room. Once you understand the principles this is best done with a modeling
 program like Energy-10 or the commercial programs by Carrier or Trane.

 Nonetheless this approximation is quite good, especially for a heating situation - in the middle of winter with no one in the building at

Infiltration & Ventilation Heat Load
  Input                                     Value          Units                 Calculation
  Inf T Outside                                      14    DegF                                                       #NAME?
  Inf T Inside                                       68    DegF                                                       #NAME?
  Inf Building Area                               3,600    SF                                                         #NAME?
  Inf Floor Height Average                           11    Ft                                                         #NAME?
  Inf Infiltration Air Changes / Hour                1.5   Air Change/Hour
  Inf People In Building                               9                                                              #NAME?
  Inf CFM per Person                                 20    CFM/person

  Inf Delta T                                       -54    DegF                                                       #NAME?
  Inf Building Volume                            39,600    CF                                                         #NAME?
  Inf Infiltration CF per Hour                   59,400    CF/Hr                                                      #NAME?
  Inf Ventilation per Hour                       10,800    CF/Hr                                                      #NAME?
  Inf Total Air Per Hour                         70,200    CF/Hr                                                      #NAME?
  Inf Heat Lost to Air Movement                 -68,519    BTU/Hr                                                     #NAME?

                                                                                                                       f14e591e-d65f-4c6e-8023-91990c39c59d.xls - HVAC - Printed 1/5/2011 2:23 PM - p.7 of 18
  Heat is lost through movement of air in and out of a building, both intentional (ventilation) and unintentional (infilitratio n). When
  calculating the heating or cooling load one must include this heat loss or gain as well.

  This estimate is crude, but gives an approximation, better for small buildings than large ones, but a reasonable start for bo th.

  Note that the defaults tie this calculation to the conductive loss calculation above, but you can change it to suit your own needs.


Duct Sizing to Transfer Required Heat
  Input                                        Value         Units                  Calculation
  QNeed                                          -112,020    BTU/hr                                                       #NAME?
  TDuct                                               120    DegF
  TRoom                                                68    DegF
  Air Velocity In Duct                              1,200    fpm
  AspectRatio                                          1.5

  DeltaT Delivery                                       52   DegF                                                         #NAME?
  Coeff - BTU per CFM Deg                             1.08   BTU/(CFM Hr DegF)                                            #NAME?
  Air Flow CFM                                       1,990   CFM                                                          #NAME?
  Area Needed                                          239   in2                                                          #NAME?
  DiamRound                                             18   in                                                           #NAME?
  Rectangle ShortSide                                   14   in                                                           #NAME?

  Rectangle LongSide                                    21 in                                                             #NAME?
  AreaRect                                             294 in2                                                            #NAME?

  Once you know how much heat is required to be transferred you want to know how big the duct is that carries the air (the usual fluid)
  carrying the heat. This is a straightforward calculation that uses the velocity, density, and specific heat of the air to determine how much
  must flow to carry the required amount of heat. Once you know how much (CFM), the velocity then allows you to calculate the size of the
  duct necessary to conduct it.

  Note that the velocities in ducts are limited by two things - the noise the air makes in the duct and the friction of the air in the duct - the
  slower the flow the less energy is lost in friction. In practical terms, that limits low velocity ducts to about 1,200FPM - which is about13
  MPH. High velocity ducts operate about 3,000FPM (34MPH), but require special construction and more fan energy.

  Note that the defaults tie this calculation to the conductive loss calculation above and the ventilation/infiltration calculation, but you can
  change it to suit your own needs.

Seasonal Fuel Usage and Cost
   Input                                       Value         Units                  Calculation
   HDd Building Area                                1,200    SF
   HDd T Interior                                      68    Deg
   HDd T Exterior Min                                   5    Deg
   HDd Max Hourly Building Heat Transfer           19,288    BTU/Hr
   HDd DDhAnnual                                    3,749    Deg-Day
Fuel Efficiencies
   HDd Oil Efficiency                                 80%
   HDd Gas Efficiency                                 85%
   HDd Elect Resistance Efficiency                   100%
   HDd Heat Pump Coefficient                         262%
Fuel Prices
   HDd Cost Oil Per Gallon                      $    1.10 $/Gal
   HDd Cost Gas per CCF                         $    0.88 $/CCF
   HDd Cost Elect per KWH                       $   0.130 $/KWH

  HDd Building Constant                                306 BTU/Hr-deg                                                     #NAME?

