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CDMA is newest cellular phone standard Developed by Qualcom and Supported mainly in the Americas and East Asia. In this paper the writer explain about CDMA 2000 standart.
CDMA2000 TM TECHNOLOGY by Uke Kurniawan Usman 1 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 cdmaOne Newest cellular phone standard – Developed by Qualcomm – Supported mainly in the Americas and East Asia CDMA-based digital system – Up to 18 times capacity of AMPS per frequency band Very Secure – Listeners need the right descrambler key – Optional encryption is also available 2 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 CDMA2000 Radio transmission technology for the evolution of narrowband cdmaOne/ IS-95 to 3G by adding up multiple carriers Also known as IMT-CDMA Multi-Carrier (1X/3X). Backwards compatible with IS-95 (cdmaOne), a principle reason for its likely adoption in existing IS-95 networks. 3 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 CDMA2000-1X CDMA 2000-1x is the first commercial available 3G IMT- 2000 standard - supports medium data rate wireless data. Capable of up to 153.6 kbps toward 307 kbps peak data rate on a 1x (1.25 MHz bandwidth) carrier Doubles capacity for voice communications Offers 50% longer stand-by times Backwards compatible with cdmaOne (IS-95) Compatible with GSM-MAP and IS-41 Also known as IMT-CDMA Multi-Carrier (1X/3X). 4 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 CDMA Air Interface Standard 5 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 Standard Evolution YEAR ~2001 2002 2003 2004~ Standard CDMA2000 1X Rel. 0 : Nov. 1999 Rel. A : June, 2000 1x EV-DO. Rel. A Rel. B : April, 2002 Mar. 2004. 1X Increased voice capacity (x2) FL Enhancement (3.072Mbps) Up to 307.2 Kbps packet data RL Enhancement(1.8432Mbps) FL/RL MAC Enhancement QoS Support Hybrid Operation 1x EV-DO. Rel.0 Generic Attribute Update Protocol Oct.2000 Virtual Stream Protocol FL : Up to 2.4 Mbps packet data Multi-mode Capability Protocol on a single(1.25MHz) carrier Encryption & Authentication EV-DO BCMCS VT Red circle: Commercial Launched 1x EV-DV. Rel. C 1x EV-DV. Rel. D May,2002. Feb,2004. FL Enhancement (3.0912Mbps) RL Enhancement (1.8456Mbps) EV- Fast Call Setup Fast Call Setup DV Handoff Improvement BCMC DV Control Hold Mode Air QoS Support Authentication Enhancement MEID Encryption & Message Integrity Multiple Service Support Not ready for Commercial Service 6 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 CDMA Air Interface Evolution 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 R16.1/16.3 R16.4 R16.5 R17 R18 R19 1xEV-DV IS-95A/B 1X CDMA2000 1X FL & RL CDMA2000 Rel A/B Rel C/D 14.4kbps 153kbps 3.1 / 1.8Mbps Backward Compatible Technology Evolution for Data and Voice Services 1xEV-DO HRPD 1xEV-DO A 2.4Mbps / 153Kbps 3.1 / 1.8 Mbps Dedicated Carrier for Data Only Services, Not Backward Compatible With 1X Voice Consider EV-DO A as a disruptive force on 1X ! 7 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 CDMA Industry – Chipset Evolution 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Chip 1X 1X 1stRel Comrcl Commercial 153 kbps Demo/ Product Trials DO-A DO-A Samples Network EV-DO-0 Stds CSM Product DO-0 DO-0 2.4Mbps Samp Product 153Kbps DO-A QCOM DO-A Samples Development MSM EV-DV-D Stds DV-D EV-DV 3.1 Mbps Samp Product 1.8 Mbps DV QCOM Development 8 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 9 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 2G cdmaOne (IS-95 + IS-41) BTS - Base Transceiver Station BSC - Base Station Controller IS-95 MS - Mobile Station MSC - Mobile Switching Center HLR - Home Location Registry SMS-SC - Short Message BTS Service - Serving Center A Ref (A1, A2, A5) STM – Synchronous Transfer Mode MS STM over T1/T3 BSC Proprietary Interface HLR STM over T1/T3 or Ater Ref (A3, A7) BTS AAL1 over SONET PST N IS-95 A Ref (A1, A2, A5) MSC STM over T1/T3 BTS MS BSC SMS- Proprietary Interface SC A1 – Signaling interface for call control and mobility A5 – Full duplex bearer interface byte stream (SMS ?) Management between MSC and BSC A7 – Bearer interface for inter-BSC mobile handoff A2 – 64 kbps bearer interface for PCM voice A3 – Signaling interface for inter-BSC mobile handoff 10 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 CDMA2000 1x Network HLR STM over T1/T3 or IS-2000 AAL1 over SONET PST N A Ref (A1, A2, A5) STM over T1/T3 MSC BTS MS AQuarter Ref (A10, A11) BSC IP over Ethernet/AAL5 