CDMA 2000 by Kravzhenko

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CDMA is newest cellular phone standard Developed by Qualcom and Supported mainly in the Americas and East Asia. In this paper the writer explain about CDMA 2000 standart.

More Info
									    CDMA2000 TM
    TECHNOLOGY
             by
    Uke Kurniawan Usman




1                   Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
    cdmaOne

       Newest cellular phone standard
        –   Developed by Qualcomm
        –   Supported mainly in the Americas and East Asia
       CDMA-based digital system
        –   Up to 18 times capacity of AMPS per frequency band
       Very Secure
        –   Listeners need the right descrambler key
        –   Optional encryption is also available



2                                                 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
    CDMA2000

       Radio transmission technology for the
        evolution of narrowband cdmaOne/ IS-95 to
        3G by adding up multiple carriers
       Also known as IMT-CDMA Multi-Carrier
        (1X/3X).
       Backwards compatible with IS-95
        (cdmaOne), a principle reason for its likely
        adoption in existing IS-95 networks.

3                                     Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
    CDMA2000-1X

       CDMA 2000-1x is the first commercial available 3G IMT- 2000
        standard - supports medium data rate wireless data.
       Capable of up to 153.6 kbps toward 307 kbps peak data rate on
        a 1x (1.25 MHz bandwidth) carrier
       Doubles capacity for voice communications
       Offers 50% longer stand-by times
       Backwards compatible with cdmaOne (IS-95)
       Compatible with GSM-MAP and IS-41
       Also known as IMT-CDMA Multi-Carrier (1X/3X).




4                                               Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
    CDMA Air Interface Standard




5                          Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
      Standard Evolution
           YEAR           ~2001                         2002                          2003                   2004~
Standard

                  CDMA2000 1X
                  Rel. 0 : Nov. 1999
                  Rel. A : June, 2000
                                                          1x EV-DO. Rel. A
                  Rel. B : April, 2002                    Mar. 2004.
    1X            Increased voice capacity (x2)            FL Enhancement (3.072Mbps)
                  Up to 307.2 Kbps packet data             RL Enhancement(1.8432Mbps)
                                                           FL/RL MAC Enhancement
                                                           QoS Support
                                                           Hybrid Operation
                    1x EV-DO. Rel.0                        Generic Attribute Update Protocol
                    Oct.2000                               Virtual Stream Protocol
                     FL : Up to 2.4 Mbps packet data
                                                           Multi-mode Capability Protocol
                    on a single(1.25MHz) carrier
                                                           Encryption & Authentication
EV-DO               BCMCS
                    VT


                                                  Red circle: Commercial Launched

                   1x EV-DV. Rel. C                             1x EV-DV. Rel. D
                   May,2002.                                    Feb,2004.
                    FL Enhancement (3.0912Mbps)                 RL Enhancement (1.8456Mbps)
    EV-             Fast Call Setup                             Fast Call Setup
    DV              Handoff Improvement                         BCMC
                    DV Control Hold Mode                        Air QoS Support
                    Authentication Enhancement                  MEID
                    Encryption & Message Integrity              Multiple Service Support
                                                                                    Not ready for Commercial Service
6                                                                                            Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     CDMA Air Interface Evolution
 2001              2002               2003           2004             2005           2006
                                          R16.1/16.3 R16.4    R16.5    R17     R18   R19

                                                                                     1xEV-DV
IS-95A/B                  1X            CDMA2000 1X
                                                                                       FL & RL

                  CDMA2000            Rel A/B                                           Rel C/D
14.4kbps          153kbps                                                            3.1 / 1.8Mbps
         Backward Compatible Technology Evolution for Data and Voice Services



                                       1xEV-DO            HRPD                  1xEV-DO A

                                       2.4Mbps / 153Kbps                          3.1 / 1.8 Mbps
           Dedicated Carrier for Data Only Services, Not Backward Compatible With 1X Voice


                     Consider EV-DO A as a disruptive force on 1X !
7                                                                 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
            CDMA Industry – Chipset
            Evolution
              2000            2001     2002        2003      2004          2005          2006