   HDd Season Heat Transfer                    27,532,656 BTU/Yr                                                          #NAME?
   HDd Season Heat Transfer Per Sq Ft              22,944 BTU/SF-Season                                                   #NAME?
Fuel Consumption
   Hdd Gallons Oil                                     240 Gallons                                                        #NAME?

  HDd CCFGas                                           310 CCF                                                            #NAME?

  HDd KW Resistance                                  8,070 KWH                                                            #NAME?

  HDd KW Heat Pump                                   3,080 KWH                                                            #NAME?

                                                                                                                           f14e591e-d65f-4c6e-8023-91990c39c59d.xls - HVAC - Printed 1/5/2011 2:23 PM - p.8 of 18
Fuel Consumption Per SF
   Hdd Gallons Oil Per SF                           0.20   Gallons/SF-Season                                          #NAME?
   HDd CCFGas Per SF                                0.26   CCF/SF-Season                                              #NAME?
   HDd KW Resistance Per SF                         6.73   KWH/SF-Season                                              #NAME?
   HDd KW Heat Pump Per SF                          2.57   KWH/SF-Season                                              #NAME?
Season Cost
   HDd Oil Season Cost                        $     264                                                               #NAME?
   HDd Gas Season Cost                        $     273                                                               #NAME?
   HDd Elect Resistance Season Cost           $   1,053                                                               #NAME?
   HDd Elect Heat Pump Season Cost            $     402                                                               #NAME?
Season Cost Per SF
   HDd Oil Season Cost per SF                 $     0.22   $/SF                                                       #NAME?
   HDd Gas Season Cost per SF                 $     0.23   $/SF                                                       #NAME?
   HDd Elect Resistance Season Cost per SF    $     0.88   $/SF                                                       #NAME?
   HDd Elect Heat Pump Season Cost per SF     $     0.33   $/SF                                                       #NAME?

     When developing an HVAC system the designer is interested in two things.
     - How big does the equipment have to be to take care of the worst case?
     - How much is it going to cost to operate for the year (or season of heating or cooling)?

     The worst case situation is estimated by calculating the loads on the house.
     - For heating it is the "conduction load" of heat lost through walls, windows, roof and to a small extent the floor. One must include as
     well the "infiltration load" - the heat necessary to warm air that enters from the outside either through intended ventilation or through
     - For cooling it is the "conduction load" plus the solar energy, plus the infiltration, plus the heat from people, equipment and lights.

     The "right" way to calculate the energy consumption is by a simulation using standard weather on an hour-by-hour basis. This requires
     a complex program

     For small buildings the Degree-Day method uses the Degree-Day number produced by the weather service and the "worst case"
     calculation the designer has already performed to estimate the operating costs.

                                                                                                                        f14e591e-d65f-4c6e-8023-91990c39c59d.xls - HVAC - Printed 1/5/2011 2:23 PM - p.9 of 18
Lighting Calculations
Lighting Fixture Requirements Estimate

  Input                                Value                    Units         Calculation                                                                               User Comment
  Lighting Calculations

  Lt1 Room Area                                        500 SF
  Lt1 Lighting Level                                    50 Footcandles
  Lt1 Lamp Type                     Semi-Direct Fluorescent
  Lt1 Number of Lamps Per Luminaire                      4
  Lt1 Lumens Per Lamp                               3,200 Manufacturer
  Lt1 Watts Per Lamp                                    46 Manufacturer
  Lt1 Watts Per Transformer                             10 Average
  Lt1 Maintenance Factor                              0.67
  Lt1 Coeff of Util                                   0.47 From Chart

  Lt1 Efficacy - Lumens/Watt                                70 Lumens/Watt                                      #NAME?
  Lt1 Area/Luminaire                                        81 SF/Luminaire                                     #NAME?

  Lt1 Number of Luminaires (rounded)                         7                                                  #NAME?
  Lt1 Watts/Luminaire                                      194 Watts/Luminaire                                  #NAME?