SMS- Proprietary Interface SC Internet BTS IP IP IP Router Firewall Router BTS - Base Transceiver Station RADIUS over UDP/IP BSC - Base Station Controller MS - Mobile Station MSC - Mobile Switching Center HLR - Home Location Registry Privata SMS-SC - Short Message Data Service - Serving Center AAA Home Network STM – Synchronous Transfer Mode Agent PDSN – Packet Data Serving Node AAA – Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting PDSN Home Agent – Mobile IP Home Agent A10 – Bearer interface between BSC (PCF) and PDSN for packet data A11 – Signaling interface between BSC (PCF) and PDSN for packet data 11 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 CDMA2000 Network Evolution-current BTS SS7 network (HLR, SCP,SMS, VMS..) BSC MSC GMSC IS-2000 TDM Circuit Network PSTN/PLMN Legacy MS BTS PDSN TDM BR BTS PCF Internet Packet Network IS-2000 IS-856 PDSN BSC PCF O&M HA AAA HAT Server Server Voice Path BTS Packet Data Path Signaling Signaling and Bearer Bearer 12 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 CDMA2000 Network Evolution- Phase 1 • Phase 1 : LMSD (w/ TDM) Deployment SS7 network (HLR, SCP,SMS, VMS..) MSC GMSC BSC Circuit Network G-WSS IOS4.3 (A1) WSS SIP-T IS-2000 PSTN/PLMN Legacy MS IOS4.3 (A2) Megaco IP QoS Network TDM IP WGW WGW IS-2000 IS-856 IP Network PDSN BSC PCF Internet HAT BR AAA Advantage: New Business Model Server HA IOS4.3, SIP-T supporting. (LMSD step 1) Signaling over IP * LMSD: Legacy Mobile Subscriber Domain Signaling over TDM Voice Path over TDM Packet Data Path 13 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 CDMA2000 Network Evolution- Phase 2 •Phase 2 : IP based RAN, Initial IMS Deployment SS7 network (HLR, SCP,SMS, VMS..) MSC G-MSC Circuit Network IP-BSC IS-2000 G-WSS WSS IOS5.0 (A1p) SIP-T Legacy MS IOS5.0 (A2p) Megaco IP Qos Network PSTN/PLMN IP HSS WGW IS-2000 WGW IS-856 IMS-MGW IMS HAT IMS-Server IP-BSC IMS-MRF Internet BR IMS-MGC Advantage: IMS deployment, LMSD step 2 PCF PDSN IOS5.0, SIP-T supporting. • LMSD: Legacy Mobile Subscriber Domain • IMS : IP Multimedia Subsystem Voice Path over IP IMS brings Signaling over IP AAA HA •Person-to-person real-time IP-based multimedia communications Voice Path over TDM Server Signaling over TDM •Different services and applications to interact 14 Packet Data Path Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 CDMA 2000-1X and EV-DO Overlay 15 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 CDMA2000-1X EV-DO Migration of cdma2000 that provides a wireless technology that enables a “wire-line equivalent” user experience (high data rates) and economics (low cost per Megabyte) Data Only 16 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 Background „Internet-like‟ (i.e., tolerant of delays and asymmetric) data service stimulates the existing of EV-DO which has: a. directly connection to Packet Data Network, b. new forward link structure designed to increase throughput. The physical layer interface is incompatible with RTT. Requires its own 1.25MHz carrier. Time multiplexing rather than code multiplexing. 17 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 1xEVDO -- IP Data Only IP BTS - IP Base Transceiver Station IP BSC - IP Base Station Controller IS-2000 AAA - Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting PDSN - Packet Data Serving Node Home Agent - Mobile IP Home Agent Internet IP IP Firewall Router IP BSC IP Router IS-2000 RADIUS over UDP/IP Privata Data Network AAA PDSN Home Agent 18 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 EV-DO Architecture EV-DO implementation is the same as 1X architecture system but without using Mobile Switching Center (MSC). EV-DO uses 1.25 MHZ carrier frequency (MC-1X) When users transmit data, data packets will be sent from wireless device through air interface towards BTS. Data packets then forwarded to BSC. BSC will forward data to PCF, who will forward it to PSDN. For receiving data, data packets for users will be prepared in the provider‟s IP network then forwarded by PDSN to PCF/BSC Cell site, towers, antenna share carrier frequency between 1x and 1xEV-DO. 1xEV-DO can reach peak rate 2.4Mbps on forward link (from BS to device), and 153.6 Kbps on reverse link (from device to BS) 1x and 1xEV-DO uses the same PDSN in the network. 19 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 EV-DO System Components 1. Wireless Device • PC Card or fixed external device • Public switched telephones, PDA or computers. 