               Chip
                                        1X
1X 1stRel     Comrcl
                                     Commercial
153 kbps             Demo/            Product
                     Trials
                                                                          DO-A
                                                                                    DO-A
                                                                         Samples   Network
EV-DO-0       Stds                                                         CSM     Product
                              DO-0             DO-0
2.4Mbps                       Samp            Product
153Kbps                                                    DO-A QCOM          DO-A
                                                                             Samples
                                                           Development        MSM


 EV-DV-D
                                     Stds                                DV-D            EV-DV
 3.1 Mbps
                                                                         Samp           Product
 1.8 Mbps
                                                           DV QCOM
                                                          Development


  8                                                           Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
9   Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
             2G cdmaOne (IS-95 + IS-41)
                                                                                                               BTS - Base Transceiver Station
                                                                                                               BSC - Base Station Controller
       IS-95
                                                                                                               MS - Mobile Station
                                                                                                               MSC - Mobile Switching Center
                                                                                                               HLR - Home Location Registry
                                                                                                               SMS-SC - Short Message
                  BTS                                                                                          Service - Serving Center
                                                A Ref (A1, A2, A5)
                                                                                                               STM – Synchronous Transfer Mode
     MS                                          STM over T1/T3
                                 BSC
                 Proprietary Interface                                                        HLR


                                                                                          STM over T1/T3 or
                         Ater Ref (A3, A7)
                   BTS                                                                    AAL1 over SONET
                                                                                                                       PST N
     IS-95

                                         A Ref (A1, A2, A5)
                                                                     MSC
                                             STM over T1/T3
                  BTS

     MS
                                BSC
                                                                                              SMS-
             Proprietary Interface
                                                                                               SC
                                 A1 – Signaling interface for call control and mobility              A5 – Full duplex bearer interface byte stream (SMS ?)
                                         Management between MSC and BSC                              A7 – Bearer interface for inter-BSC mobile handoff
                                 A2 – 64 kbps bearer interface for PCM voice

                                 A3 – Signaling interface for inter-BSC mobile handoff




10                                                                                                            Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
                       CDMA2000 1x Network
                                                                                                HLR
                                                                                          STM over T1/T3 or
            IS-2000                                                                       AAL1 over SONET
                                                                                                                PST N
                                              A Ref (A1, A2, A5) STM over
                                                         T1/T3
                                                                              MSC
                       BTS

            MS                                  AQuarter Ref (A10, A11)
                                      BSC
                                                 IP over Ethernet/AAL5
                                                                                                SMS-
                      Proprietary Interface
                                                                                                 SC
                                                                                                                 Internet
                        BTS                                                             IP
                                                                              IP                         IP
                                                                            Router   Firewall          Router
     BTS - Base Transceiver Station                RADIUS over UDP/IP
     BSC - Base Station Controller
     MS - Mobile Station
     MSC - Mobile Switching Center
     HLR - Home Location Registry                                                                                  Privata
     SMS-SC - Short Message
                                                                                                                    Data
     Service - Serving Center
                                                  AAA                                       Home                   Network
     STM – Synchronous Transfer Mode
                                                                                            Agent
     PDSN – Packet Data Serving Node
     AAA – Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting             PDSN
     Home Agent – Mobile IP Home Agent
 A10 – Bearer interface between BSC (PCF) and PDSN for packet data
 A11 – Signaling interface between BSC (PCF) and PDSN for packet data

11                                                                                              Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
        CDMA2000 Network Evolution-current

                      BTS                                  SS7 network (HLR, SCP,SMS, VMS..)


                            BSC          MSC                                     GMSC
            IS-2000               TDM                      Circuit Network                 PSTN/PLMN
Legacy MS

                      BTS                                  PDSN
                                  TDM                                                 BR
                      BTS
                                         PCF                                                      Internet
                                                                Packet Network
            IS-2000
            IS-856


                                                       PDSN
                            BSC         PCF                                  O&M     HA
                                                                    AAA
  HAT                                                              Server   Server
                                        Voice Path
                      BTS               Packet Data Path
                                        Signaling
                                        Signaling and Bearer
                                        Bearer


12                                                                  Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
         CDMA2000 Network Evolution- Phase 1
 • Phase 1 : LMSD (w/ TDM) Deployment
                                                                                SS7 network (HLR, SCP,SMS, VMS..)


