Ched Memorandum Order for Bachelor of Science in Secondary Education by eiz16600

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									 ARTICLE                                                BY MELCHOR S. JULIANES


    STATE OF HIGHER EDUCATION: SCIENCE TEACHER EDUCATION
                     ISSUES AND CONCERNS

                               MELCHOR S. JULIANES


         Teacher Education degree programs in the Philippines herein called Bachelor of
Elementary Education (BEED) and Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSEd) are
structured to meet the needs of professional teachers for elementary schools, high
schools, and special education programs. The program intend to develop elementary
school teachers who are either (a) generalist, who can teach across the different learning
areas in grade school, (b) specialist, one who can teach in one of the different learning
areas in high school, (c) special education teachers, and (d) pre-school teachers.
Teacher Education is an applied discipline, which draws from many of the basic
disciplines in the social sciences, the humanities and other related fields.


        The curriculum of the teacher           Teacher Preparation
education program is designed to
prepare professional teachers for practice               Data from the Commission on
in primary and secondary schools in the         Higher Education (CHED) show that
country. It features various components         there are      over 700 higher education
that correspond to the basic and                institutions offering teacher education
specialized knowledge and skills needed         programs.       Few teacher education
by a practicing professional teachers:          institutions offer science or mathematics
foundational       general      education       as major specializations. Ibe and Ogena
knowledge and skills, theoretical               (1998) said that unless the teacher
knowledge about teaching and learning,          education institution is attached to, or is
methodological      skills,   experiential      a part of a university with a strong
knowledge and skills, and professional          college of science or other science-
and ethical values, and subject matter          oriented degree programs, it could not
knowledge appropriate to the level of           offer the higher-level courses, which
teaching the pre-school, elementary and         lead to specializations in biology,
secondary. Furthermore, the curriculum          physics and chemistry. In Mathematics,
recognizes the need to equip teachers           only universities with accredited
with a wide range of theoretical and            engineering colleges can offer most of
methodological skills that will allow           the higher-level mathematics courses
them more options and greater flexibility       required for a major specialization.
in designing and implementing the               Many schools offering a Bachelor of
intended programs. In so doing, the             Secondary Education program, major in
students’    learning     outcomes     are      mathematics, meet the 30 to 36 units
maximized.                                      requirement for a major by segmenting

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the mathematics courses into different                Given the constraints of course
numbered courses, but fail to provide         offerings, science majors are placed with
more advanced or higher level content.        other students     who       are not in
                                              science education. This is the case for
                                              both the science and the education
         The student input to teacher         courses. Hence, there is not as much
education is also a matter to be              rigor in the preparation of future science
considered.           Generally,   teacher    teachers. Moreover, most teacher
education does not attract the best or the    education colleges do not have adequate
highly intellectually capable high            numbers of teachers’ educators (i.e.,
school graduates. Teacher education           teachers of future teachers) who are
institutions are generally the most           themselves           specialists        in
accessible colleges, and the least            science/mathematics. The rule requiring
expensive to go to. They therefore,           that undergraduate courses be taught by
attract the lesser able students. The         masters and doctorate degree holders is
study of Ibe, l979 stated that                not always adhered to because not
disproportionately more students from         many science teacher educators have
the lower 30 percentiles expressed            their graduate degrees in science.
preference for teacher education than         Their graduate degrees are usually in
those who planned to go to engineering        educational administration, counseling
and commerce. The picture has not             or curriculum but not in science. This
changed much.          Generally, teacher     has serious implications for the training
education courses are not expensive,          of science and mathematics teachers.
tuition-fee wise, because there are few       Are the teacher educators able to model
laboratory fees. However, courses in          to future teachers how to teach
science for science majors entail high        science/mathematics        when       they
fees. The courses are too expensive for       themselves have not been upgraded in
most college/universities to offer, hence     the latest developments in these
few do. Many science majors who are           disciplines?
into teacher education are seldom able to
take     all    their    science    course
requirements in the colleges of               General Admission Requirements to
education. Instead they take these with       Teacher Education Programs
sister colleges of the university they are
attending. Few colleges of education, if             Prior to the abolition of the
at all, are self-contained to offer all the   National College Entrance Examination
specialization-level courses, hence have      (NCEE) in 1995, tow-thirds of the TEIs
to rely on other departments/colleges for     had imposed the mandated cut-off
these. Moreover, because there are            percentile score of P60 as entry
invariably only a few science/math            requirement for admission to teacher
majors enrolled (often less than five), the   education programs (Ibe, 1991; DOST-
courses are not financially viable for the    SEI 1993). Although a considerable
colleges to offer.                            number of TEIs offering science and
                                              mathematics teaching programs have
                                              been reported by SEI to be using cut-off

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score between 70 and 75 percentile, the      Particularly for science and mathematics
greater majority however have not been       specialization, a qualifying examination
very selective of students entering these    must be hurdled in addition to a required
programs. These          cut-off scores      grade of at least 80 in science and 85 in
were definitely an improvement of what       mathematics during their first year. A
used to be set in the early 80’s of using    number of SUCs are observing these
only a low 45 percentile score. The          selection practices.
surveys have also shown a modal high
school average grade of 80 only as the
additional admission requirement.            Teacher Training