2. Access Network • BTS, PCF Packet Control Function and BSC 3. Service Network • MSC, PDSN 20 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 EV-DO The Wireless Internet Optimized for high speed data (peak data rate of 2.4 Mbps) Uses one 1.25 MHz channel System provides packet data access service by routing IP data to & from the internet 21 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 EV-DO Platform Considerations Connectivity devices: Provides a link to wireless data network Enable modems with standard interfaces to other devices Platform devices: Wirelessly enabled by: – integrating wireless capability into the device hardware – using connectivity devices Support a variety of data applications Provide developers with an environment to build software and services for the platform 22 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 EV-DO Content & Applications Ensuring appeal & good performance of the applications & multimedia services Interoperability considerations 23 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 EV-DO Content & Applications Network Max Data Download Technology Network Cost per Mbyte Rate Time GSM 9.6 Kbps 41 minutes GPRS $.415 IS95-A CDMA 14.4 Kbps 31 minutes W-CDMA $.069 GPRS 45 Kbps 9 minutes CDMA2000 1x $.059 IS95-B CDMA 64 Kbps 6 minutes CDMA2000-1xEV-DO $.022 CDMA2000 1x 307 Kbps 1.5 minutes W-CDMA 384 Kbps 61 seconds CDMA2000- 2.4 Mbps 11 seconds 1xEV-DO Cost per Mbyte for different wireless network 24 Download Time of 3 minutes MP3 file Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 Forward Link Scheduling Base station time multiplexes users along with pilot bursts at full transmit power using rate control. Rate control based on Ec/Io at the mobile. Mobile estimate Ec/Io and map a data rate request. BTS schedule packets to maximize throughput using a „proportionally fair‟ scheduling algorithm. Scheduler sends to mobile that has the highest DRC/R where DRC is data rate request and R is average rate. 27 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 Data Rates Data Rate Modulation Ec/No 38.4kbps QPSK -12.5dB 76.8kbps QPSK -9.5dB 153.6kbps QPSK -6.5dB 307.2kbps QPSK -4.0dB 614.4kbps QPSK -1.0dB 921.6kbps QPSK 1.3dB 1228.8kbps QPSK 3.0dB 1843.2kbps 8PSK 7.2dB 2457.6kbps 16QAM 9.5dB 28 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 Quality of Service QoS Challenge esp. for WWAN: “To deal with fluctuated wireless condition for achieving desired Throughput and Delay” QoS Scheduler Algorithm needed – Standard Scheduler: Proportionally fair (PF) Scheduler All users get the resource fairly 29 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 CDMA2000-1X EV-DV Supports both voice and data services over a standard (1X) CDMA channel Provides up to twice the capacity of earlier CDMA2000 systems Accommodate the continuing growth of voice services as well as new wireless Internet services Provides peak data rates of up to 153 kbps (and up to 307 kbps in the future), without sacrificing voice capacity for data capabilities. 30 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 1XEVDV -- IP Data and Voice SIP SCTP/IP SS7 IS-2000 SIP SGW MGCF Proxy (Softswitch) P ST N H.248 (Maybe MGCP) SIP Circuit switched voice Packet switched voice MGW Internet IP IP SIP Proxy – Session Initiation IP BSC Firewall Router Protocol Proxy Server PDSN + MGCF – Media Gateway Control Router Function IS-2000 SGW – Signaling Gateway (SS7) MGW – Media Gateway (Voice) Nextgen MSC ? Privata Data Network AAA Home Agent 31 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 EV-DV Key Technology Benefits Support 3.1 Mbps peak data rate per sector Support real-time & non real-time data services Backward compatible to IS-95A/B & CDMA2000 1X Support of voice & data in the same carrier Natural, standardized evolution of CDMA technology Enable unique features for CDMA operators 32 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 EV-DV Backward Compatibility 33 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 EV-DV Requirements & Architecture Higher Forward Link Capacity Voice Service and Concurrent Voice/Data Support Multiple Concurrent Traffic Types Backward Compatibility with CDMA2000 Efficient support of all data services (e.g. VoIP) 35 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 EV-DV Requirements & Architecture (cont.) Multiple Concurrent Traffic Types – Subscriber can operator multiple PC applications simultaneously Efficient support of all data services (e.g. VoIP) – Flexible TDM/CDM scheduling (TDM for