                                                                  MSC                                       GMSC
                             BSC
                                                                                Circuit Network

                                                                                                    G-WSS
                                                   IOS4.3 (A1)            WSS            SIP-T
            IS-2000
                                                                                                                           PSTN/PLMN

Legacy MS                                          IOS4.3 (A2)   Megaco         IP QoS Network
                                                                 TDM
                                                                               IP                      WGW
                                                                       WGW
            IS-2000

            IS-856
                                                                                       IP Network
                                                                       PDSN
                             BSC                  PCF                                                                        Internet
  HAT                                                                                                          BR
                                                                               AAA
         Advantage: New Business Model                                       Server                 HA
         IOS4.3, SIP-T supporting. (LMSD step 1)                                                      Signaling over IP
        * LMSD: Legacy Mobile Subscriber Domain
                                                                                                       Signaling over TDM
                                                                                                       Voice Path over TDM
                                                                                                       Packet Data Path
13                                                                                       Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
         CDMA2000 Network Evolution- Phase 2
•Phase 2 : IP based RAN, Initial IMS
Deployment                                                                          SS7 network (HLR, SCP,SMS, VMS..)

                                                                     MSC                                 G-MSC

                                                                                   Circuit Network
                             IP-BSC


             IS-2000                                                                           G-WSS
                                                                         WSS
                                              IOS5.0 (A1p)                         SIP-T

Legacy MS
                                              IOS5.0 (A2p)          Megaco
                                                                               IP Qos Network                       PSTN/PLMN
                                IP
                                                                                  HSS                    WGW
            IS-2000                                              WGW
            IS-856                                                                                IMS-MGW


                                                                                     IMS
HAT                                                                                         IMS-Server
                             IP-BSC                                      IMS-MRF                                         Internet
                                                                                                                   BR
                                                                                   IMS-MGC
  Advantage: IMS deployment, LMSD step 2     PCF
                                                                     PDSN
  IOS5.0, SIP-T supporting.
        • LMSD: Legacy Mobile Subscriber Domain
        • IMS : IP Multimedia Subsystem                                                                          Voice Path over IP
  IMS brings                                                                                                    Signaling over IP
                                                                          AAA                HA
        •Person-to-person real-time IP-based multimedia communications                                           Voice Path over TDM
                                                                         Server                                  Signaling over TDM
        •Different services and applications to interact
14                                                                                                               Packet Data Path
                                                                                           Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     CDMA 2000-1X and EV-DO Overlay




15                              Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     CDMA2000-1X EV-DO

        Migration of cdma2000 that provides a
         wireless technology that enables a “wire-line
         equivalent” user experience (high data rates)
         and economics (low cost per Megabyte) 
         Data Only




16                                     Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
      Background

„Internet-like‟ (i.e., tolerant of delays and asymmetric) data service
   stimulates the existing of EV-DO which has:
a. directly connection to Packet Data Network,
b. new forward link structure designed to increase throughput.
        The physical layer interface is incompatible with RTT.
        Requires its own 1.25MHz carrier.
        Time multiplexing rather than code multiplexing.




17                                             Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
        1xEVDO -- IP Data Only
                                                               IP BTS - IP Base Transceiver Station
                                                               IP BSC - IP Base Station Controller
        IS-2000
                                                               AAA - Authentication, Authorization,
                                                                 and Accounting
                                                               PDSN - Packet Data Serving Node
                                                               Home Agent - Mobile IP Home Agent




                                                                                        Internet

                                                       IP               IP
                                                    Firewall          Router
                  IP BSC                     IP
                                           Router
     IS-2000

                           RADIUS over UDP/IP
                                                                                       Privata
                                                                                        Data
                                                                                       Network