        With the absence of a national              The results of the National
examination for college admission, the       Diagnostic Test Administered to high
selection of students to teacher education   school students in 2002 and 2003 show
programs is left to the full discretion of   that among these students only eighteen
the TEIs. Although majority of the           percent (18%) in English, eight percent
higher learning institutions (HEIs)          (8%) in Mathematics and ten percent
administer an entrance examination to        (10%) in science passed the competency
entering freshmen, the        test is not    level. Likewise the results of the Trends
specific to teacher education. They          in Mathematics and Science Study
also claim requiring an interview of         (TIMSS, 2003) show that the national
students’ applicants. To many private        Mathematics and Science mean scores in
and public HEIs, a certification of good     1999 and 2003 were very much lower
moral character is also a common             than the international mean score
requirement in addition to a high school     (bottom 25% of students).
average ranging from 80% to 85%.
                                                     One of the policies recommended
                                             by TIMSS was faculty training. Based
Admission Requirements to Science            on the latest study (DOST-SEI, 2005)
and    Mathematics  Specialization           and (DEPED, 2006) the number of
Programs                                     teachers     teaching     science    and
                                             mathematics with no background have
        Teacher Education Institutions       exceeded the number of those with
(TEIs) vary in their admission               background by 14,153 (Ogena, Ester,
procedures for majorships of students        2006). To train all these 14,153 teachers
enrolled       in     the Bachelor of        it would require a Herculean job, huge
Secondary Education programs. Some           amount and time. This problem of too
allow their students to choose their         many      unqualified     science    and
specialization upon enrollment with no       mathematics teachers has to be
additional requirements. Other TEIs          addressed immediately. This improve
however, offer a common general              the level of competency of elementary
education program to all their freshmen      and     high    school     science   and
and the selection of specialization is       mathematics teachers on the three levels
done during the sophomore year.              of training to suit the specific needs of

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the teachers; such as content or            capability, to choose their orientation
knowledge requited by the curriculum        like science, from among other options?
and new teaching approaches; advanced       It may be ideal to allow some flexibility
content or knowledge on selected topics;    in the implementation of the curriculum
and research and assessment (traditional    and to allow innovations for effective
and non-traditional)     and       these    science and mathematics teaching
maximize           the resources and        especially in places where schools are
cooperation among the different             part of the neglected sector. On the
institutions. Both the government and       other hand, if there are no qualified
private sectors should exert efforts        science or mathematics majors in the
jointly and combine their resources and     school to teach these subjects, must
expertise towards reducing this gap. Do     schools, be allowed nor to offer these
we have enough funds for this training      subjects or link up with schools that
program?                                    have the qualified faculty.


Curriculum                                           The teacher education made in
                                            response to CHED Memorandum Order
                                            number 30 series of 2004. Curriculum
        The current curricula being used    defined in the CHED Memorandum
in schools are the New Elementary           number 11 series of 1999 finished one
School Curriculum (NESC) and the New        cycle in 2003. It was an opportune time
Secondary      Education      Curriculum    to reassess the pre-service teacher
(NSEC). However, science high schools       education curriculum. The graduate of
under DECS are authorized to                the first batch in 2003 was not evident as
implement a special science curriculum      seen in the Licensure Examination
using either the Philippine Science High    results where 27 percent only passed the
School or Manila Science High School        LET. The background of the revision of
curriculum as model. Moreover, there        the education curriculum are as follows:
are 110 Science and Technology              External environment revised BEC
oriented public high schools under          (2002) which requires a new range of
DEPED, which have been authorized to        teaching learning skills; changing
implement      an     enriched    science   characters of student learners; changing
curriculum with the NSEC as basis.          global standards; definitions of teaching
Considering the nationally accepted         competence; and the constantly changing
notion that science high schools have       demands on the teacher.
better curricular programs than the
regular high schools, a significant
number of schools want to be among the             The curriculum review has the
league of S&T schools. Can we afford        following processes:
to put up the resources required for
science high schools? Is there no other     1) Comparison of current curriculum
way of developing curricular programs          courses    and     structures with
that allow schools to be flexible,             international benchmark;
depending on their resources and

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2) Summary of results of previous            elements to be either irrelevant to their
   studies revising the effectiveness        preparation for actual          teaching.
   and     efficiency   of    current        Some of the required professional
   curriculum;                               education courses and content courses
                                             are not required in other countries. The
                                             delivery systems and curriculum
3) Assessment       of     the  current      structure for pre-service education is
   curriculum        compared       with     lagging behind global standards.
   alternative pre-service schemes;