ftp, etc. and CDM for WAP, VoIP, streaming video, etc.) 36 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 1xEV Evolution - Comparison CDMA2000 CDMA2000 CDMA2000 CDMA2000 CDMA2000 1X 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DV 1xEV-DV Rev. 0 Rev. A Rev. C Rev. D Spectrum Occupancy 1.25 MHz 1.25 MHz 1.25 MHz 1.25 MHz 1.25 MHz Max. Data Rate/User, 153.6 Kbps 2.4 Mbps 3.1 Mbps 3.1 Mbps 3.1 Mbps Forward Link Max. Data Rate/User, 153 Kbps 153 kbps 1.8 Mbps 307 kbps 1.8 Mbps Reverse Link F/L Avg. Sector 600 kbps 800 kbps 800 kbps 800 kbps Throughput 200-300 kbps (900 - 1100 kbps) (1200 - 1500 kbps) (1200 - 1500 kbps (1200 - 1500 kbps (100% Rx Diversity) R/L Avg. Sector 200-300 kbps 200 - 300 kbps 450-500 kbps 200-300 kbps 450-500 kbps Throughput Voice Capacity 26 Erl N/A VoIP 26 Erl 26 Erl Forecast FOA in TBD outside of Forecast FOA Availability Analytical predictions only, not to beNow 2004 construed as product specifications. 2006 Korea in 2006 Data Capacity is scheduler dependent; All values shown are per Sector; Web Browsing Traffic Model. 37 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 The Future of CDMA Services The CDMA2000 family meets the marketplace’s demand for voice and data services. CDMA2000 1xEV-DO CDMA2000 1xEV-DO HIGH DATA RATE & CAPACITY Peak 2.4 Mbps Packet Data Peak 3.1 Mbps Packet Data Data Only Services VoIP and Data Services Non Real-time Services Real-time Services E-MAIL w/ Attachment Live Video S/W Broadcast Download Music Video Download Conference 1xEV-DO 1XEV-DO NON-REAL TIME Rev. A REAL TIME Full Web Browsing Interactive E-MAIL Gaming Multi-Media Messaging IS-95 1X 1xEV-DV Location Based Transaction Services Download Based Apps Voice Ringers SMS CDMA2000 1X CDMA2000 1xEV-DV 2X Voice Capacity Peak 3.1 Mbps Data Peak 153.6 Kbps Data Simultaneous Voice & Data LOW-MED DATA & CAPACITY Real-Time Multi-Media Services Adopting technology somewhat like waiting for computer prices to come down?? 38 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 Optimization Aims: – Provide the best service and performance Parameters: – Coverage: Ec/Io >= -8dB – Blocked Calls <= 2% – Dropped Calls <= 2% – FER <= 2% – Access Failure <= 3% – Data Rate 39 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 Optimization Process 40 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 Optimization Tools: – System drive test CDMA hand set Drive test software GPS PN Scanner 41 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 An Example of Measurements Data 42 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 An example of Data Analysis In coverage high Dropped Calls: possibly Pilot Pollution 43 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 CDMA Indoor Coverage Pre Site Acquisition Technical Survey RF and CME Design Site Acquisition Installation Acceptance Test 44 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 Indoor Coverage Pre Site Acquisition a. Building Description - Site Coordinate - Site Information and Building Fotos 1. Type of CDMA antenna required. 2. Location of shaft cable building. 3. Technical room position. - Building Layout on each floor b. Tenant Description: - Number of tenants on each floor. - Kind of tenants on each floor. c. Confirmation letter from the owner or building manager that the site can be used as operator‟s CDMA indoors coverage. 45 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 Indoor Coverage Technical Survey • RF Engineering Survey - coordinate of the site - existing RxLev and Ec/Io level - possibility for Technical room location - building shaft cable Location - cable way from antenna to Technical Room • CME Survey - possibility a new Technical room - capacity of the existing power electricity - connection of power electricity - grounding 46 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 Indoor Coverage RF Design ‘simplified’ Initial indoor antenna distribution based on Requirements and Building information. Analytical coverage prediction: – Material Loss Calculation – Pilot Power Loss Calculation related to desired Ec/Io – Keenan-Motley Indoor Propagation Model 47 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 Indoor Coverage Installation: – Feeder Installation, – Antenna Installation, – Splitter Installation, etc. Acceptance: – Material Test: VSWR, Distance to Loss, Return Loss – RF Test: Coverage, Spillage 48 Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005
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