                              AAA           PDSN    Home
                                                    Agent



18                                                                      Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     EV-DO Architecture

    EV-DO implementation is the same as 1X architecture system
     but without using Mobile Switching Center (MSC).
    EV-DO uses 1.25 MHZ carrier frequency (MC-1X)
    When users transmit data, data packets will be sent from
     wireless device through air interface towards BTS. Data packets
     then forwarded to BSC. BSC will forward data to PCF, who will
     forward it to PSDN.
    For receiving data, data packets for users will be prepared in the
     provider‟s IP network then forwarded by PDSN to PCF/BSC
    Cell site, towers, antenna share carrier frequency between 1x
     and 1xEV-DO.
    1xEV-DO can reach peak rate 2.4Mbps on forward link (from BS
     to device), and 153.6 Kbps on reverse link (from device to BS)
    1x and 1xEV-DO uses the same PDSN in the network.
19                                                  Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     EV-DO System Components

     1.   Wireless Device
          •   PC Card or fixed external device
          •   Public switched telephones, PDA or computers.
     2.   Access Network
          •   BTS, PCF Packet Control Function and BSC
     3.   Service Network
          •   MSC, PDSN


20                                          Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     EV-DO The Wireless Internet

        Optimized for high speed data (peak data
         rate of 2.4 Mbps)
        Uses one 1.25 MHz channel
        System provides packet data access service
         by routing IP data to & from the internet




21                                   Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     EV-DO Platform Considerations
     Connectivity devices:
      Provides a link to wireless data network
      Enable modems with standard interfaces to other devices


     Platform devices:
      Wirelessly enabled by:
         –   integrating wireless capability into the device hardware
         –   using connectivity devices
        Support a variety of data applications
        Provide developers with an environment to build software and
         services for the platform



22                                                       Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     EV-DO Content & Applications

        Ensuring appeal & good performance of the
         applications & multimedia services
        Interoperability considerations




23                                   Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     EV-DO Content & Applications

 Network       Max Data     Download       Technology            Network Cost per Mbyte
               Rate         Time

 GSM           9.6 Kbps     41 minutes     GPRS                  $.415


 IS95-A CDMA   14.4 Kbps    31 minutes     W-CDMA                $.069

 GPRS          45 Kbps      9 minutes
                                           CDMA2000 1x           $.059

 IS95-B CDMA   64 Kbps      6 minutes
                                           CDMA2000-1xEV-DO      $.022
 CDMA2000 1x   307 Kbps     1.5 minutes


 W-CDMA        384 Kbps     61 seconds

 CDMA2000-     2.4 Mbps     11 seconds
 1xEV-DO                                      Cost per Mbyte for different wireless network

24   Download Time of 3 minutes MP3 file
                                                          Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
      Forward Link Scheduling

   Base station time multiplexes users along with pilot
    bursts at full transmit power using rate control.
   Rate control based on Ec/Io at the mobile.
   Mobile estimate Ec/Io and map a data rate request.
   BTS schedule packets to maximize throughput using a
    „proportionally fair‟ scheduling algorithm.
   Scheduler sends to mobile that has the highest
    DRC/R where DRC is data rate request and R is
    average rate.
27                                    Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
      Data Rates

     Data Rate     Modulation             Ec/No
      38.4kbps       QPSK                -12.5dB
      76.8kbps       QPSK                 -9.5dB
     153.6kbps       QPSK                 -6.5dB
     307.2kbps       QPSK                 -4.0dB
     614.4kbps       QPSK                 -1.0dB
     921.6kbps       QPSK                  1.3dB
     1228.8kbps      QPSK                  3.0dB
     1843.2kbps      8PSK                  7.2dB
     2457.6kbps     16QAM                  9.5dB
28                              Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     Quality of Service

  QoS Challenge esp. for WWAN:
   “To deal with fluctuated wireless condition for
   achieving desired Throughput and Delay”
  QoS Scheduler Algorithm needed
     –   Standard Scheduler:
             Proportionally fair (PF) Scheduler
             All users get the resource fairly



29                                                 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     CDMA2000-1X EV-DV

        Supports both voice and data services over a
         standard (1X) CDMA channel
        Provides up to twice the capacity of earlier
         CDMA2000 systems
        Accommodate the continuing growth of voice
         services as well as new wireless Internet services
        Provides peak data rates of up to 153 kbps (and up
         to 307 kbps in the future), without sacrificing voice
         capacity for data capabilities.