  Lt1 Watt/SF                                               2.7 Watts/SF                                        #NAME?
 Calculating the exact number of fixtures is a complex process best accomplished with a method called the "Zonal Cavity Method" or
 even better with a simulation program. Nonetheless it's possible to get an approximation at the beginning of a project using a cruder
 calculation such as the one given here.

 Note that in the lighting world
 A "fixture" is what the layperson would call a lamp - it's the device that holds the lamps.
 A "lamp" is what the layperson would call a bulb - it's the device that actually produces the light.

 Examples are given here for several different types of lamps The number of lamps possible is very great as is the number of different
 fixtures. These are only representative.

 Source Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings - 5th ed -P.760

                                                                                                              f14e591e-d65f-4c6e-8023-91990c39c59d.xls - Lighting - Printed 1/5/2011 2:23 PM - p.10 of 18
Electrical Calculations
Estimating Building Watts Required
  Input                                               Value             Units     Calculation                                                                                     User Comment
  Lighting - Area Requiring "Service"                     2,000         SF
  Lighting - Area Requiring Standard                    10,000          SF                                                       Power Use In Building

  Lighting - Area Requiring "Intense"                     2,000         SF
  Lighting - Area Requring "Spotlight"                    1,000         SF
  Appliances - Area Requiring Minimal                       500         SF                                                                                Lighting WSF Average

  Appliances - Area Requiring Residential                   300         SF                                                                                Appliance WSF Average
                                                                                                                                                          HVAC WSF Average
  Appliances - Area Requiring Office                    15,000          SF
  Appliances - Area Requiring Intense                     1,000         SF
  HVAC - Area Requiring Ventilation Only                  1,000         SF
  HVAC - Area Requiring Heating Only - NonElectric Heat 1,000           SF
  HVAC - Area Requiring Full Conditioning               15,000          SF
  Lighting Watts/SF Service                                 0.5         WSF
  Lighting Watts/SF Standard                               1.25         WSF
  Lighting Watts/SF Intense                                   2         WSF
  Lighting Watts/SF Spotlight                                 4         WSF
  Appliances Watts/SF Minimal                                 1         WSF
  Appliances Watts/SF Residential                           2.5         WSF
  Appliances Watts/SF Office                                  5         WSF
  Appliances Watts/SF Intense                                15         WSF
  HVAC Watts/SF Ventilation Only                            0.4         WSF
  HVAC Watts/SF Heating Only - NonElectric Heat             0.6         WSF
  HVAC Watts/SF Full Conditioning                           1.7         WSF

  Lighting - Subtotal Area                                     15,000   SF                                             #NAME?
  Appliances - Subtotal Area                                   16,800   SF                                             #NAME?
  HVAC - Subtotal Area                                         17,000   SF                                             #NAME?
  Max Area - Use for PSF                                       17,000   SF                                             #NAME?
  Lighting - Service Watts                                      1,000   Watts                                          #NAME?
  Lighting - Standard Watts                                    12,500   Watts                                          #NAME?
  Lighting - "Intense" Watts                                    4,000   Watts                                          #NAME?
  Lighting - Area Requring "Spotlight" Watts                    4,000   Watts                                          #NAME?
  Appliances - Minimal Watts                                      250   Watts                                          #NAME?
  Appliances - Residential Watts                                  750   Watts                                          #NAME?
  Appliances - Office Watts                                    75,000   Watts                                          #NAME?
  Appliances - Intense Watts                                   15,000   Watts                                          #NAME?
  HVAC - Ventilation Only Watts                                   400   Watts                                          #NAME?
  HVAC - Heating Only - NonElectric Heat Watts                    600 Watts                                            #NAME?

  HVAC - Full Conditioning Watts                               25,500 Watts                                            #NAME?
  Subtotal - Lighting Watts                                   21,500    Watts                                          #NAME?
  Subtotal - Appliance Watts                                  91,000    Watts                                          #NAME?
  Subtotal - HVAC Watts                                       26,500    Watts                                          #NAME?
  Total Estimated Watts                                      139,000    Watts                                          #NAME?
  Lighting WSF Average                                            1.3   WSF                                            #NAME?
  Appliance WSF Average                                           5.4   WSF                                            #NAME?
  HVAC WSF Average                                                1.6   WSF                                            #NAME?
  Overall WSF Average                                             8.2   WSF                                            #NAME?
  This form is somewhat more detailed than is perhaps necessary, but it gives a reasonable sense of the variable loads for diff erent
  conditions and allows a rapid overall estimate.