4) Assessment      of   adequacy  of                 The key features of the
   curriculum in terms of developing         curriculum focuses on development of
   required skills for DEPED, RBEC           cognitive and affective processes and
   and other fields.                         competencies;        Enhanced general
                                             education requirements; professional
                                             education requirements are designed to
        In addition, the following           be integrated; theoretical know ledged
contributed to the revision of the           focuses on student learning and situated
curriculum: There is an over supply of       nature teaching processes; experiential
pre-service teacher education                courses spread even most curriculum
graduates, many of which do not have         and is integrated with theoretical and
the requisite skills to become good          methodological         courses;      and
teachers;There are too many teacher          specialization courses for BSE increased
education institutions and many do not       to 60
comply of minimum requirements; The
profile of students who enter the pre-       units for major and content courses for
service teacher education programs is        BEED increased to 60 units spread over
below average; The average of TEI            major learning areas.
graduate has weak basic communication,
literary, quantitative skills, and higher
order thinking skills; The typical TEI       Physical Facilities and Instructional
graduate has a limited range of the          Materials
teaching learning approaches;         The
typical TEI graduate has naive or poor              In the training of pre-service
understanding of the learning process;       science and mathematics students, the
has compartmentalized knowledge about        expectation for TEI’s to provide
the         theories-methods-practices-of    experiential level of learning is always
teaching and has below average content       being expressed.      The provision of
knowledge especially in science and          hands-on training to enable them to have
technology. The typical TEI graduate         advanced experiences in handling and
does not have enough experiential            manipulating     simple     to   modern
learning to allow for effective transition   laboratory equipment is part of the
into classroom situations; May TEI           educative process. The institutions are
graduates perceive some curriculum           also expected to provide technology and

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computer laboratories to aid students in     attract better students to the professions
the    preparation   of     instructional    such as;
materials.

        These ideas however, are far                1. Teacher education programs
from what exists in many TEIs. Books                   can be made more highly
remain as the major instructional tools of             selective of their students
schools offering courses in science and                through the administration
mathematics education. Periodicals and                 of            a         special
non-printed materials, which contain the               government examination to
latest information,         serve       to             senior students solely for this
supplement the book resources. Even                    purpose.            Successful
TEIs, which are Centers of Excellence,                 candidates are to be provided
encounter problems in the procurement                  with entitlements like full
of the latest reference materials, books,              scholarships,             book
journals, non-printed materials and CD                 allowances, monthly stipends
ROMs for research purposes. Also,                      as     well     as   automatic
library sources are scant and obsolete                 employment. This should be
such that students have to rely mainly on              well disseminated especially
the handouts and lecture notes of their                in the regions where there are
teachers.                                              accredited TEIs offering
                                                       science and mathematics
        CHED (2003) further confirms                   education as major fields.
the findings in a report indicating that               Official recognition through
modern technology is being utilized only               fitting     ceremonies     and
in the TEIs located in the urban centers.              adequate publicity can add
How about the far-flung areas wherein                  prestige to the program.
they improvise materials in their
laboratory experiments? Facilities, like
overhead projectors and computers,                  2. A number of graduates of the
are not present in eight out of every ten              special       science      and
TEIs. Majority of the TEIs lack the                    mathematics          education
physical resources and instructional                   scholarships programs are
materials to help maintain a more                      often not hired by the public
effective means of giving experiential                 school system because of
level of learning, thus depriving them of              their non-eligibility. This is
being able to keep abreast with the                    because      the     Licensure
present and future trends in science and               Examination for Teachers is
mathematics teaching.                                  usually given in August
                                                       and hiring of teachers is done
Governance                                             before the school year starts
                                                       in June. If the Professional
        The government should consider                 Regulation        Commission
concrete efforts in bringing greater                   could give the test during
prestige to the teaching profession to                 summer,        loosing      the

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   graduates to non-teaching         5. The institutional capabilities
   jobs can be very much                of the existing TEIs should
   minimized, if not avoided.           be reviewed so that only
   Walk-in examinations or              deserving TEIs are allowed to
   exemptions from LET may              offer         science        and
   even be considered.                  mathematics            education
                                        program. Scholarships for
                                        students         should       be
3. The shortage of quality              concentrated        in     these
   teachers in science and              institutions.
   mathematics could be eased
   by      recruiting   engineers
   and graduates in science and
   mathematics-oriented              6. All TEIs offering science and
   courses.      The recruitment        mathematics program should
   should include scholarship-          be able to identify their own
   training      programs      for      institutional capabilities to
   developing their pedagogical         facilitate     and       effect
   skills in teaching science and       networking             among
   mathematics.                         institutions more specifically
                                        those that would concern
                                        faculty exchange, curriculum
                                        and research.      The effort
4. The graduates of scholarships        should be supported by
   programs,     especially    in       CHED and DOST-SEI.
   teacher education that are
   sponsored by the government
   through DOST-SEI, may be
   organized to make them
   compose a regional pool of
   trainors for science and
   mathematics teaching. They        “ The one exclusive sign
   could be available on call by     of through knowledge is
   any TEI or DEPED school           the power of teaching.”
   for any in-service training or
   staff development purposes                       - Aristotle -
   along       science        and
   mathematics teaching. The
   team maybe attached to
   DEPED Regional Office,
   Higher Education Regional
   Office, or to the Center of
   Excellence     in     Teacher
   Education for the region.


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