30                                           Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
                        1XEVDV -- IP Data and Voice
                                     SIP                    SCTP/IP                  SS7



        IS-2000          SIP                                          SGW
                                              MGCF
                        Proxy
                                           (Softswitch)                                            P ST N
                                                  H.248 (Maybe MGCP)
                              SIP

                                                                                     Circuit switched voice
                                              Packet switched voice
                                                                      MGW


                                                                                                   Internet

                                                             IP               IP                              SIP Proxy – Session Initiation
               IP BSC                                     Firewall          Router                            Protocol Proxy Server
                                       PDSN +
                                                                                                              MGCF – Media Gateway Control
                                       Router
                                                                                                              Function
     IS-2000
                                                                                                              SGW – Signaling Gateway (SS7)
                                                                                                              MGW – Media Gateway (Voice)

                                    Nextgen MSC ?                                                  Privata
                                                                                                    Data
                                                                                                   Network
                        AAA                               Home
                                                          Agent



31                                                                                                  Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     EV-DV Key Technology Benefits

        Support 3.1 Mbps peak data rate per sector
        Support real-time & non real-time data services
        Backward compatible to IS-95A/B & CDMA2000 1X
        Support of voice & data in the same carrier
        Natural, standardized evolution of CDMA technology
        Enable unique features for CDMA operators




32                                        Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     EV-DV Backward Compatibility




33                        Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     EV-DV Requirements & Architecture

        Higher Forward Link Capacity
        Voice Service and Concurrent Voice/Data
         Support
        Multiple Concurrent Traffic Types
        Backward Compatibility with CDMA2000
        Efficient support of all data services (e.g.
         VoIP)

35                                       Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     EV-DV Requirements & Architecture
     (cont.)

        Multiple Concurrent Traffic Types
         –   Subscriber can operator multiple PC applications
             simultaneously
        Efficient support of all data services (e.g.
         VoIP)
         –   Flexible TDM/CDM scheduling (TDM for ftp, etc.
             and CDM for WAP, VoIP, streaming video, etc.)



36                                          Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     1xEV Evolution - Comparison

                                                       CDMA2000             CDMA2000            CDMA2000            CDMA2000
                                  CDMA2000 1X           1xEV-DO              1xEV-DO             1xEV-DV             1xEV-DV
                                                         Rev. 0               Rev. A              Rev. C              Rev. D

       Spectrum Occupancy            1.25 MHz           1.25 MHz             1.25 MHz            1.25 MHz            1.25 MHz


       Max. Data Rate/User,
                                    153.6 Kbps          2.4 Mbps             3.1 Mbps            3.1 Mbps            3.1 Mbps
       Forward Link


       Max. Data Rate/User,
                                     153 Kbps           153 kbps             1.8 Mbps            307 kbps            1.8 Mbps
       Reverse Link

       F/L Avg. Sector                                  600 kbps                                 800 kbps            800 kbps
                                                                             800 kbps
       Throughput                  200-300 kbps
                                                     (900 - 1100 kbps)   (1200 - 1500 kbps)    (1200 - 1500 kbps   (1200 - 1500 kbps
       (100% Rx Diversity)


       R/L Avg. Sector
                                   200-300 kbps      200 - 300 kbps       450-500 kbps         200-300 kbps        450-500 kbps
       Throughput


       Voice Capacity                  26 Erl              N/A                 VoIP                26 Erl              26 Erl

                                                                         Forecast FOA in      TBD outside of       Forecast FOA
       Availability
      Analytical predictions only, not to beNow               2004
                                            construed as product specifications.
                                                                                 2006                Korea            in 2006
      Data Capacity is scheduler dependent; All values shown are per Sector; Web Browsing Traffic Model.