  To use it all you need to do is put in the SF for each of your uses.
  You do NOT need to change the Watt/SF for each use, but they're left available if you have better information.

  Note that normally the Area totals should be identical, but there may be some situations where differing is OK. I picked the
  maximum as the most reasonable for calculating overall WSF numbers.

  Many building loads are quoted in KiloWatts (KW) - Just divide by 1,000 to determine the KW
  The transformer for a building is usually in KVA - which is close to the total KW. It is usually sized with a growth factor of 20% or

                                                                                                                    f14e591e-d65f-4c6e-8023-91990c39c59d.xls - Electrical - Printed 1/5/2011 2:23 PM - p.11 of 18
Plumbing Calculations
Building Water Requirements
  Input                             Value        Units    Calculation                                                                                             User Comment
  Wr Building Type                        Office
  Wr Number Occupants                       188 Occupants
  Wr Average Demand/Occupant                 15 Gals/Day-Occ
  Wr Peak Water Demand/Occupant            0.09 Gals/Min-Occ
  Wr Summer Design Temp for Location         94 DegF
  Wr Special Requirements Average              0 Gals/Day
  Wr Special Requirements Peak                   Gals/Min

  Wr Average Water Demand                          2,880 Gals/Day                                          #NAME?

  Wr Peak Water Demand                                17 Gals/Min                                          #NAME?

 One of the first tasks in defining a plumbing system is to determine the overall requirements, both on average and at
 a peak time. This is particularly important because one must check the service available to the building - either a
 water "main" or a well. If these are not sufficient for the need then there is likely to be significant additional expense
 to provide the necessary water.
 - If the average daily Demand is greater than the supply then a new "main" or well must be provided.
 - If the peak demand is greater than the "main" or well can supply, but the daily average is adequate, then a storage
 system will be necessary.

                                                                                                       f14e591e-d65f-4c6e-8023-91990c39c59d.xls - Plumbing - Printed 1/5/2011 2:23 PM - p.12 of 18
Acoustic Calculations
Reverberation of Space
  Input                                Value       Units     Calculation                                                                                   User Comment
  Room Length Acoustic                         150 Ft
  Room Width Acoustic                           80 Ft
  Room Height Acoustic                          50 Ft
  Absorption Wall Front                        0.1
  Absorption Wall Sides                        0.1
  Absorption Wall Rear                         0.1
  Absorption Floor & Seats                     0.9
  Absorption Ceiling                           0.1

  Volume of room Acoustic                600,000   CF                                             #NAME?
  Area Wall Front Acoustic                 4,000   SF                                             #NAME?
  Area Wall Rear Acoustic                  4,000   SF                                             #NAME?
  Area Wall Sides Acoustic                15,000   SF                                             #NAME?
  Area Ceiling Acoustic                   12,000   SF                                             #NAME?
  Area Floor Acoustic                     12,000   SF                                             #NAME?
  Absorption Front Sabins                    400   Sabins                                         #NAME?
  Absorption Rear Sabins                     400   Sabins                                         #NAME?
  Absorption Sides Sabins                  1,500   Sabins                                         #NAME?
  Absorption Floor and Seats Sabins       10,800   Sabins                                         #NAME?
  Absorption Ceiling Sabins                1,200   Sabins                                         #NAME?
  Total Absorption Sabins                 14,300   Sabins                                         #NAME?
  Reverberation Time                         2.1   secs                                           #NAME?
  Suited for Music or Speech              Music                                                   #NAME?

 Reverberation is the time for a sound (e.g. a hand clapping is a good test) to decrease by 60 decibels.

 The reverberation time of larger spaces is an important characteristic because it strongly influences the type of use for whi ch space is
 suited. Spaces in which understanding speech is important (a large classroom for instance) want minimal reverberation becaus e it will
 confuse the audience's comprehension. For much music, on the other hand, a significant reverberation time (here defined as 1.2
 seconds) causes the music to blend together in a pleasing manner.

 For rooms in which electronic amplification is used the reverberation is important, but the amplification can often address s hortcomings
 if well designed.

 Remember that other factors determine the actual character of the sound - this is only an approximation. In particular the frequency
 composition of the sound and the specific shape of the space are extremely important and are not addressed here.

                                                                                                   f14e591e-d65f-4c6e-8023-91990c39c59d.xls - Acoustic - Printed 1/5/2011 2:23 PM - p.13 of 18
Conversion Factors Used in This Spreadsheet
                     Efunda = Excellent Reference

Category              Units          Amt1
           ConverstionConversion Value       Units1 Eq1Result1    Units1R            Amt2            Units2      Eq Result2 Units2R
Area       SqIN/SF         144           1   SF     =       144   SqIn                         144   SqIn        =         1 SF Square Foot
Power      BTU/Wt-Hr     3.412           1   Watt   =     3.412   BTU/Hr                     3.412   BTU/Hr      =         1 Watts
Power      Watt/HSP      745.7           1   HSP    =     745.7   Watts                       1000   Watts       =      1.34 Hsp
Time       Min/Hr           60           1   Hr     =        60   Min                           60   Min         =         1 Hr
Velocity   FPM/MPH 0.011364           3000   FPM    =      34.1   MPH                            1   MPH         =        88 FMP Feet Per Minute

                                                        f14e591e-d65f-4c6e-8023-91990c39c59d.xls - ConversionFactors - Printed 1/5/2011 2:23 PM - p.14 of 18
Properties Used in Spreadsheet
                                  Efunda = Excellent Reference

Category   Property               Value        Units   Comment
HVAC       Air Density                0.075    Lb/CF
HVAC       Air Specific Heat          0.241    BTU/Lb
HVAC       Oil Heat Value          141,000     BTU/Gal Heat value of #2 oil - often used in houses
HVAC       Natural Gas Heat Value      1050    BTU/ft3 Heat value of Natural Gas

                           f14e591e-d65f-4c6e-8023-91990c39c59d.xls - Properties - Printed 1/5/2011 2:23 PM - p.15 of 18
Initial   Name                Email                                      Affiliation
JEM       James E. Mitchell              Drexel University - Civil & Architectural Engineering

                                               f14e591e-d65f-4c6e-8023-91990c39c59d.xls - Contributors - Printed 1/5/2011 2:23 PM - p.16 of 18
Future Work
                                                                                           Update:        9/28/2002
 Here's where Additions to the calculations are proposed. When they're completed they'll be move to the main index page.

 Users are urged to make corrections and additions and send the revised sheet back to J. Mitchell.

 Discipline            Type Description                                                     Web        Ref:                By
 Plumbing               Load       Fixture Units                                                        Ching 196-201
 Plumbing               Load       Hot Water Sizing                                                     Ching 196-201
 Plumbing               Load       Pipe Sizing from Fixture Units                                       Ching 196-201

                                                  f14e591e-d65f-4c6e-8023-91990c39c59d.xls - FutureWork - Printed 1/5/2011 2:23 PM - p.17 of 18
Revision History
 Lists the revisions to this workbook with the page affected and th

 Date                      Type           Description                                                 Page                   By
       10/21/2002       Calculation       Corrected Error in Beam Calculation -                      Structure              JEM
                                          Wrong reference to beam length
       10/21/2002          Format         Made formulas display on Structures -                     Workbook                JEM
                                          Unprotected first sheet
        9/29/2002        Addition         Added Future Work                                      Future Work                JEM
        9/29/2002        Addition         Added Occupancy Calculation                            Architecture               JEM
        9/29/2002        Addition         Added Revision History                                Revision History            JEM
        9/29/2002        Addition         Infiltration Calculation & Degree Day Calc                HVAC                    JEM
        9/29/2002       Calculation       Added Plumbing Calculation                               Plumbing                 JEM
        9/29/2002        Format           Revised Format to Make Printer Friendly                 Workbook                  JEM
        9/27/2002        Format           Applied background and standardized                     Workbook                  JEM
        9/15/2002          Start          Began Spreadsheet                                       Workbook                  JEM

                                               f14e591e-d65f-4c6e-8023-91990c39c59d.xls - RevisionHistory - Printed 1/5/2011 2:23 PM - p.18 of 18

To top