37                                                                                              Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
        The Future of CDMA Services
The CDMA2000 family meets the marketplace’s demand for voice and data
services.

        CDMA2000 1xEV-DO                                     CDMA2000 1xEV-DO                                           HIGH DATA RATE & CAPACITY
             Peak 2.4 Mbps Packet Data                          Peak 3.1 Mbps Packet Data
             Data Only Services                                 VoIP and Data Services
             Non Real-time Services                             Real-time Services                                E-MAIL
                                                                                                                w/ Attachment             Live Video
                                                                                                                              S/W         Broadcast
                                                                                                                            Download
                                                                                                                  Music                              Video
                                                                                                                 Download                          Conference
                                          1xEV-DO                      1XEV-DO




                                                                                              NON-REAL TIME
                                                                         Rev. A




                                                                                                                                                                   REAL TIME
                                                                                                                  Full Web Browsing
                                                                                                                                                 Interactive
                                                                                                                   E-MAIL                          Gaming
                                                                                                                                Multi-Media
                                                                                                                                Messaging

      IS-95                   1X                                 1xEV-DV                                                                  Location Based
                                                                                                                            Transaction
                                                                                                                                             Services
                                                                                                                Download    Based Apps
                                                                                                                                                           Voice
                                                                                                                 Ringers
                                                                                                                                   SMS

 CDMA2000 1X                                        CDMA2000 1xEV-DV
    2X Voice Capacity                                 Peak 3.1 Mbps Data
    Peak 153.6 Kbps Data                              Simultaneous Voice & Data                                       LOW-MED DATA & CAPACITY
                                                       Real-Time Multi-Media Services




  Adopting technology somewhat like waiting for computer prices to come down??
38                                                                                                            Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     Optimization

        Aims:
          – Provide the best service and performance
        Parameters:
          – Coverage: Ec/Io >= -8dB
          – Blocked Calls <= 2%
          – Dropped Calls <= 2%
          – FER <= 2%
          – Access Failure <= 3%
          – Data Rate
39                                         Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     Optimization Process




40                          Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     Optimization

        Tools:
          – System drive test
              CDMA hand set
              Drive test software
              GPS
              PN Scanner




41                                   Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     An Example of Measurements
     Data




42                       Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     An example of Data Analysis

      In coverage high Dropped Calls: possibly Pilot Pollution




43                                          Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     CDMA Indoor Coverage

        Pre Site Acquisition
        Technical Survey
        RF and CME Design
        Site Acquisition
        Installation
        Acceptance Test


44                              Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     Indoor Coverage
     Pre Site Acquisition


 a. Building Description
      - Site Coordinate
      - Site Information and Building Fotos
          1. Type of CDMA antenna required.
          2. Location of shaft cable building.
          3. Technical room position.
      - Building Layout on each floor
 b. Tenant Description:
      - Number of tenants on each floor.
      - Kind of tenants on each floor.
 c. Confirmation letter from the owner or building manager that the
      site can be used as operator‟s CDMA indoors coverage.
45                                                 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
      Indoor Coverage
      Technical Survey

• RF Engineering Survey
  - coordinate of the site
  - existing RxLev and Ec/Io level
  - possibility for Technical room location
  - building shaft cable Location
  - cable way from antenna to Technical Room
• CME Survey
  - possibility a new Technical room
  - capacity of the existing power electricity
  - connection of power electricity
  - grounding
46                                               Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
     Indoor Coverage
     RF Design ‘simplified’


        Initial indoor antenna distribution based on
         Requirements and Building information.
        Analytical coverage prediction:
         –   Material Loss Calculation
         –   Pilot Power Loss Calculation related to desired
             Ec/Io
         –   Keenan-Motley Indoor Propagation Model



47                                           Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
       Indoor Coverage

   Installation:
     – Feeder Installation,
     – Antenna Installation,
     – Splitter Installation, etc.
   Acceptance:
     – Material Test: VSWR, Distance to Loss, Return Loss
     – RF Test: Coverage, Spillage


48                                    Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005

								
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